Rearing young ruminants on milk replacers and starter feeds

Rearing young
ruminants on milk
replacers and
starter feeds

FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH
Manual 13

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome 2011

Abstract

This manual presents comprehensive information on the preparation and feeding of milk replacers and starter feeds for pre-ruminants. It keeps in view the situation prevailing in developing countries and the demand for ruminant milk for human consumption. Although the substitutes for dam’s milk can be prepared from by-products of milk and feed ingredients that are not preferred for human consumption, awareness about such alternatives is limited in many developing countries. Therefore, popularisation of preparation and feeding of milk replacers and starter feeds using locally available ingredients is useful in promoting survivability and growth of young stock.

The target audiences for this manual are livestock extension workers engaged in developing countries. The manual is also useful for students and teachers of ruminant production and for small scale industries and researchers that wish to produce milk replacers and starter feeds.



Table of Contents

Acknowledgement

Preface

 

Introduction

References

 

Digestive system of pre‑ruminants

Development of the forestomach
Enzyme activity in the digestive system
References

 

Nutrients, their role and requirement for pre-ruminants

Water
Carbohydrates
Protein
Fats and oils
Energy
Minerals
Vitamins
Nutrient requirement of pre-ruminants
References

 

Ingredients used in milk replacers and starter feeds

Ingredients used in milk replacers
Ingredients used in starter feed
References

 

Formulating and feeding milk replacers and starter feeds to pre-ruminant stock in developing countries

Cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Goat
Camels and yaks
References

 

Guidelines for formulation and feeding milk replacers and starter feeds

Milk replacer
Alternatives to milk replacers
Using restricted whole milk or milk by-products and pre-starter feed in porridge form
Starter feeds
References

 

About the authors

 


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The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.

ISBN 978-92-5-107049-9

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