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Anon., (1999a). Towards a harmonized definition of non-wood forest products. In: Unasylva No. 198 - Non-wood Forest Products and Income Generation. Editors: Dembner, S.A. and Perlis, A. FAO. Rome, Italy. Accessed on 22 June 2004.

Anon., (1999b). State of the World’s Forests, 1999. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Anon., (2000a). Trade measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements. A report by IUCN - the World Conservation Union on the Effectiveness of Trade Measures Contained in CITES. UNEP.

Anon., (2000b). Efficacy of Removing Natural Forests from Timber Production as a Strategy for Conservation Efforts. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Session of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission. Australia 15-19 May, 2000.) FAO. Rome, Italy. Viewed December 2004

Anon., (2001b). Regulation of the Trade in Timber and Non-timber Forest Products in the Lower Mekong Basin. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Anon., (2001b). State of the World’s Forests, 2001. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Anon., (2002). Linking poverty Reduction and Environmental Management: policy Challenges and Opportunities. Department for International Development (DFID), European Commission (EC), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank (WB).

Anon., (2002b). United Nations, Trade and Sustainable Forest Management. Note by the Secretary General Economic and Social Council, United Nations Forum on Forests. Second Session, 4-15 March 2002

Anon., (2003a). Sustainable Use: Development of Practical Principles, Operational Guidance and Associated Instruments – Note by the Executive Secretary - Addendum Proposals for the Prevention of Losses Caused by Unsustainable Harvesting of Non-timber Forests Resources. CBD Subsidiary Body on Scientific, technical and Technological Advice, 2003, Montreal, Canada.

Anon., (2003b). Summary of the first session of the preparatory committee for the negotiation of a successor agreement to the international tropical timber agreement, 1994. Viewed October 2004.

Anon., (2003c). Brazil Nuts Vetoed in Europe. Amazon News. 17 July 2003

Anon., (2003d). State of the World’s Forests, 2003. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Anon., (2004a). Governments of Switzerland and Indonesia Host Key International Workshop on Forests, Country –led initiative to Support the UNFF on Decentralization, Federal Systems in Forestry and National Forest Programmes:27-30 April 2004. News release. CIFOR. Indonesia. Viewed September 2004

Anon., (2004b). Sustainable use of Biodiversity. An introduction. UNEP. ( Viewed November 2004.

Anon., (2004c). The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Forestry – can it stop the mounting threats to the region’s forests? In: Unasylva - No. 218 - Catalysing regional action. FAO. Rome, Italy.

Anon., (2005a). Trade and sustainable forest management: impact and interactions. FAO, Rome Italy. Viewed February 2005.

Anon., (2005b). SIA TRADE -Newsletter of the European Union’s Sustainability Impact Assessment Programme for Trade Negotiations and Agreements. Number 2, January 2005 - Viewed February 2005.

Anon., (2005c). International tropical timber agreement, 1994 (ITTA, 1994). Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development.

Anon., (2005d). Defining corporate Social responsibility. Intowork. Viewed March 2005.

Awono, A., Ndoye, O., Schreckenberg, K., Tabuna, H., Isseri, H., and Temple, L., (2002) Production and marketing of Safou (Dacryodes edulis) in Cameroon and internationally: Market development issues. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, Vol. 12 (1&2): 125-148.

Belcher, B., Ruiz-Perez, M. and Achdiawan, R. (2003). Global Patterns and trends in NWFP Development. Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity. 12-23 May, Bonn, Germany.

Bennett, E.L. and Robinson, J.G. (2000). Hunting of Wildlife in Tropical Forests. Implications for biodiversity and forest peoples. Biodiversity Series – Impact Studies. Washington DC, World Bank.

Bowen-Jones, E. (2003). Bushmeat: Traditional Regulation or Adaptation to Market Forces. In: Oldfield, S. (2003). (Ed). The Trade in Wildlife, Regulation for Conservation. Earthscan. London, UK.

Broad, S. (2001). The nature and extent of legal and illegal trade in wildlife. Paper presented at the seminar on Wildlife Trade Regulation and Enforcement. Cambridge, TRAFFIC International and Africa Resources Trust.

Broad, S., Mulliken, T. and Roe, D. (2003). The nature and Extent of Legal and Illegal Trade in Wildlife. In: Oldfield, S. (Ed.). The Trade in Wildlife, Regulation for Conservation. Earthscan, London, UK.

