Crop residue based 
  densified total mixed ration

Crop residue based
densified total mixed ration
A user-friendly approach to utilise food crop by-products
for ruminant production

 

 

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2012


Crop residues are valuable resources since they form a bulk of ruminant feed in many tropical countries. Due to lack of effective management of these resources, unfortunately they are being burnt in some countries, causing environmental pollution. The digestibility of crop residues and other low quality forages can be increased through the action of rumen microbes by strategically mixing nitrogen and minerals that are deficient in these feed resources. The increase in digestibility of crop residues and low quality forages, in turn also increases their intake. Both these phenomena enhance the efficiency of nutrient utilization from these feed resources in animal food chains. To achieve this, the present paper discusses a technology based on the formation of a complete diet in the form of densified feed blocks or pellets from straws mixed with minerals, oil seed cakes and other agroindustrial by-products. The methods for preparation of such total mixed rations, their use and impact have been presented. It is hoped that this technology will enhance income of farmers, decrease environmental pollution and help alleviate shortage of good quality feeds in tropical countries. In addition, the feed produced in the densified form as blocks or pellets could also provide complete feed to livestock in emergency situations. Public-private partnership is expected to enhance the application and impact of this technology.


CONTENTS



Acknowledgements
Executive summary

 
Livestock and rural economy
 
Feed resource scenario
 
DTMRB feeding vis-à-vis conventional feeding in India
 
Development of the technology
 
Machinery needed and the process involved for making DTMRBs
 
Securing biomass from the fields
 

Brief account of the research done in India on DTMRBs

 
Advantages of the DTMRB technology
 
Economic and other benefits to the farmer
 
Extent of use of the technology
 
Densified straw based feed pellets
 
Conclusions
 
References
 

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ISBN 978-92-5-107232-5

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© FAO 2012