Status and potential of fisheries and aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific 2008

 

RAP PUBLICATION 2008/02

Status and potential of fisheries and aquaculture
in Asia and the Pacific 2008
 

By

David Lymer, Simon Funge-Smith, Jesper Clausen and Weimin Miao
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 2008


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. 

ISBN 978-92-5-106109-1

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© FAO 2010

For copies please write to:
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Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
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Table of contents

FOREWORD

PREPARATION OF THIS DOCUMENT

GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE OF THIS REVIEW

CONTRIBUTIONS OF FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGION

 

CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL ECONOMIES

 

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND TRADE

 

CONTRIBUTION TO POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND FOOD SECURITY

   

Importance of the fisheries sector in poverty alleviation

   

Importance of fish in human nutrition

CONTEMPORARY REGIONAL ISSUES

 

INLAND FISHERIES – FOOD SECURITY AND DATA REQUIREMENTS

   

Data requirements

   

Importance of fisheries in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB)

 

MARINE FISHERIES POLICY: MARINE PROTECTED AREAS, IUU FISHING AND CAPACITY

   

International and regional agreements

    IUU fishing
   

Promoting long-term sustainable management of marine capture fisheries in the APFIC region by addressing illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

   

Assessment and management of offshore resources

  AQUACULTURE
   

Development in certification of aquaculture

   

Aquaculture zoning, information management and traceability

   

Fish meal and low-value or “trash” fish

   

Capture-based aquaculture review

   

Aquaculture Outlook

EMERGING REGIONAL ISSUES

 

LIVELIHOODS IN FISHERIES

 

ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO FISHERIES

   

Making EAF operational

   

EAF in the context of Asia-Pacific fisheries

TRENDS IN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE

 

CAPTURE FISHERIES — TRENDS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGION

 

CAPTURE FISHERIES — SPECIES COMPOSITION

   

Temperate and tropical seas — fishing down the food chain

 

CAPTURE FISHERIES — SUBREGIONAL TRENDS

    South Asia
    Southeast Asia
    China
    Other Asia
    Oceania
 

AQUACULTURE — TRENDS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGION

 

AQUACULTURE — SPECIES COMPOSITION

   

Carnivorous species or species requiring higher production inputs

   

Finfish requiring lower inputs

    Crustaceans
    Molluscs
    Aquatic plants
   

Reptiles and amphibians

   

Niche aquaculture species

 

AQUACULTURE — SUBREGIONAL TRENDS

    South Asia
    Southeast Asia
    China
    Other Asia
    Oceania

Tables

Table 1   Contribution of capture fisheries and aquaculture to GDP (2006)

Table 2     Top five trading states in 2006 (World)

Table 3     Top ten seafood trading states in 2006 (APFIC region)

Table 4     Fish consumption in selected Mekong River area, based on populations in the year 2000

Table 5     Review of parties to the binding global conventions and agreements (n = 47)

Table 6     Countries membership and participation in regional fisheries bodies

Table 7     Countries implementing the FAO IPOA through development of NPOA

Table 8     Respondents to FAO questionnaire (* through the European Union)

Table 9     Top twenty capture production species in Asia and the Pacific region

Table 10   World fishery fleet

Table 11   Tuna stock assessment 2008

Table 12   Tuna management measures that need to be implemented according to IOTC and WCPFC

Table 13   Number of countries reporting catch for the different groups in Asia and the Pacific

Table 14   South Asia capture fisheries production, top ten species

Table 15   Southeast Asia capture fisheries production, top ten species

Table 16   China capture fisheries production, top ten species

Table 17   Unidentified capture production in China

Table 18   Other Asia countries’ capture fisheries — top ten species

Table 19   Oceania capture fisheries production — top ten species

Table 20   Top ten aquaculture producer states in 2006 (excluding aquatic plant production

Table 21   Top fifteen cultured species in Asia and the Pacific region by quantity

Table 22   Aquaculture production reported under “marine fishes nei”