Burgener, (2003). The Contribution of Wildlife Trade to Sustainable Development. Paper Presented at the Eighteenth Session of the Global Biodiversity Forum, 5-7 September, 2003. Cancun, Mexico.

Cahyadin, Y., Jepson, P. and Manoppo, B.I. (1994). The Status of Cacatua goffini and Eos reticulata on the Tanimbar Islands. Bogor, Indonesia, PHVA/Birdlife International.

Chupedzi, T. and Ndoye, O. (in prep). National Analysis of Trade-Related Instruments Influencing Trade in Prunus africana and the African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus): Applications and Impacts on Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Forest Management in Cameroon. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Cunningham, M., Cunningham, AB and Schippmann, U. 1997. Trade in Prunus africana and the implementation of CITES. Summary contained in CITES document PC8 (9.1.3;9.1.4; 12; 17.2).

de Beer, J.H. and McDermott, M.L. (1996). The Economic value of Non-Timber Forest products in SouthEast Asia. Netherlands Committee for IUCN, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Deere, C. (2000). Net Gains: Linking Fisheries management, International Trade and Sustainable Development. IUCN. Washington D.C., USA.

Dounias, E. 2004. Edible weevil larvae: A pest for palm trees but a delicacy for city-dwellers. In: C. Lopez and P. Shanley (Eds). Riches of the Forests: For health life and spirit in Africa. Pp 9-12.

Eddison., B. (in prep.). Closing the Gap: The Role of ‘Soft’ International Instruments to Control Fishing.

Dove, M. (1993). A revisionist view of tropical deforestation and development. Environmental Conservation, 20(1): 17-24.

Edwards, S.R. and Broad, S.R. (1992). Wild bird trade: perceptions and management in the United Republic of Tanzania. In Thomsen, J.B., Edwards, S.R. and Mulliken, T.A. (eds.), Perceptions, Conservation and Management of Wild Birds in Trade. Cambridge, TRAFFIC International.

Eyebe, A., O. Ndoye and M. Riuz-Perez (1999) L’importance des produits forestiers non-ligneux pour les communautes rurales et urbaines du Cameroun. Quelques freins a l’erosion du secteur. Papier presenter a la troisieme runion du reseau de la foresterie Communautaire. Yaounde, 4-5 May 1999.

Fui, L.H. and Noor, N.S.M. (1994). Social, Economic and Cultural Aspects of Rattan in Malaysia. Beyond Timber: Economic and Cultural Dimensions of Non-Wood Forest Products in Asia and the Pacific. Regional Expert Consultation. 28 November – 2 December 1994, Bangkok.

Freese, C. H., (1998). Wild Species as Commodities: managing markets and ecosystems for sustainability. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Grieg-Gran, M. and Mulliken, T. (in prep.). The Commercial record of Community-Based Sustainable Use Initiatives.

Guendling, L. (2003). International, Regional and Comparative Review of legal and Administrative Mechanisms to Control Access to Genetic Resources and Sharing of Benefits. In: Guendling, L., Joubert, F., Wynberg, R and Burgener, M. (2003). Developing Access and benefit-Sharing Legislation in South Africa – A Review of International and National Experiences. IUCN, South Africa.

Hall, J.B., O’Brien, E.M.& Sinclair, F.L. (2000). Prunus africana: a monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication Number 18, University of Wales, Bangor. 104 pp.

Homma, A.K.O. (1992). The dynamics of extraction in Amazonia: a historical perspective. Advances in Economic Botany, 9: 23-31.

Iqbal, M. (1991). Non-timber forest products: a study on their income generation potential for rural women in North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. Planning and Development Department, Govt. of NWFP and International Labour Organization, Peshawar (in pub.).

Iqbal, M. (1991a). State of non-wood forest products in Pakistan. Paper presented at the Regional Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products at FAO Regional Office, Bangkok, from 5th to 8th November 1991.

Iqbal, M. (1991b). Present situation of collection, identification, preservation and storage of medicinal plants. In: Proceedings of the national workshop on appropriate use of medicinal plants in traditional medicines held from 20-21 November, 1991. World Health Organization/National Health Institute of Health, Islamabad.

Iqbal, M. (1993). International trade in non-wood forest products: an overview. FO: Misc/93/11 Working Paper. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Iqbal, M. (1995). Trade restrictions affecting international trade in non-wood forest products. FAO, Rome, Italy.

ITTO. (2003). Market access of tropical timber. Report submitted to the International Timber Council at its 33rd Session. Yokohama, Japan, International Tropical Timber Organization.

