Fuel savings for small fishing vessels – a manual

 

Fuel savings for small fishing vessels
A manual

 

by

Oyvind Gulbrandsen
Consultant
Grimstad, Norway



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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome 2012


ABSTRACT

Gulbrandsen, O. 2012.
Fuel savings for small fishing vessels – a manual. Rome, FAO. 57 pp.

The recent sharp increase in the price of fuel has had a major impact on the economics of operating fishing vessels. Fishing boat owners and operators struggle to meet this challenge and ask what measures can be taken to reduce the heavy burden of increased fuel cost. Litres of fuel required per tonne of fish landed varies widely depending on the fish specia and fishing method used. Fuel saving methods have to be tailored to each fishing method and fishery.

This manual aims to provide practical advice to fishing boat owners and crews, boatbuilders and boat designers and fisheries administrators on ways to reduce fuel costs. It focuses on small fishing boats measuring up to 16 m (50 ft) in length and operating at speeds of less than 10 knots. This covers the majority of the world's fishing boats. It also serves as a guide for those involved with fuel savings for small vessels used in support of aquaculture activities. The manual provides information to boat designers and boat builders on hull shape for low resistance and the selection of efficient propellers.

The first chapters of this manual deal with fuel saving measures that can be taken on existing boats without incurring major investment costs. The most effective measures include reducing boat service speed, keeping the hull and propeller free from underwater fouling and maintaining the boat engine. It also suggests that changing fishing methods can save fuel.

The final chapters of this manual provide information regarding the fuel savings that are possible by changing from a 2-stroke outboard engine to a diesel engine, installing a diesel engine, and using sail. Selecting economic engine power on the basis of the waterline length and the weight of the boat is discussed. Advice is given on the choice of gear reduction ratio and of propeller related to service speed, service power and propeller rpm. Data are provided to assist with the design of a new fuel-efficient boat and the selection of an optimum propeller.

The information contained in this manual is accompanied by many illustrations to make the main points more easily understood. Detailed background information is provided in the appendices. The appendices also contain blank tables that may be used to calculate potential fuel savings, cost of engine operation, the weight of a boat and the diameter and pitch of a propeller.



Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

 

FUEL USE IN FISHERIES

 

The cost of fuel

 

Energy use in fisheries

 

The fish resource

 

Fuel efficiency

 

Fuel use – passive fishing methods

 

Fuel use – active fishing methods

 

FUEL SAVINGS ON EXISTING BOATS

 

Speed – the most important factor in fuel consumption

 

Reducing speed

 

Example: fuel savings by reducing speed

 

Example: fuel savings by reducing speed

 

A boat's waterline length and fuel saving speed

 

Keeping the boat bottom clean

 

Servicing the engine and giving it air

 
FUEL SAVINGS FOR TRAWLERS
   
CHANGING FISHING METHOD TO SAVE FUEL
 

Carrying out multiday fishing and mothership operations

 
CHOOSING A FUEL EFFICIENT ENGINE
 

Comparing outboard engines and diesel engines

 

Ghana canoe trials with outboar :Exampled and diesel engines

 

Would it pay to pur ?chase a diesel engine

 

Alternative diesel engine installations

 

Liftable propeller installations

   
USING SAIL TO SAVE FUEL
 

Types of sailing rigs

 

The use of sail

 

Lug sail – checking a boat's stability

 

Lug sail details and outrigger canoes

   
SELECTING A NEW ENGINE TO SAVE FUEL
 

Selecting a new engine

 

Example: selecting engine power

 

Power and speed for fuel savings

 

Reading the engine manufacturer's leaflet

   
SELECTING A PROPELLER TO SAVE FUEL
 

Comparing alternative propellers and fuel consumption

 

Measuring propeller diameter and pitch

 

Selecting a propeller

 

Propeller clearances and fairing of the skeg

 

Reduced propeller rpm = big propeller = fuel savings

   
GUIDANCE ON NEW BOAT CONSTRUCTION
 

The power and main dimensions of a fuel-efficient boat

 

Boat lines for low resistance

 

The shape of the bow

 

General arrangement

 

Fuel savings with outrigger craft and multihull boats

   
HOW CAN GOVERNMENTS PROMOTE FUEL SAVINGS?
 
REFERENCES
 
ADDITIONAL READING
 
APPENDICES
 

1 – Life cycle energy analysis (LCA)

 

2 – Measuring fuel consumption

 

3 – Calculating fuel savings

 

4 – Analysing the cost of engine operation

 

5 – Calculating a boat's weight without load

 

6 – Calculating a propeller

 

7 – Selecting a propeller


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