Developing fish landing centres: Experiences and lessons from Sri Lanka

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular. No. 1063

Developing fish landing centres: Experiences and
lessons from Sri Lanka


by
Simon Diffey
Chief Technical Advisor Restoration and Improvement of Fish Landing Centres
with Stakeholder Participation
in Management Project
Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, UK



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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
in collaboration with
the Canadian International Development Agency
Rome 2012


ABSTRACT

Diffey, S. 2012.
Developing fish landing centres: Experiences and lessons from Sri Lanka.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1063. Rome, FAO. 88 pp.

A significant amount of coastal infrastructure was damaged or destroyed by the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, and the livelihoods of many fisher families were adversely affected. While the reconstruction of the larger harbours and anchorages received priority from the donor community post-tsunami, the rehabilitation of the many landing centres developed at a slower pace.

Post-tsunami, FAO assisted with the preparation of a master plan for fisheries infrastructure rehabilitation and development. As part of this plan, a project was identified to support the longer-term objective of reconstructing and developing the inshore marine fisheries sector. This paper traces the experiences of this project – Restoration and Improvement of Fish Landing Centres with Stakeholder Participation in Management – the goal of which was to improve the livelihoods of fishers and fishing communities in tsunami-affected areas in Sri Lanka. This goal was broadened midway through the project to include postconflict areas in the north of the country following the end of the civil war in Sri Lanka in mid-2009.

This paper documents the experiences and lessons generated by the project, which it is hoped will serve as a source of information and inspiration for further work in the sustainable development of small-scale fishing communities and fish landing centres elsewhere. Attention focuses on the involvement of stakeholders, the practical aspects of the initial profiling and selection process for landing site development, and the importance of capacity development in ensuring sustainability of the project outcome. The methodology of the project with regard to infrastructure development, in particular the planning steps and procedures, the importance of the business planning process and training delivery, is discussed and the role of village-based institutions explored. The paper also provides an opportunity to present the comprehensive monitoring and evaluation process used by the project and introduces the use of a geographic information system as a management tool for the strategic planning of landing site development. The paper concludes with the lessons to be learned and a simple cost–benefit analysis of the infrastructure investment undertaken by the project.


Table of Contents

Preparation of this document
Abstract
Acknowledgements
Contributors
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary

1.

Introduction

 

Why this publication?

 

Intended audience

 

Project context and rationale

 

Goal, outcome and objectives of the project

 

Project sites and geographic focus

 

Who were involved?

 

The FLC development process – a checklist

 

Other relevant publications

2.

Project approach and methodology

 

Implementation framework

 

Setting the scene – how important is the sector?

 

Stakeholder identification

 

Buy-in to project objectives – the importance of consultation

 

The issue of land ownership

 

Selection criteria – the basics

 

Consultation and the participatory rural appraisal process

 

Needs assessment – the starting point

 

A non-prescriptive approach – every fish landing site is different

 

The importance of environmental screening

 

Capacity development – training, awareness-raising and cross-visits

 

Landing centre co-management committees

 

Role of government

 

Gender issues and how these were addressed

3.

Planning infrastructure development

 

Landing site profiles and infrastructure development

 

The infrastructure planning process – steps and procedures followed

 

The Coast Conservation Department permit process

 

The preparation of drawings and bill of quantities

 

Tendering and contracting of contractors

4.

Participation, livelihoods and capacity development

 

Who participates, when and how?

 

The sustainable livelihoods approach

 

Training of government staff

 

CFHC capacity development

 

Study tours and lessons learned

 

Strengthening community-based organizations to fulfil their management role

 

Supporting livelihoods and ensuring sustainability – the business planning process and asset co-management

 

The operations and maintenance manual – complementing the business plans

 

Involvement of the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Sri Lanka

5.

Data management, monitoring and evaluation

 

The project's monitoring and evaluation system

 

Master plan for rehabilitation and the need for a national database

 

Development of a GIS database

 

The project's "traffic light" system

6.

Lessons learned

 

Project design

 

Capacity development

 

Promoting community participation in management and the importance of business planning

 

A role for FCCISL

 

The importance of a communication strategy

 

The importance of engaging community and district-based staff

 

The need for sustainable M&E activities

 

How to maintain the SANDS database

 

Construction and rehabilitation of FLCs

 

The economics of FLC development

REFERENCES

Appendix 1. Map of FLC locations (traffic-light database)

Appendix 2. Breakdown of project beneficiaries

Appendix 3. Criteria for selection and prioritization of FLC development

Appendix 4. Supplementary checklist for coastal environmental screening of fish landing centres

Appendix 5. Infrastructure asset database

Appendix 6. Government officer training courses and workshops

Appendix 7. Result framework

Appendix 8. Traffic light database ("yellow" and "red" sites)

Appendix 9. Before and after situation of landing sites

Appendix 10. Cost–benefit analysis database


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