Jain, P., (2004). Certifying Certification: Can certification secure a sustainable future for medicinal plants, harvesters and consumers in India? TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Jepson, P., Brickle, N. and Chayadin, Y. (2001). The conservation status of the Tanimbar Corella and Blue-streaked Lory on the Tanimbar Islands, Indonesia: results of rapid contextual survey. Oryx. 35, 3, 224-233.

Joubert, F. (2003). Review of International Benefit-Sharing Schemes and Mechanisms to Distribute Benefits. In: Guendling, L., Joubert, F., Wynberg, R and Burgener, M. (2003). Developing Access and benefit-Sharing Legislation in South Africa – A Review of International and National Experiences. IUCN, South Africa.

Laird, S. A. and Lisinge, E. (1998). Benefit-Sharing Case Studies: Ancistrocladus korupensis and Prunus africana. Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. 4th meeting Bratislava, Slovakia 4-15 May. UNEP/CBD/COP/4/Inf.10 49pp.

Lange, D. (1998). Europe’s Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their use, trade and conservation. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Lawrence, (2003). No Forest without timber: An Overview. In: International Forestry Review 5(2), 2003.

Leader–Willliams, N. (2003). Regulation and Protection: Successes and Failures in Rhinoceros Conservation. In: Oldfield, S. (Ed.). The Trade in Wildlife, Regulation for Conservation. Earthscan, London, UK.

Lichenstein, G., Oribe, F., Grieg-Gran, M. and Mazzucchelli, S. (1999). Community Management of Vicuñas in Peru. Unpublished report to the Evaluating Eden Project. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK.

Lombard, C. and du Plessis, P. (2003). The Impact of the Proposal to List Devil’s Claw on Appendix II of CITES. In: Oldfield, S. (Ed.). The Trade in Wildlife, Regulation for Conservation. Earthscan, London, UK.

MacKinnon, K. (1998). Sustainable use as a conservation tool in the forests of South-East Asia. In: Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Mace. R. (eds.), Conservation of Biological Resources. Oxford, Blackwell Science.

McCall, C. (2002). Red tape stalls efforts to save rare butterfly. South China Morning Post. August 9, 2002.

Monteith, G. (2000). Insects 3. Birdwing Butterflies. Queensland Museum, Australia.

Moyer, D.C. (1995). The Status of Fischer’s Lovebird Agapornis fischeri in the United Republic of Tanzania. Gland and Cambridge, IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Ndam, N. (2004). Prunus africana: A traditional medicine finds international fame. In: C. Lopez and P. Shanley (Eds). Riches of the Forests: For health life and spirit in Africa. Pp 33-36.

Newing, H. and Harrop, S. (2000). European Health Regulations and Brail nuts: Implications for biodiversity conservation and sustainable rural livelihoods in the Amazon. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 3(2). Pages 109-124.

Newton, D. and Vaughan, H. (1996). South Africa’s Aloe Ferox Plant, Parts and Derivatives Industry. TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Ngono, L D. and Ndoye, O. (2004). Njansang and bush mango: Cameroonian seeds in national and international markets. In: C. Lopez and P. Shanley (Eds). Riches of the Forests: For health life and spirit in Africa. Pp 21-24.

Pierce, A., P.Shanley and S.Laird, (2003). Certification of non-timber forest products: Limitations and implications of a market-based conservation tool. Paper presented at the International conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity, 19-23 May 2003, Bonn, Germany.

Pretzsch, J. (2003). Forest related rural livelihood strategies in national and global development. Paper presented at the International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity. Bonn, Germany.

Raimondo, D. (2002). Devil’s Claw Harvesting in the Kalahari: People and Biodiversity. The Network for Biodiversity, Cape Town, South Africa.

Roe, D., Mulliken, T., Milledge, S., Mremi, J., Mosha, S. and Grieg-Gran, M. (2002). Making a killing or making a living? Wildlife trade, trade controls and rural livelihoods. Biodiversity and Livelihoods Issues No.6 IIED, London, UK.

Rosenbaum, K.L., Schoene, D. and Mekouar, A. (2004). Climate Change and the forest sector: Possible national and subnational legislation. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Ros-Tonen, M.A.F and Wiersum, K.F. (2003). The importance of non-timber forest products for forest-based rural livelihoods: an evolving research agenda. Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity, 19-23 May 2003, Bonn, Germany.

