Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations



Sustainable management of
Pinus radiata plantations

FAO Forestry Paper 170



FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2013

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Contents

Sustainable management of Pinus radiata plantations
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Dedication
Acronyms and Abbreviations
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1. Overview

    GENERAL APPROACH
    HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    The four phases of radiata pine plantation development
    DISTRIBUTION OF RADIATA PINE PLANTATIONS

    New Zealand
    Chile
    Australia
    Spain
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2. Site requirements

    MATCHING SPECIES TO SITE CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS

    Natural habitat
    Exotic plantation experience
    Other abiotic factors
    Fire
    Latitude and altitude
    Aspect
    Potential impacts of climate change

    EDAPHIC LIMITATIONS

    Physical properties of soil
    Nutrient stresses
    Diagnosing nutrient deficiencies
    Soil microbiological factors
    OTHER SITE CONSIDERATIONS
    Catchment hydrology
    RADIATA PINE’S ECOLOGICAL NICHE
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3. Social, economic and environmental considerations

    SOCIO-ECONOMIC SETTING

    Australia
    Chile
    New Zealand
    South Africa
    Spain
    Synthesis
    ECONOMICS OF RADIATA PINE PLANTATIONS
    Typical discount rates and plantation forest profitability
    SOCIAL AND ECOSYTEM SERVICES
    Employment
    Biodiversity
    Landscape
    Recreation in radiata pine plantationsa
    Carbon storage
    Wilding spread
    Working with communities
    ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS
    TRENDS
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4. Pests and diseases

    MAJOR INSECT PESTS

    Sirex wood wasp
    Bark beetles
    Pine shoot moth
    Aphids and adelgids
    Other localized insect problems
    MAJOR DISEASES
    Dothistroma needle blight
    Sphaeropsis sapinea
    Pine pitch canker
    Other localized diseases
    ANIMAL AND OTHER PESTS
    PROSPECTS
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5. Growth characteristics, wood properties and end-use

    RADIATA PINE GROWTH

    Growth habit
    Shoot development
    Growth stages
    Growth patterns
    Seasonal growth
    Longer-term patterns
    Productivity rating systems
    Stocking and stand density
    Crown growth
    Branch development
    Inter-tree competition and mortality
    WOOD PROPERTIES AND END-USE
    Cambial activity and differentiation
    Corewood properties
    Heartwood compared with sapwood Basic density
    Tracheids
    Grain orientation and spiral grain Compression wood
    Knots and their link to grading systems Clearwood
    Log size and sweep
    Other defects
    Pulpwood and reconstituted products
    OVERVIEW OF RADIATA PINE END USE
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6. Radiata pine tree-breeding

    IMPROVEMENT OBJECTIVES
    BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
    THE QUANTITATIVE GENETIC APPROACH
    IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS

    Provenance selection
    Mass selection
    Advanced breeding strategies
    Incorporation of desired traits
    Other recent developments
    DOMESTICATION PROGRESS
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7. Producing planting stock

    THE SYSTEMS APPROACH AND SETTING OBJECTIVES

    Optimum planting stock
    SEED HANDLING
    BARE-ROOTED PLANTING STOCK PRODUCTION
    Seedbed preparation
    Seed-sowing
    Conditioning
    Soil and nutrient management
    Mycorrhizae
    Irrigation
    Control of nursery weeds, diseases and pests
    VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES
    CONTAINER PLANTS
    PACKAGING AND TRANSPORT OF PLANTING STOCK
    SYNTHESIS AND TRENDS
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8. Establishment and early tending

    ESTABLISHMENT PLANNING
    THE BIOLOGICAL LIMITS TO EARLY GROWTH
    SITE PREPARATION PRINCIPLES
    RADIATA PINE SITE PREPARATION METHODS

    Hand tool methods
    Mechanical techniques
    Fire
    Chemicals
    Other weed-control methods
    PLANTING
    Survival and replacements
    DIRECT SEEDING AND NATURAL REGENERATION
    FERTILIZER AT ESTABLISHMENT
    FIRST ROTATION FEATURES
    LATER ROTATION FEATURES
    SYNTHESIS AND TRENDS
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9. Tending established radiata pine stands

    CHOICE OF TENDING SCHEDULES

    Schedule evaluation
    PRINCIPLES OF STAND DENSITY CONTROL
    Initial stocking
    Thinning objectives
    Effect of stand density on stand characteristics
    Other biotic and abotic factors
    Final crop stocking
    Rotation length
    NON-PRUNING TENDING SCHEDULES
    Thinning techniques
    PRINCIPLES OF PRUNING
    Pruning objectives
    PRUNING SCHEDULES
    Pruning techniques
    INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND FLEXIBILITY
    Modelling systems
    Schedule flexibility
    USING RADIATA PINE IN MIXED SPECIES
    STANDS FERTILIZERS
    SYNTHESIS AND TRENDS Download - 408kb

10. Productivity changes and sustainability of radiata pine plantation forests

    CONCEPTS
    PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES
    PRODUCTIVITY DECREASES

    Invasive species
    Soil fertility changes
    MANAGING INVASIVE SPECIES
    MANAGING NUTRIENT SUSTAINABILITY
    SYNTHESIS AND TRENDS
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11. Radiata pine on farms

    ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN RADIATA PINE SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS

    Light competition
    Moisture competition
    Nutrient competition
    Soil–plant interactions
    Animal–plant interactions
    Tree age effects
    WINDBREAKS
    WIDELY SPACED TREES OVER PASTURE
    WOODLOTS
    FARM PLANNING
    TRENDS
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12. Conclusions

    LESSONS FROM THE RADIATA PINE EXPERIENCE

    Growth characteristics
    Species niche
    Radiata pine forests and societal values and needs
    Radiata pine’s wood uses
    Tree-breeding and silviculture
    Sustainability
    Uncertainties
    THE FUTURE OF RADIATA PINE FORESTS
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Glossary

References

Corrigendum


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© FAO 2013