Preparing for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Preparing for Highly Pathogenic
Avian Influenza

FAO Animal Production
and Health Manual
No. 3 Revised Edition

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(2,4 mb - 86 pp.)




Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) represents a threat to poultry industries worldwide and to people’s livelihoods, and a potential threat to human health. The international community has a vested interest in minimizing the spread of this disease. Countries may be under threat of introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza through unregulated poultry trade and marketing practices and in rare occasions exposure of poultry to wild birds, especially waterfowl.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health prepared the first edition of this Manual to help national animal health authorities and other stakeholders prepare for a possible incursion of HPAI, detect disease as soon as possible and respond as rapidly as possible to contain the disease. This second edition reflects lessons learned and provides additional details.

The manual offers practical advice on disease identification, pathology and diagnosis; detection, response and control strategies; and biosecurity measures to prevent outbreaks. It is an invaluable source of useful information for anyone involved in poultry-keeping and animal health practices.




      Table of contents



      Preface -

      (PDF, 22 kb - 1 pp.)

      1. Introduction -

      (PDF, 31 kb - 2 pp.)

      2. Avian influenza and the viruses that cause it -

      (PDF, 143 kb - 5 pp.)

        2.1 Clinical signs
        2.2 Gross pathology
        2.3 Differential diagnosis

      3. The risk of introduction and dissemination of avian influenza -

      (PDF, 974 kb - 3 pp.)

        3.1 Risk of introduction by migrating birds
        3.2 Risk of importation
        3.3 Risk of spread from infected poultry
        3.4 Virus survival in the environment

      4. Preparing for an outbreak -

      (PDF, 696 kb - 35 pp.)

        4.1 Early detection
        4.2 Rapid response
        4.3 Management of disease control
        4.4 Laboratory diagnosis
        4.5 Communication and public awareness
        4.6 Human health and safety considerations

      5. Prevention and biosecurity -

      (PDF, 44 kb - 4 pp.)

        5.1 Restricted access keeps disease out
        5.2 Clean areas mean healthy chickens, geese and ducks
        5.3 Buy healthy, keep healthy
        5.4 Clean equipment keeps disease out
        5.5 Report early signs of a problem that could be devastating
        5.6 A period of rest
        5.7 Vaccination against avian influenza or other diseases
        5.8 Compartmentalization

      Annexes -

      (PDF, 363 kb - 30 pp.)

        1. Selected references for further information
        2. Sample of tender document for inactivated avian influenza vaccines
        3. OIE/FAO reference laboratories and experts for avian influenza
        4. Information for shipping international diagnostic specimens
        5. Examples of packing and marking for Category A and B infectious substances
        6. Criteria for defining infected areas and disease control zones
        7. Leaflet example
        8. Avian influenza vaccine producers and suppliers



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The designations employed and the presentation of material in the map(s) do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

ISBN 978-92-5-106249-4

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First published 2006
© FAO 2009 Revision