Carp polyculture in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 554

Carp polyculture in Central
and Eastern Europe, the
Caucasus and Central Asia

A manual


András Woynarovich
FAO Consultant
Budapest, Hungary

Thomas Moth-Poulsen
Fishery Officer
FAO Subregional Office for Central and Eastern Europe
Budapest, Hungary


András Péteri
FAO Consultant
Budapest, Hungary

Rome, 2010

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ISBN 978-92-5-106666-9

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© FAO 2010

Woynarovich, A.; Moth-Poulsen, T.; Péteri, A.
Carp polyculture in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia:
a manual.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 554. Rome, FAO. 2010. 73p.


This technical paper is a basic guide to carp pond polyculture practicable in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) countries. It provides an overview on the guiding principles, aspects and tasks, and presents the most applicable production techniques and patterns of carp polyculture. For further reading and more in-depth information on the suggested techniques and technologies, it also includes a list of relevant FAO publications. It is expected that this publication will help identify resources and contribute to the successful planning and realization of fish production by those fish pond owners and operators who need to strengthen and improve their knowledge on the subject.


Preparation of this document
Tables, figures and boxes

1.  Introduction

2.  Pond fish culture
2.1  Types of ponds
2.2  Characteristics of pond fish culture
2.3  Role of pond fish culture in land utilization and its integration with other activities
3.  Background information on pond fish culture
3.1  Characteristics of pond water
3.2  Life in fish pond habitat
3.3  Biological cycle and food chain in fish ponds
3.4  Role of natural fish food and supplementary feeds in pond fish culture
4.  Species of carp polyculture and their practical classifications
4.1  Animal protein sources
4.2  Plant protein sources
4.3  Single cell protein sources
4.4  Lipid sources
4.5  Other plant ingredients
4.6  Feed additives
4.7  Fertilizers and manures
5. Culture practices and planning in carp polyculture
  Length of fish production season
5.2   Basic elements of culture practices
5.3   Phases of table fish production
5.4   Options of culture practices
5.5   Guide to fish production patterns
6.  Production-related works and tasks
6.1  Preparation and maintenance of fish ponds
6.2  Pond water management
6.3  Stocking
6.4  Manuring, fertilization and liming
6.5  Essential hydrobiological investigations
6.6  Feeding
6.7  Follow-up of fish growth
6.8  Fishing
6.9  Wintering of fish
6.10 Transport of fish
6.11 Health management
6.12 Follow-up and evaluation of production figures


Annex 1 – Concise description of fish species used in carp polyculture in CEE and CCA countries
Annex 2 – FCR of feeds used in carp polyculture
Annex 3 – Main data on wintering and transport of fish
Annex 4 – Applicable production patterns of carp polyculture in CEE and CCA countries
Annex 5 – List of recommended further readings of related literature published by FAO