Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

Quality assurance for
animal feed
analysis laboratories

FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH
Manual 14

 

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome 2011

Abstract

Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the generation of sound scientific data.

This document gives a comprehensive account of good laboratory practices, quality assurance procedures and examples of standard operating procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories. The adoption of these practices and procedures will assist laboratories in acquiring the recognition of competence required for certification or accreditation and will also enhance the quality of the data reported by feed analysis laboratories. In addition, ensuring good laboratory practices presented in the document will enhance the safety of the laboratory workers. The document will be useful for laboratory analysts, laboratory managers, research students and teachers and it is hoped that it will enable workers in animal industry, including the aquaculture industry, to appreciate the importance of proven reliable data and the associated quality assurance approaches. An additional effect of implementing and adopting these approaches will be strengthening of the research and education capabilities of students graduating from R&D institutions and promotion of a better trading environment between developing and developed economies. This will have long-term benefits and will promote investment in both feed industries and R&D institutions.



Table of Contents

Foreword

Authors

Acknowledgement

Glossary of Terms

 

Introduction

 

PART I
Quality assurance procedures and good laboratory practices


Setting up a quality laboratory system

Quality and quality control systems
Quality assurance purpose and guidelines
Laboratory organization and responsibilities
Personnel training and qualification
Analytical procedures – Selection and verification
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Equipment maintenance and service
Reporting analytical data
Accuracy and reference samples
Precision and blind double samples
Traceability of results
Proficiency testing (external quality assurance)
Controls charts – Statistical process control
Documentation and control of documents
Laboratory safety
Audits/Corrective actions/Management reviews

Quality procedures

Validating new methods
Qualifying (training) laboratory analysts
Reagents and chemicals
Outlier test
Laboratory quality audit checklist
Receiving laboratory samples
Handling and preparation of feed samples
Use of balances
Use of pipettes
Operation of pH meter
Operation of spectrophotometer
Laboratory water
Laboratory glassware cleaning procedures
Laboratory safety
General procedures – Correct use of laboratory equipment

 

PART II
Analytical section


Analytical procedures

Introduction
Dry matter
Crude ash
Ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid
Nitrogen and calculation of crude protein – Kjeldahl
Nitrogen and calculation of crude protein – Combustion
Crude fat – Ether extract
Crude fibre – Filtration method
Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) – Filtration method
Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and Lignin (ADL) – Filtration method
Starch – Enzymatic
Reducing sugar – Luff schoorl method
Gross energy
Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) in silage – Gas chromatography
Lactic acid in silages – Enzymatic method
Urea – Spectrophotometric method
Elements – AAS
Calcium – Spectrophotometric method
Phosphorus – Spectrophotometric method
Chlorine – Titration method
Aflatoxins – HPLC method
Fumonisins – HPLC method
Zearalenone (ZON) – HPLC method
Deoxynivalenol (DON) – HPLC method
Dry matter digestibility – in vitro using rumen liquor
NIR analysis


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The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.

ISBN 978-92-5-107050-5

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