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· Effluent from a hardboard mill in Victoria is disposed of at a rate of 600 acre-feet (740,000 cubic meters) per year by irrigating an area of 300 acres (120 hectares) of permanent pasture laid out on the border check irrigation system This course was adopted because the state regulations governing the solid content and effluent discharging into a stream or river could not be met at reasonable cost.

The mill discharge has a pH of 3.8 and this is corrected to pH 7.2 before sedimentation and storage. The pH of effluent applied to the pasture is about 6, with a solid content of 2,000 parts per million and a five day "biological oxygen demand" of 800.

The results have been satisfactory and no problems have been encountered with effluent run-off or excess watering.

The growth of the pasture, a mixture of grasses and legumes, has been vigorous, and has been maintained over moat of the area. It has been necessary to replant some areas on steeper slopes where it has been possible only to apply light waterings in order to avoid run-off. The whole area was top dressed with two applications of superphosphate during 18 months of operation.

From the point of view of producing revenue, the 300 acres (120 hectares) supported 2,400 sheep during the winter months of the first season and in addition yielded 114 long tons of pasture hay. The area can doubtless be made more productive by choosing more profitable means of utilization. However, the main objective of disposing of the effluent from a hardboard mill by irrigation has been satisfactorily met.


· Documentation in two volumes of the FAO Second World Eucalyptus Conference held in São Paulo, Brazil, in 1961, can be obtained at an approximate cost of U.S. $8.00 from the publishers, Irmãos di Giorgio Jr Cia, Rus Canindé 32, Rio de Janeiro.


· The dry forests of Cambodia are unique in the world in providing a habitat for all the four bovines to be found in southeast Asia - buffalo, gaur or bison, banteng or wild cattle, and koprey. The koprey has only recently been scientifically recognized as a quite separate genus, on the basis of descriptions by Harold J. Coolidge, of the United States National Academy of Sciences. Its numbers have been steadily decreasing because of the unsettled conditions and skirmishes in the region.

A mission is now being undertaken by Dr. Lee M. Talbot and his wife in the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Cambodia, Malaya, and Indonesia to examine the position as regards wildlife, national parks, reserves and related land-use matters, with specific reference to projects which might be of concern to the World Wildlife Fund and to FAO. Thane Riney, for the last two years engaged on a special FAO/IUCN wildlife project, is now in charge of FAO's program on wildlife management and conservation.


· One of the programs of the Instituto Forestal, which is a Chilean project financed with the help of the United Nations Special Fund and operated by FAO, involves the determination of the equilibrium moisture content of wood through the setting up of 19 experimental stations distributed over the whole territory of Chile, from Africa to Punta Arenas. Each station consists of a standard shelter with 48 wood specimens which are weighed once a week. In addition, meteorological observations are taken. The specimens and necessary instruments are supplied by the Instituto Forestal, whereas the shelters are put up by the co-operating institutions, many of whom have donated the material or labor, or both, as their initial contribution. Institutions collaborating with the Institute in this project include five universities, six industrial or agricultural schools, the Chilean Electricity Corporation (ENDESA), the Chilean Air Force, and the Chile Exploration Company. Each of them has appointed as officer-in-charge of the station a technician who is responsible for the measurements.

CAMBODIA. First-day cover of a series of special stamps issued to inaugurate a campaign to save the koprey, a bovine unique to Cambodia.

CHILE Edgar Bluhm S., officer-in-charge of the Forest Products Research Division of the Instituto Forestal, at the inauguration of the experimental station in the Fundo Andalión of the University of Concepión. He is seen (right) handing over a triple beam balance to Roberto Melo S., professor-in-charge of the Forest Products Department, while Walter G. Kauman, FAO adviser, looks on.


· "The Forests of Cyprus" is a film which, in showing how most of the present as well as potential summer resorts on the island are to be found within the forests, makes it clear that the forest service could do a great deal to help the development of the Cypriot tourist industry. The number of people - local and foreign - making use of forest areas as places of recreation is increasing very rapidly.

It is to be hoped that circumstances will soon permit the Forest Department to use sums that have been allocated to it for the development of forest areas for touristic purposes. The scheme is to include the creation of national forest parks, the erection of rest houses, and the establishment of tourist kiosks at suitable places. Additional funds are allocated annually to the Forest Service by district tourist committees for the general maintenance and development of places frequented by tourists.


· An article entitled Forests and farmers by Tom Gill in Unasylva, Volume 17 (2), Number 89, says, in relation to windbreaks and shelterbelts, that the "mile after mile of tree strips in Jutland, without which farming would be impossible, was a government enterprise."

