Guidelines for assessing nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and practices

Guidelines for assessing nutrition-related
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices

Yvette Fautsch Macías R.D.,M.Sc.
FAO Nutrition Consultant,

Peter Glasauer Ph.D.
FAO Nutrition Division

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Including The KAP model questionnaires are available in MS Word format in different languages and can be downloaded for adaptation


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Having physical and economic access to food on their own are not sufficient to ensure that people are food secure and well nourished. It is essential that people understand what constitutes a healthy diet; in particular, what nutrition-related health issues affect their communities and how to address these through food-based approaches, and know how to make the best use of their resources. They should also have positive attitudes towards nutrition, diet, foods and closely related hygiene and health issues to be able to perform optimal dietary and feeding practices that ensure their nutritional wellbeing and that of their families.

The Guidelines for assessing nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and practices is a reference guide and practical tool for conducting high-quality surveys of nutrition- and health-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP ) at the community level.

The manual is written for people in charge of planning, implementing and evaluating food security and nutrition projects; these include project managers, nutritionists, health workers, planning and evaluation specialists and many others.
The manual includes definitions and key indicators for nutrition- and health-related knowledge, attitudes and practices. It provides useful guidance for planning and conducting a KAP survey, and for analysing and reporting the survey results.
The manual also provides model questionnaires (modules). These can be used to facilitate thedesign of KAP survey questionnaires. Using them contributes to the standardization of KAPstudies and the comparability of their results. The modules comprise predefined questionsthat capture information on critical knowledge, attitudes and practices related to the 13 most common nutrition topics:

• Module 1: Feeding infants younger than 6 months
• Module 2: Feeding young children (6–23 months)
• Module 3: Diet of school-aged children
• Module 4: Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation
• Module 5: Undernutrition
• Module 6: Iron-deficiency anaemia
• Module 7: Vitamin A deficiency
• Module 8: Iodine deficiency
• Module 9: Food safety
• Module 10: Personal hygiene
• Module 11: Water and sanitation
• Module 12: Food-based dietary guidelines
• Module 13: Overweight and obesity

Table of Contents



1. Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Why was this manual prepared?
1.3 What does this manual provide?
1.4 How should you use this manual?
1.5 How was this manual prepared?


2. Concepts and purpose of KAP surveys
2.1 Terminology
2.2 Purpose
2.3 Key indicators: knowledge, attitudes and practices


3. Planning and conducting KAP surveys
3.1 Activities to undertake before conducting a KAP survey
3.2 Collecting data: procedures for administering the survey questionnaire


4. Analysing the data and reporting the results
4.1 Cleaning and entering the data
4.2 Analysing and using the results
4.3 Putting the results into context
4.4 Reporting the results




Appendix 1: Visual support to measure attitudes
Appendix 2: Readiness to change
Appendix 3: Informed consent form and sociodemographic questionnaire for caregivers of infants and young children (0–6 months and 6–23 months)
Appendix 4: Informed consent form and sociodemographic questionnaire for school-aged children
Appendix 5: Informed consent form and sociodemographic questionnaire for adults (> 18 years)
Appendix 6: Nutrition-related KAP model questionnaires
Appendix 7: Examples of possible nutrition strategies for low KAP indicators
Appendix 8: Qualitative methods – basic information on data collection and analysis


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO.

ISBN: 978-92-5-106180-0 (print)
E-ISBN: 978-92-5-107768-9 (PDF)

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