Sturgeon hatchery manual

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 558

Sturgeon Hatchery Manual


Prepared by

Mikhail S. Chebanov
Senior Scientist
FAO Consultant Krasnodar, Russia

and

Elena V. Galich
Krasnodar, Russia




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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2013


ABSTRACT

Chebanov, M.S.; Galich, E.V. 2013.
Sturgeon hatchery manual.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 558. Ankara, FAO. 297 pp.

This Sturgeon Hatchery Manual includes the latest available scientific research findings and experiences and compiles advice given in earlier manuals and handbooks on sturgeon culture and reproduction practices. This document can be considered an update of the Sturgeon Breeding and Rearing Handbook (Chebanov, Galich and Chmyr, 2004), which was published in the Russian language. The Sturgeon Hatchery Manual was prepared in response to numerous requests for practical guidance on this subject from the Central Asian and Caucasus region to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

This manual is targeted particularly at sturgeon farmers, sturgeon hatchery operators, hatchery technicians, and fisheries and aquaculture managers involved in sturgeon aquaculture development and the restocking and rehabilitation of sturgeon populations in the countries around the basins of the Black and Caspian seas. It aims to provide a practical handbook of modern sturgeon hatchery practices and management. The manual is available in the English, Russian and Turkish languages. The manual starts with a chapter on the taxonomy, biology, distribution and life histories of Azov-Black and Caspian Sea sturgeons. Subsequent chapters discuss the following aspects of sturgeon hatchery practices: hatchery design, collection and transportation of wild broodstock, broodstock management, spawning and gamete processing, fry and fingerling rearing, production of live feeds, the technology of artificial reproduction, ecological- morphological and ethological-physiological express estimation of larval and fingerling (fry) viability, release of fingerlings into natural waterbodies, the formation of domesticated broodstock, basic sanitation and fish health measures, tagging, and early sexing and maturity determination in live sturgeons using ultrasound techniques. The manual also contains an extensive list of references, a list of Acipenseriformes and numerous figures, photographs and tables to support the guidance given on the various hatchery practices.


CONTENTS

Preparation of this document
Abstract
Abbreviations and acronyms

Chapter 1–

Azov-Black and Caspian seas sturgeon taxonomy, biology, distribution and life history

 

1.1

Introduction

 

1.2

Biology, distribution and life history

Chapter 2–

Hatchery design

 

2.1

Basic requirements for hatchery design

 

2.2

Modernized hatchery schemes

 

2.3

Selection of the hatchery location

 

2.4

Hatchery structure

 

2.5

Hatchery water supply

 

2.6

Water quality requirements at sturgeon hatcheries

 

2.7

Recommendations on the structural improvement of existing hatcheries

Chapter 3–

Collection and transportation of wild breeders

 

3.1

Sites and periods of breeder collection

 

3.2

Transportation of broodstock to hatchery

 

3.3

Tagging of wild breeders

 

3.4

Main biological and reproductive indices of wild breeders

Chapter 4–

Broodstock management

 

4.1

Introduction

 

4.2

Late autumn assessment

 

4.3

Overwintering of breeders

 

4.4

Spring evaluation of gonad maturity status

 

4.5

Determination of prespawn holding regimes for broodstock

 

4.6

Hormonal induction of spawning

Chapter 5–

Spawning and gamete processing

 

5.1

Obtaining mature gametes

 

5.2

Egg incubation

Chapter 6–

Rearing of larvae, fry and fingerlings

 

6.1

Hatching and holding of prelarvae

 

6.2

Rearing of larvae

 

6.3

Fingerling rearing in ponds

Chapter 7–

Production of live food

 

7.1

Introduction

 

7.2

Cultivation of oligochaetes (enchytraeus albidus)

 

7.3

Cultivation of cladocerans (daphnia, moina)

 

7.4

Cultivation of artemia salina

 

7.5

cultivation of californian red worm (eisenia foetida)

Chapter 8–

Artificial reproduction of sturgeons based on the control of seasonalityy

 

8.1

Introduction

 

8.2

Collection of breeders

 

8.3

Transition of breeders to spawning temperature regime (STR)

 

8.4

Regime of egg incubation and thermal adaptation of prelarvae

Chapter 9–

Ecological-morphological and ethological- physiological express estimation of viability of sturgeon larvae, fry and fingerlings

 

9.1

Polyfunctional evaluation of larval and fingerling fitness indices

 

9.2

In vivo assessment methods: express tests

 

9.3

Anaphase method for counting chromosomal aberrations in larvae

 

9.4

The melanophores (pigment cells) background response

 

9.5

Teratological analysis of larvae and fingerlings

 

9.6

Physiological and biochemical evaluation of the state of standard hatchery-produced sturgeon juveniles

 

9.7

Evaluation of adaptive qualities of juveniles on the basis of central nervous system response

 

9.8

Neuro-pharmacological testing of juveniles

 

9.9

Fluctuating asymmetry as a statistical indicator of juvenile variability and for environmental stress evaluation

Chapter 10–

Release of fingerlings into natural waterbodies

 

10.1

Introduction

 

10.2

Methods for enumeration of released hatchery production

 

10.3

Release of fingerlings from ponds

 

10.4

Selection of optimal release sites

 

10.5

Transportation of fingerlings to release sites

Chapter 11–

The formation of domestic replacement and broodstock

 

11.1

Introduction

 

11.2

Genetic aspects of domestic broodstock formation

 

11.3

Fish farming and biological criteria for broodstock establishment

 

11.4

Rearing of broodstock in cages

 

11.5

Peculiarities of broodstock holding and handling

 

11.6

General recommendations on building broodstock sexual structure

 

11.7

Broodstock building in sturgeon pedigree farms and hatcheries

 

11.8

Optimum temperature conditions for sturgeon broodstock management

 

11.9

Morphological abnormalities in development of replacement and domestic broodstock

 

11.10

General testing of broodstock: genetic control of broodstock material

 

11.11

Adaptation of wild fish to artificial holding conditions

 

11.12

Transportation

Chapter 12–

Basic sanitary and fish health measures

 

12.1

Basic diseases of sturgeon

 

12.2

Clinical signs of the most common diseases

 

12.3

Methods for treatment and prevention

 

12.4

Preparations used for treatment of sturgeons

 

12.5

Use of antibiotics

Chapter 13–

Tagging

 

13.1

Tagging requirements

 

13.2

Tagging with pit tags

 

13.3

Tagging with cwt tags

 

13.4

A framework for developing an international programme of tagging hatchery-produced sturgeon juveniles

Chapter 14–

Early sexing and staging maturity in live sturgeons by using ultrasound techniques

 

14.1

Equipment for ultrasound diagnostics of sex and gonad maturity status in live sturgeons

 

14.2

Use of sonography for early determination of sex and gonad maturity stage

 

14.3

Ultrasound glossary

 

14.4

Anatomical structure and noninvasive detection of inner organs and tissues in sturgeons by ultrasound technique

 

14.5

Noninvasive detection of organs and tissues by ultrasound technique

 

14.6

Early sexing and staging maturity of sturgeons by using noninvasive express ultrasound technique

 

14.7

Ultrasound diagnostics of developmental anomalies in the reproductive system of sturgeon (pathologic echoanatomy)

 

14.8

Noninvasive measurements of linear characteristic and calculation of volumetric parametrs of inner organs

Literature cited

Annexes

 

1 –

List of species of the Acipenseriformes

 

2 –

Design of the artificial spawning channel for seminatural reproduction of sturgeon

 

3 –

Relationship between τ0 and temperature for four sturgeon species

 

4 –

Effective breeding number (Ne)


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