Hedeselskabegs Tidsskrift, the periodical of the Danish Heath Society, in Vol. 85, No. 4, of 25 March 1904, draws attention to the fact that it was the local farmers who, under the leadership of E. M. Dalgas, founder of the society, at their own risk established the shelter planting associations. They believed in the utility of creating shelter against the desiccating winds, and only gradually did they obtain some support from public funds. Up to 1938, this support only consisted in a reduction of the prices for planting stock.

The farmers of Jutland were the first in the world to take up an organized struggle against the wind more than 75 years ago. In no other country do there exist farmer associations having the exclusive purpose of planting shelter to protect fields, animals and homesteads.

Germany, Fed. Rep. of

· A procedure has been developed for some time which is of service in the afforestation of arid zones. Based on plastic foam to which nutrients have been added, "Plastoil" absorbs water, prevents evaporation and percolation and reserves moisture for consumption by plant roots.

In Kuwait, some 6,000 trees and shrubs have already been planted in poor sandy soils where the planting pits have been sprayed with this foam, and it is said the method is also to be applied in Spain for the afforestation of barren hills.

· Wirtschaftsstatistik (Economic statistics) by Rolf Hesch (Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin 1903, 129 p., DM 28) is the first volume of a new series of publications entitled Forst- und Holzwertschaft in Forschung und Praxis (Forestry and Forest Products in Research and Practice) edited jointly by O. Eckmüller, Vienna, H. Tromp, Zürich and C. Wiebecke, Reinbek.

Taking as an example the official forest products statistics of the Federal Republic of Germany, the author analyzes and comments upon production, trade, turnover, and tax and price statistics.


· Albizzia falcata, a tree of the Leguminosae family, and known locally as Djeundjing or Sengon laut, is indigenous to the Moluccan islands and planted extensively in Java and Kalimantan (Borneo) It is not exacting with regard to soils.

On the basis of 134 sample plots located in the forest districts Kediri of (east Java) and Bogor (west Java), a preliminary yield table has been prepared for three site classes (II-IV, the latter being the best). At the age of eight years (presumably from planting), average height of the 100 highest trees per hectare is 90 feet (27 6 meters) for Class II, 100 feet (30.6 meters) for Class III, and 110 feet (33.5 meters) for Class IV. The mean annual increment for the eight years is 1,400, 1,765 and 2,166 cubic feet (39.1, 50.0, and 61.0 cubic meters) respectively. The current annual increment at the age of four and five years for Class IV is given as 3,687 and 3,814 cubic feet (103.4 and 108.0 cubic meters) respectively.

The Editor does not recall having seen elsewhere indications of an annual increment in excess of 3,530 cubic feet (100 cubic meters) per hectare, and would be glad to know if any reader has knowledge of similar figures. Those quoted are from Jan E. Soemarna: "A Preliminary Normal Yield Table of Albizzia falcata (for Stem Thickwood-Volume)." In Communication No. 77, Forest Research Institute, Bogor.


· The National Research Council, prompted by the wood-working industries, has recently set up a center for applied wood research and technical assistance at Trento with the purpose of putting to practical use the result of the research work carried on by the National Timber Center at Florence, which is primarily concerned with basic scientific research.

The new center, which is supported by the Trentino-Alto Adige autonomous region and the Province of Trento, is anxious to establish close collaboration and exchange of information with similar institutes in other countries.


· The Government of Kenya has invested over U.S. $7 million in softwood plantations which now total over 150,000 acres (60,000 hectares) and can provide sufficient raw material for the establishment of a pulp and paper mill, fiberboard and plywood factories, and the expansion of sawmills into large-scale and up-to-date units.

The Utilization Section of the Forest Department has been expanded into a Forest Industrial Development Section and is now staffed by four officers specializing in various Aspects of forest industrialization. Arising from a feasibility study by a Canadian consulting company, a quasi-government promotion company, the Pulp and Paper Company of East Africa Limited, with the Chief Conservator of Forests As chairman and an Assistant Conservator of Forests as executive director, has been formed. The establishment of a pulp and paper mill in western Kenya manufacturing kraft pulp, paper and paperboard based on cypress and pine plantations is considered economically viable and the necessary investment is being sought.

A softwood afforestation plan for the 1964-69 period has been devised. The profitability of the program on purely economic grounds, that is, excluding the value of all the other benefits such as water resources protection, employment, foreign exchange values for timber exports, wildlife preservation, etc., was calculated. With a reasonable assumption for increased royalties, the financial yield from exotic softwood plantations is estimated to reach 5.1 percent compound interest on a rotation of 36 years.