Ruiz-Perez, M., Belcher, B., Achdiawan, R., Alexiades, M., Aubertin, C., Caballero, J., Campbell, B., Clement, C., Cuningham, T., Fantani, A., de Foresta, H., Garcia Fernandez, C., Gautam, K.H., Hersch Martinez, P., de Jong, W., Kusters, K., Kutty, M.G., Lopez, C., Fu, M., Martinez Alfaro, M.A., Nair, T.K.R., Ndoye, O., Ocampo, R., Rai, N., Ricker, M., Schreckenberg, K., Shackleton, S., Shanley, P., Sunderland, T., Youn, Y. (2004). Markets drive the specialization strategies for forest peoples. In: Ecology and Society 9(2).

Salafsky, N., Cauley, H., Balachander, G., Cordes, B., Parks, J., Margoluis, C., Bhatt, S., Encarnacion, C., Russel, D. and Margoluis, R. (2001). A Systematic Test of an Enterprise Strategy for Community-Based Biodiversity Conservation. In: Conservation Biology, Volume 15, No.6 Pages 1585-1595.

Schipmann, U., Cunningham, A.B. and Leaman, D.J. (2002). Impact of Cultivation and Gathering of Medicinal Plants on Biodiversity: Global Trends and Issues. Paper presented at the Ninth Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Schmidt, R. (2003). Financial investment in sustainable forest management – status and trends. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Shanley, P. Pierce, A.R., Laird, S.A. and Guillen, A. (2002). Tapping the Green Market. Certification & Management of Non-Timber Forest Products. Earthscan, London, UK.

Slone, T., Orsak, L. and Malver, O. (1997). A comparison of price, rarity and cost of butterfly specimens: Implications for the insect trade and habitat conservation. In Ecological Economics 21(1). Pages 77-85.

Smith Olsen, C. and Helles, F. (1997). Medicinal Pants, Markets and Margins in the Nepal Himalaya: Trouble in Paradise. In: Mountain Research and Development, Vol.17, No.4, pp. 363-374.

Sonne, N. (2001). Non-timber forest products in the Campo Ma’an Project Area. A case study of the Northeastern Periphery of the Campo Ma’an National Park, South Cameroon. A report to World Bank/GEF Biodiversity and Management Project. 50 pp.

Sunderland, T.C.H., Besong, S. and J.O.S. Ayeni. 2002. Distribution, Utilization and Sustainability of the Non-timber forest products of the Takamanda Forest Reserve, Cameroon. A consultancy report for the Project: "Protection of the forests around Akwaya" (PROFA). 18pp.

Sunderland T. C. H. and Tako C. T. (1999). The exploitation of Prunus africana on the Island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. A Report for the People and Plants Initiative, WWF-Germany and the IUCN/SSC Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, June 1999.

Tabuna, H. (2000) Les produits forestiers non ligneux allimentaires de l’Afrique Centrale sur les marchés francçais et belge. Situation actuelle et perspectives. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris. 236pp.

Tarasofsky, R. (2003). Sharpening the Impact of international legal agreements relating to forests: Bridging the gap between global and local. Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity. 12-23 May, Bonn, Germany.

Tieguhong, J.C. (2003). Review of Forest Charges Mechanisms for Non-Wood Forest Products and Forest Services in Africa. Consultancy Report. FAO, Rome, Italy. 59 pp.

Tomich, T. P. (1999) Markets, policies and institutions in NWFP trade: nothing is perfect. Viewed November 2004.

Vantomme, P and S.Walter, (2002). Labelling, standards and certification issues for forest gathered food products. Paper presented at the 14th IFOAM World Organic Congress, Ecoforestry Workshop, August 21-24, Victoria, Canada.

Vantomme, P and S.Walter, (2003). Opportunities and challenges of non-wood forest products certification. Paper presented at the World Forestry Congress, 21-28 September 2003, Québec, Canada.

Walter, S., (2002). Certification and benefit-sharing mechanisms in the field of non-wood forest products – an overview. Medicinal Plant Conservation, Volume 8. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. Bonn.

Walter, S., C.Dave, K.Wolfgang, P.Lovett and M.Paz Soldán, (2003a). Impact of certification on the sustainable use of NWFP: Lessons-learnt from three case studies. Paper presented at the International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity, 19-23 May 2003, Bonn, Germany.

Walter, S., P.Vantomme, W.Killmann and F.Ndeckere, (2003b).Benefit-sharing arrangements in the field of non-wood forest products - Status and links to certification. Paper presented at the IUFRO All Division 5 Conference, Rotorua, 2003.


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