Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear

FAO FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE TECHNICAL PAPER No. 523
UNEP REGIONAL SEAS REPORTS AND STUDIES No. 185

Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear


by

Graeme Macfadyen
Tim Huntington

and

Rod Cappell
FAO Consultants
Lymington, United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland




UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Rome, 2009

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Contents


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FAO and UNEP 2009

Macfadyen, G.; Huntington, T.; Cappell, R.
Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear.
UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No.185; FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, No. 523. Rome, UNEP/FAO. 2009. 115p.

Abstract

Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) is a problem that is
increasingly of concern. Various United Nations General Assembly resolutions now
provide a mandate for, and indeed require, action to reduce ALDFG and marine debris in general. Consequently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) entered into an agreement to carry out a study in relation to ALDFG in order to raise awareness of the extent of the problem and to recommend action to mitigate the problem of ALDFG by flag states, regional fisheries management bodies and organizations, and international organizations, such as UNEP, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and FAO.
This report reviews the magnitude and composition of ALDFG, and while noting that information is not comprehensive and does not allow for any global estimates, suggests that gillnets and fishing traps/pots may be the most common type of ALDFG, although netting fragments may also be common in some locations.
The impacts of ALDFG are also considered and include: continued catching of target and non-target species (such as turtles, seabirds and marine mammals); alterations to the benthic environment; navigational hazards; beach debris/litter; introduction of synthetic material into the marine food web; introduction of alien species transported by ALDFG; and a variety of costs related to clean-up operations and impacts on business activities. In general, gillnets and pots/traps are most likely to “ghost fish” while other gear, such as trawls and longlines, are more likely to cause entanglement of marine organisms, including protected species, and habitat damage.

The factors which cause fishing gear to be abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded are numerous and include: adverse weather; operational fishing factors including the cost of gear retrieval; gear conflicts; illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing; vandalism/theft; and access to and cost and availability of shoreside collection facilities. Weather, operational fishing factors and gear conflicts are probably the most significant factors, but the causes of ALDFG accumulation are poorly documented and not well understood. A detailed understanding of why gear is abandoned, lost or discarded is needed when designing and tailoring effective measures to reduce ALDFG in particular locations.

A variety of measures are currently in place to reduce ALDFG, and these are profiled in this report. They include those which are preventative or ex-ante, and those which are curative or ex-post. Evidence suggests that while both are important, much of the emphasis to date has been placed on curative measures such as gear retrieval programmes and clean-up of beach litter, while preventative measures may generally be more cost-effective in reducing ALDFG debris and its impacts.

This report concludes with a number of recommendations for future action to reduce ALDFG debris, be it on a mandatory or voluntary basis. It also considers at what scale and which stakeholders (e.g. international organizations, national government, the private sector, research institutions) might be best placed to address the wide range of possible measures to reduce the amount of ALDFG debris.


Contents


Preparation of this document (Download pdf 205 kb)
Abstract
Acknowledgements
Foreword
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary

1.  Introduction and context (Download pdf 107 kb)

     International recognition of the ALDFG problem
     Regional recognition of the problem
     Identification of stakeholders
     Structure of the report

2.  Magnitude and composition of ALDFG (Download pdf 233 kb)

     Overview of efforts to assess the magnitude of ALDFG
     Review of ALDFG from gillnet and trap fisheries by regional sea
     Global review of ALDFG originating from other fisheries and aquaculture
     Ocean circulation, movement and accumulation of ALDFG
     Summary of magnitude and composition of ALDFG

3.  Impacts of ALDFG (Download pdf 215 kb)

     Continued catching of target and non-target species
     Interactions with threatened/endangered species
     Physical impacts of ALDFG on the benthic environment
     Fate of ALDFG in the marine environment
     Navigational hazards
     Costs of ALDFG
     Summary of the impact of ALDFG

4.  Reasons why fishing gear is abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded (Download pdf 146 kb)

     Introduction
     Gear conflicts
     Operational factors and the natural environment
     Shoreside disposal of unwanted gear
     Illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing
     Vandalism and theft
     Summary of why fishing gear is abandoned, lost or discarded

5.  Review of existing measures to reduce ALDFG (Download pdf 405kb)

     Addressing the problem
     Preventative measures
     Mitigating (reducing impact) measures
     Ex-post clean-up/curative measures
     Awareness raising
     Effectiveness of measures
     Cost-effectiveness of measures
     Summary of existing measures to reduce ALDFG

6.  Conclusions and recommendations (Download pdf 107kb)

     Cross-cutting recommendations
     Recommendations relating to preventative measures
     Recommendations relating to mitigating measures
     Recommendations relating to curative measures
     Potential international actions
     Summary of recommendations and potential actions

References (Download pdf 148 kb)
Glossary
Appendixes
A United Nations General Assembly Resolutions related to ALDFG
B Survey and personal contacts made during this study
C Summary of survey results
D Breakdown of gear retrieval programme costs