Table 23   Tilapia top eight producer states (2006)

Table 24   Countries exporting tilapia (2006)

Table 25   Carps and barbs top ten producer states (2006)

Table 26   Milkfish top four producer states (2006)

Table 27   Penaeid shrimp top ten producer states (2006)

Table 28   Freshwater prawn top eight producer states (2006)

Table 29   Lower value molluscs top ten production (2006)

Table 30   Higher value molluscs top ten production (2006)

Table 31   Aquatic plants top ten producer states (2006)

Table 32   Aquatic plants top ten cultured species (2006)

Table 33   Niche aquaculture species (2006)

Figures

Figure 1     Net exporters (red bars) and net importers (blue bars)

Figure 2     Trend in the reported inland capture fisheries in Southeast Asia

Figure 3     Biological gains within MPAs

Figure 4     Biological gains in tropical and temperate MPAs

Figure 5     Effect of fishing ground closure on biological gains inside and outside a protected area

Figure 6     Gain and subsequent reduction in fisheries benefits with increasing area closure

Figure 7     Example of GIS used for aquaculture zoning in Southern Thailand

Figure 8     Ecosystem approach to fisheries framework

Figure 9     Moving from principles to objectives

Figure 10   Comanagement between government and stakeholders

Figure 11   Key players in comanagement and EAF

Figure 12   An ideal inter-agency cooperation and consultation system within an ICM framework

Figure 13   Six steps needed to develop an effective fisheries management plan

Figure 14   Kite diagram showing ecological, economic and social dimensions

Figure 15   Trends in global capture production (1 000 tonnes)

Figure 16a Trends in marine capture production by subregion outside China (1 000 tonnes)

Figure 16b Trends in inland capture production by subregion outside China (1 000 tonnes)

Figure 17   Trends in capture production by species group outside China

Figure 18   Capture production in Asia-Pacific region by detail of reporting

Figure 19   Catches divided into groups from all countries (world) in FAO areas 61 and 81 (temperate)

Figure 20   Catches divided into groups from all countries (world) in FAO areas 51, 57, 71 and 77 (tropical)

Figure 21   Sharks caught in either temperate or tropical seas in Asia and the Pacific region

Figure 22   Tuna catches by species in temperate and tropical seas of Asia and the Pacific region

Figure 23   Trends in capture production of South Asia by environment

Figure 24   Capture production of South Asia by major species groups

Figure 25   Trends in capture production of Southeast Asia by environment

Figure 26   Capture production of Southeast Asia by major species groups

Figure 27   Trends in capture production of China by environment

Figure 28   Capture production of China by major species groups

Figure 29   Inland water capture production of China by species

Figure 30   Trends in capture production of Other Asia by environment

Figure 31   Capture production of Other Asia by major species groups

Figure 32   Trends in capture production of Oceania by environment

Figure 33   Capture production of Oceania by major species groups

Figure 34   Trends in global aquaculture production

Figure 35   Trends in aquaculture production of Asia and the Pacific region by environment

Figure 36   Changes in freshwater carnivorous species production

Figure 37   Marine and brackish water carnivorous species production in the last 15 years

Figure 38   Trends in aquaculture production of South Asia by major species groups

Figure 39   Aquaculture production of major species in South Asia

Figure 40   Number of species reported from Southeast Asian aquaculture

Figure 41   Aquaculture production of Southeast Asia: proportion of major species groups

Figure 42   Trends in aquaculture production of Southeast Asia by major species groups

Figure 43   Growth rate (percent: year to year) the last 25 years

Figure 44   Trends in aquaculture production of China by environment

Figure 45   Trends in top eight cultured species in China (aquatic plants and molluscs included) .

Figure 46   Trends in major cultured carnivorous species production in China

Figure 47   Aquaculture production in Other Asia: proportion of major species groups

Figure 48   Trends in aquaculture production of Other Asia by major species groups

Figure 49   Aquaculture production in Oceania by major species group

Figure 50   Top seven species aquaculture production in Oceania