Under bilateral aid arrangements the Canadian Government has provided a team to carry out an inventory of the indigenous forests and to train local staff in the compilation and use of this inventory. The project includes aeriaI photography over all the major forests and covers the softwood plantations as well. The New Zealand Government has seconded three foresters to Kenya on two-year contracts to help in the training of foresters, rangers and field staff.


· With the unification of the western and eastern parts of the country and the establishment of one government, unification of the Departments of Forestry into one department has likewise been achieved. This is a most important step and should lead to better long-term forestry development planning. In practice, two forest laws, one for the western and one for the eastern part, are still applicable, but a new forest law for the country as a whole is expected to be enacted.

Until now in the afforestation program the emphasis has been on the planting of fast-growing eucalypts and acacias to cater for the country's more immediate requirements. This phase has gone well, and it is felt that the time has come when the planting of better quality, though relatively much slower growing species such as pine, should be speeded up. In this development the conditions in the mountainous eastern part of the country, with its higher rainfall, vis-à-vis the relatively dry, rather flat land with its extensive sand dune areas in the western part, must be co-ordinated. With the advent of a national five-year development plan there is also the prospect of large-scale conversion of poor scrub areas on the eastern mountains into productive forest. This is, however, a formidable task.

· Harry G. Keith, formerly FAO Representative in Libya, has now retired to Canada after six years service as forestry adviser in the country. He first joined FAO in the Philippines in 1963 after long service in the Forest Department in North Borneo. It is to be hoped that his wife, Agnes Keith, will now have leisure to add to the long list of best-selling books that she has written.

Sabah (North Borneo)

· Mount Kinabulu, which rises to a height of 13,450 feet (4,100 meters), is situated 30 miles inland from Jesselton, the capital of Sabah (formerly North Borneo).

The montane flora of Kinabulu is of the greatest botanical interest singe in the higher reaches above the low lying dipterocarp forest typical of the Malaysian region there is an isolated area of subtropical and temperate life, separated by many hundreds of miles from its nearest relatives. Above the 9,000-foot (2,700-meter) contour there occur shrubs and herbs allied to forms in China and the Himalayan region (Photinia, Pygaeum, Rubus, Potentilla, Dahpniphyllum, for example, as well as gentians, violets and grasses). Among them grow plants allied to Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand (Ranunculus lowii, Drimys, Patersonia, Euphrasia and numerous sedges). Extending down to 4,000 feet (1,200 meters) is an ever greater mixture of Australian conifers (Agathis, Dacrydium, Phyllocladus) and myrtles (Leptospermum, Cunoniacae), with Eurasian oaks, chestnuts, laurels and tea-trees (Schima, Ternstroemia). Elsewhere on the mountain are forms which are allied to Malaya, Sumatra, Java and Mindanao. The mountain, in short, possesses an extraordinary array of extraneous elements together with its own peculiarities such as rhododendrons, pitcherplants (Nepenthes), figs and orchids. Yet there is a paucity of palms, pandans and special developments of extraneous genera.

A recent outstanding achievement was the discovery on the eastern side of the mountain of a new genus (Trigonobalanus) of the oak family - a beech tree with oak leaves in tiers of three to seven nuts on acorn cups along a slender stalk. It is now known that it also occurs on Celebes and Malaya, with an ally in Thailand. This botanical "missing link" brings together the northern beeches, oaks and chestnuts as well as drawing in the southern beeches (Nothofagus) of South America, New Zealand, Australia and New Guinea. Borneo can be regarded as the hub of the world distribution of the oak family.


· Acacia senegal, common arabic name "hashab," yields the most valuable of the gums which are marketed under the trade name "gum arable," the Sudan product of this species being known as "gum hashab" or "gum kordofan." The Sudan produces about 85 percent of the world output of gum arabic.

The species is widely distributed on savanna types throughout Africa and is also found in India. It grows on sandy soils under a low rainfall of 12 to 20 inches (300 to 500 millimeters), and on sand-clay and clay soils under a higher rainfall of 20 to 30 inches (500 to 800 millimeters). It may occur in pure stands, or in mixture with other species.

Trees are usually less than 16 feet (5 meters) high, though they can attain a height of 33 feet (10 meters). Gum is produced by natural exudation from the cambial layer of the bark when the latter is exposed by a wound or break in the bark. Nowadays, however, exudation is stimulated by tapping the trees, a strip of bark being removed from each of the main branches thus exposing the cambial layer and resulting in the formation of one or more nodules of gum along the side of the exposed strip. This operation is carried out when the tree starts to shed its leaves, after the rains.

