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There are a broad range of trade-related instruments that impact on the trade in NWFP. These instruments vary considerably in their approach, their overarching aim, their implementation and the extent to which they achieve their objective. Unlike the two key traded biodiversity resources, timber and marine products, NWFP are traded in comparatively much smaller quantities and are not as valuable, in monetary terms, even when considered as a single commodity grouping. Because of this, considerations on the impact of trade measures on NWFP, and associated livelihoods, are not placed as high on the agenda as they are for similar impacts related to timber and marine products. This can be seen in related debates and decisions within the WTO and regional trade and biodiversity agreements, in the provisions of national import and export control measures, and in the development of certification schemes.

It was perhaps only within CITES that we find a trade-related instrument that has the structure and mechanisms to deal with the complexities of NWFP trade. However, CITES only regulates a very small percentage of traded NWFP and this analysis demonstrates that the imposition of CITES trade controls does not necessarily result in a win-win situation for the species concerned and those generating an income from the trade.

NWFP also face practical challenges – there are, for instance, numerous different NWFP, far more than for timber or marine products and they are often small in size and come from many different sites – and they are, accordingly, far more complex and difficult to understand and regulate, as they can not be successfully regulated as a single or uniform commodity.

It is clear, however, that NWFP play a critical role in the lives of millions of people around the world and that trade-related instruments do have an impact, both positive and negative, on the sustainable use and conservation of NWFP and the livelihoods of those dependant on them. Resource users, regulators, non-governmental organizations, policy-makers and all other stakeholders accordingly need to continue emphasizing the important role of NWFP and advocating for the adoption of trade-related measures that are supportive of their conservation and sustainable use.

As the following more specific conclusions are brief, reference is made, at the end of each conclusion, to the sections in the report where the conclusion can be contextualised.

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