Risk Analysis for Movements of Live Aquatic Animals



Edible insects
Future prospects for food and feed security

FAO Forestry Paper 171



FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2013

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Contents

Foreword
Abbreviations
Author's preface
Acknowledgements
Executive Summary
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1. Introduction

2. The role of insects

    Beneficial roles of insects for nature and humans
    Entomophagy around the world
    Examples of important insect species consumed
    Important insect products
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3. Culture, religion and the history of entomophagy

    Why are insects not eaten in Western countries?
    Why were insects never domesticated for food
    Negative attitudes towards insects
    History of entomophagy
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4. Edible insects as a natural resource

    Edible insect ecology
    Collecting from the wild: potential threats and solutions
    Conservation and management of edible insect resources
    Semi-cultivation of edible insects
    Pest management
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5. Environmental opportunities of insect rearing for food and feed

    Feed conversion
    Organic side streams
    Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions
    Water use
    Life cycle analysis
    Animal welfare
    Risk of zoonotic infections
    “One Health” concept
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6. Nutritional value of insects for human consumption

    Nutritional composition
    Beef versus insects: an example of the mealworm
    Insects as part of diets
    Sustainable diets
    Edible insects in emergency relief programmes
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7. Insects as animal feed

    Overview
    Poultry and fish fed with insects
    Key insect species used as feed
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8. Farming insects

    Definitions and concepts
    Insect farming
    Insect farming for human consumption
    Insect farming for feed
    Recommendations on insect farming
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9. Processing edible insects for food and feed

    Different types of consumable products
    Industrial scale processing
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10. Food safety and preservation

    Preservation and storage
    Insect features, food safety and antimicrobial compounds
    Allergies
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11. Edible insects as an engine for improving livelihoods

    Insects as a part of the minilivestock sector
    Improving local diets
    Access, tenure and rights to natural capital
    Inclusion of women
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12. Economics: cash income, enterprise development, markets
and trade

    Cash income
    Enterprise development
    Developing markets for insect products
    Market strategies
    Trade
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13. Promoting insects as feed and food

    The disgust factor
    Drawing on traditional knowledge
    Role of stakeholders
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14. Regulatory frameworks governing the use of insects for
food security

15. The way forward

References


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