Regeneration is mainly by coppice regrowth, under a cultivation bush fallow system. An area of forest is felled and cultivated for several years but the stumps of the trees remain alive and when the cultivation area is abandoned, the resulting coppice growth re-forms forest, or a "gum garden" as such an area is known locally. Some regeneration also takes place from seed, but the tree does not seed regularly and the hazards to which the young seedlings are exposed are so many that few survive.


· An FAO Forestry equipment note has been issued on a new full-tree logging system which may prove to be a most important contribution to operational economy. It is estimated to increase timber output per man-hour from about 20 cubic feet (0.56 cubic meters) with modern conventional methods to 60-70 cubic feet (1.7-2.0 cubic meters). The heart of this system is a new type of limbing machine - light and easily movable - which in some 20 seconds cleans an average-size tree of all limbs and limb remnants. It is protected by patents.

While there are efficient machines for log barking, branching or limbing still constitutes A difficult and expensive bottleneck in the mechanization of forest work. Performed by manual power saws, As is generally the case in Sweden, it accounts for over 40 percent of total time for felling, limbing and topping.

· In recent years there have appeared now and again in the forestry press particulars of plastic green houses for the production of plants. In northern latitudes where these are in use the profit derived from the yield of plants and from their increase in size has proved quite amazing.

As a result of experiments, breeding forest plants in plastic greenhouses has been found to have the following advantages:

1. Since it is possible to maintain the temperature and moisture conditions at an optimal level for the germination of the seed, a far greater yield of plants can be obtained than on open ground. This applies particularly to seed from high altitudes which, owing to incomplete ripening, has a low degree of germinative energy and fertility.

2. During a single vegetative period the plants reach the same size as ordinary two-year plants, acquire sufficient hardiness to survive the winter and can be transplanted when they are only one year old.

3. The plastic house affords protection against unfavorable weather conditions, e.g., torrential rain, gales, drought and night frost, so that the period of growth proceeds equably and undisturbed.

4. In the plastic house the soil can easily be disinfected prior to sowing, and afterward the plastic gives protection against weed seed and the spores of parasitic fungi borne on the wind. As a substratum for sowing, atomized peatmoss, i.e., a mixture of decomposed sphagnum peat and artificial fertilizer, has yielded good results in regard also to the root and plant growth.

5. Thanks to the equable and uninterrupted conditions of their development a more abundant assortment of plants is obtained. The result will be still better if prior to sowing, the seed is sorted out into specific weight classes and each weight class sown separately.

6. The breeding of plants for bedding-out may be compared with gardening, and it is natural therefore that thoroughly rationalized methods pay. The plastic house + atomized peatmoss method opens up quite new possibilities for breeding forest plants along rational lines.

· According to a 50-year old tradition, Swedish foresters gather in Stockholm during a week of the forest in the month of March each year in order to participate in de bates, discussions and annual meetings of different kinds, and - likewise according to tradition - one of these days is reserved for a conference arranged by the Union of Swedish Forest Officers. The 1964 conference was, for the first time, devoted to the theme of international forestry, and proved highly successful.

After a short address to the 176 participants by the Swedish Minister of Agriculture, the conference proceeded to hear six invited speakers with special experience in international forestry:

1. CARL-HENRIK NORDLANDER (former member of the Swedish Government, now manager of one of the country's leading banks and chairman of the Swedish FAO Committee) International cooperation administered by the United Nations and FAO.

2. FOLKE JOHANSSON (Director-in-Chief of Sweden's Royal Board of Private Forestry): Technical assistance in the field of forestry.

3. JACK C. WESTOBY (Deputy Director of FAO's Forestry and Forest Products Division) who spoke on European Timber Trends and Prospects.

4. WILHELM PLYM FORSHELL (Deputy Director of Sweden's Royal Board of Private Forestry, and Chairman of FAO's European Forestry Commission, 1961-63): The European Forestry Commission of FAO.

5. ULF SUNDBERG (Professor of the University of Forestry in Stockholm): The FAO/ECE Committee on Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers, and the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations.

6. ERLAND FREDÉN (Manager of the Norrland Foundation) reported on a three-month FAO assignment in India, from which he has just returned, thus terminating the conference with an element of immediate contact with FAO field activities.

The conference was regarded as an important step forward in bringing to the attention of Swedish foresters the problems and prospects of many underdeveloped nations in the field of forestry and of FAO's work in this connection, a subject about which foresters generally are not well informed.

United Kingdom

· A colored filmstrip entitled "The Forester" and prepared with the assistance of the Forestry Commission, is obtainable from Educational Productions Ltd., East Wakefield, Yorkshire. It illustrates something of the variety of operations the forester supervises and emphasizes the important part he plays in making forestry a virile and prosperous industry. It should be useful in attracting school students to the forestry profession.

