FAO Forestry Paper 162

What woodfuels can do to mitigate climate change

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2010

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

ISBN 978-92-5-106653-9

All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to copyright@fao.org or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.

© FAO 2010


(Download complete version - 1,8 MB)

Acronyms and units of measurement
(Download - 222 KB)

1. Introduction and overview (Download - 91 KB)

Distribution of biomass use
Traditional biomass use
The role of modern bioenergy
Objectives and structure of this report
Woodfuels included in this report
Accounting units and conversion

2. Forest resources and woody biomass (Download - 188 KB)

Forested area
Wood products
Planted forests
Woodfuel use
Charcoal use

3. National, regional and global markets for woodfuels (Download - 90 KB)

European Union
Other Europe and the Russian Federation
North America
South America
Sub-Saharan Africa

4. Future trends in energy, climate and woodfuel use  (Download - 184 KB)

Historical energy trends
Projections of energy supply and demand to 2030
Global CO2 emissions
Energy and electricity access
Woodfuel consumption

5. Climate change mitigation potential of woodfuels (Download - 268 KB)

Costs of bioenergy systems
Greenhouse gas impacts, land use and carbon sequestration
Biomass-based electricity generation
Biomass co-firing
Biomass substitution at steel plants
Improved charcoal production options
Traditional biomass: improved cooking stoves
Conservation and woodfuel mitigation actions

6. Socio-economic impacts (Download - 59 KB)

Health impacts
Social impacts of woodfuel collection and use
Economy: local and regional linkages
Community management of commercial woodfuels

7. Environmental impacts (Download - 187 KB)

Air quality: emissions and cycles
Water: impacts and pollutants
Soil: nutrients, agronomy, topography
Market impacts

8. Sustainability certification (Download - 60 KB)

9. Carbon finance for woodfuels (Download - 321 KB)

Clean Development Mechanism
Woodfuels in the CDM – case studies
Rejected projects
Voluntary Carbon Standard
Transaction costs (small-scale versus large-scale applications)
Measurement, reporting and verification
Finance of carbon saving

10. Research, development, demonstration and deployment (Download - 72 KB)

Estimated black carbon emissions from traditional biomass
Household biomass: clean cooking deployment strategies
An advanced technology option: wood gasification

11. Conclusions (Download - 188 KB)

Air quality: emissions and cycles
Water: impacts and pollutants
Soil: nutrients, agronomy, topography
Market impacts

Bibliography (Download - 215 KB)