· Of considerable interest is the news that the Forestry Commission has appointed a vice-president of the International Federation of Landscape Architects as consultant for forestry.

Of the 2.6 million acres (1 million hectares) of land managed by the commission, 1.6 million acres (007,000 hectares) are under trees, and a substantial planting program still lies ahead. The consultant's advice will be sought not only on landscaping in general but especially in connection with the commission's policy of providing public access to, and recreation in, forest areas under their control.

· The Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford, has received a grant of U.S. $70,000 from the Ford Foundation for the microfilming of its library, probably the most complete forestry library in the world. The main objects of the microfilming are:

(a) to make the resources of the library available internationally, in particular to the developing countries;

(b) to provide copies of unobtainable literature, mainly for overseas readers;

(c) to insure Against the damage or destruction of originals.

After the card catalogue of the library has been microfilmed, the next task will be the periodicals and literature on tropical forestry.

· Plywoods of the world by Andrew Dick Wood (Johnston and Bacon Ltd., Edinburgh 7, 1963, 608 p., illustrated) is a largely revised and rewritten version of an earlier volume first published in 1942, revised in 1960, and widely accepted as the standard work in the English language. Recent advances in manufacturing techniques and the rapid development of the industry in all timber-producing countries have made timely a complete reappraisal of the subject. The report of the international consultation - FAO's own contribution - on plywood and wood-based panels held in Rome in 1963, is due to be published later this year.

United States of America

· The fact that wood does not cause interference to radio signals is an important property which is being used to an increasing extent in this electronic age, for example, in the construction of towers to support the antenna units of giant new radio telescopes.

One such telescope employs a guyed timber structure consisting of four towers, each 164 feet (60 meters) high, joined at the top by three trusses from which the antennae are supported. The entire structure is only 4 feet 6 inches (1.44 meters) wide.

The trusses are of plywood and glue laminated timber construction. All timber in the towers and trusses is preservative treated with pentachlorphenol, insuring A virtually maintenance-free life.

Because nonmetallic and nonconductor fasteners were required below the focal line, densified wood bolts, nuts, and washers were used. Densified wood is made from thin wood veneers impregnated with synthetic resin and densified by heat and pressure.

· According to the National Audubon Society, research foresters have concluded that the salt spread on pavements each winter to soften and break up ice is responsible for the many dead and dying sugar maples along New England streets and highways. Some evergreens are Also said to be dying from salt poisoning. British naturalists are wondering if the salt spread on highways during the exceptional winter of 1963 may not have been responsible for the mysterious die-back of roadside trees reported later throughout the country.

· There are estimated to be only 1,000 Kirtland's warblers left in the world. These birds all breed in the jack-pine country of north-central Michigan and winter in the Bahamas. A unique experiment in bird conservation has been inaugurated with the setting aside of large tracts of state forest lands for the special purpose of preserving this one songbird. For nesting sites these warblers need young jack pines, which spring up after forest fires. The Michigan Conservation Department has planted more than 260,000 young trees, and the United States Forest Service will use cutting and controlled burning to produce the needed habitat.

· Two new paperback reissues have been received from Dover Publications Inc., 180 Varick Street, New York 14. These are: Guide to southern trees ($2.26) by Ellwood S. Harrar, Dean of the School of Forestry, Duke University, and J. George Harrar, President of the Rockefeller Foundation; and How plants get their names ($1.15) by L. H. Bailey, one of America's foremost agriculturists and horticulturists.


· A commemorative book has been published to record the celebrations held in 1960, under the auspices of President Tito, to mark the centenary of forestry education in Croatia.

The year 1860 saw the opening of the first school for the education and training of professional foresters. At first the training course was for two years; in 1877, it was increased to three years. The school, rated as a secondary technical school, was in the town of Krizevci not far from Zagreb. It soon became apparent that secondary education was not sufficient for educating district forest officers. This prompted the education Authorities to move the school in 1898 from Krizevci to Zagreb, where a forest academy was established and attached to the Faculty of Philosophy of Zagreb University. The institution admitted students with secondary school certificates. In 1909, the training course was extended to four years. In 1919, the academy was abolished, both higher agricultural and forestry education being incorporated into Zagreb University as a Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry.

In 1960, forestry tuition was separated from agriculture and an independent Faculty of Forestry was founded, which now has two departments: a Department of Forestry to educate foresters for the management of forest enterprises; and a Department of Timber Industry to train specialized engineers. In the academic year 1959/60, 523 students were enrolled. The faculty also provides postgraduate studies leading to a degree of Master of Forestry or of Doctor of Forestry Sciences.





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