Don Francisco Ortuña Medina
Closing speech by the president of the congress
Reports of the plenary sessions
Recommendations of the technical commissions directed to FAO
List of congress officers
List of Congress documents
The role of forestry in the changing world economy was the central theme of the Congress and the background was the study Wood: world trends and prospects published in a special issue of Unasylva. FAO issued two other supporting publications: World forest products statistics - a ten-year summary 1951-1963 and World forest inventory 1963.
The concern of Congress members was focused on meeting the growing world demand for wood raw material, on the amount of wood available and its utilization. No world wood shortage is likely, but local shortages may induce changes in some patterns of international trade and in the distribution of wood.
Many undeveloped countries feel that acceleration of capital investment and active industrial participation of established industries in similar activities in the developing world are vital elements for their increased economic activity and employment opportunities. But large-scale forest industries are ventures that must be carefully planned, and which require considerable amounts of capital and highly competent managerial and technical staff.
The Congress urged governments receiving aid from outside sources to create by their own efforts and endeavors such conditions as will enable them best to profit from the technical and material assistance afforded to them. The Congress hoped these kinds of assistance could then be still further expanded.
This is not a matter where foresters by themselves have great political influence. For this reason the Congress endorsed a formal resolution asking the next host country, when extending invitations for the Seventh Congress expected to be held in 1972, to urge governments to include in their delegations members of legislative and executive bodies. Many ministers and members of legislatures already present this time in Spain agreed that it was a salutary experience to become acquainted at first hand with forestry specialists and technical forestry problems.
Offers to act as host to the Seventh World Forestry Congress were extended by representatives of Argentina, Chile and the U.S.S.R. A decision as to the exact time and place will be taken in due course by the FAO Conference, the governing body of the Organization.
The Congress warmly thanked the authorities of the Spanish Government and of the city of Madrid for having prepared and staged the Congress. The forest administrations of France, Morocco and Portugal were also formally thanked for the study-tour arrangements made in those countries. Finally, at their closing meeting the Congress members gave a standing ovation to the Congress President, F. Ortuño Medina, Director-General of the Spanish Forest Service.
Although some members of the Congress welcomed the apparent trends in world forestry with something less than wild enthusiasm, most were in accord with the seeming shift of emphasis from resource conservation to resource planning and management. For the developing world, and that means mostly the tropics, the need is -for planners to reveal by how much forest production must be increased, where and how it can best be expanded, and how much it will cost to produce the desired result. The basic working level must be the individual country. The pulp and paper industry will be of increasing importance to forestry; forestry education and institutional patterns must be adapted to the needs of today and tomorrow; recreation and wildlife management in forest areas will increasingly become routine features of the foresters work.
It remains now to decide how FAO's work and programs can best be adjusted to these findings.
FIGURE 1. - The Director-General of FAO Dr. B.R. Sen, addressing members of the Congress at the opening ceremony.
DON FRANCISCO ORTUÑO MEDINA, DIRECTOR-GENERAL, SPANISH FOREST SERVICE
I MUST first thank you for the Resolution through which you have formally expressed your appreciation for all that has been done by the Government of Spain and by the city of Madrid in organizing this Congress. You may be certain that your appreciation is ample compensation for our efforts.
Mr. Velay, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, has rightly said that it is in fact up to each one of us to draw his own conclusions from the work done at this Congress. It is my privilege, as President, to be the first to perform this difficult task, which to me seems the best and most proper subject for these closing words. I shall therefore give you my own views of the results of our deliberations, views that are necessarily incomplete and hasty but which I put before you objectively, in an effort to call to mind what seems to me the most outstanding among the points that have received general approbation during our plenary and technical sessions.
In my opening address I referred to the central theme of this Congress: "The role of forestry in the changing world economy." This theme has proved to be most apposite because the world of today has constantly been the background for our deliberations: a world undergoing a population expansion and economic growth, witnessing scientific and technological advances but, at the same time, a world made up of rich and poor nations, of nations sometimes separated by political or economic barriers, yet alike in their collective aspiration for peace and prosperity.
In my opinion, the FAO study and the discussions here on world timber trends and outlook have come up to the highest expectations.
I want to congratulate the Forestry and Forest Products Division of FAO through its Director, who is here in person, for the service rendered by FAO to the cause of world forestry through this publication, and I am confident I echo the general feeling of this gathering. This survey, however, is not only the culmination of a long and ambitious undertaking: it is above all a point of departure. Important as is the information it provides, still more important are the new horizons it opens up before us, the questions it puts to us, the stimulus it gives us. Henceforth, forest policy makers and planners will have a basis of reference worldwide in scale to serve and aid them in their thinking and decisions. I am convinced that all of us wish this study developed at regular intervals and kept up to date.
A basic consequence of this Congress, it seems clear to me, is the confirmation of the increasing international implications of forestry development.
The trade in forest products is evidence of this because we are constantly acquiring greater knowledge of the quantity, nature and location of the world's forestry resources and we know the how, where and when of forest product requirements. The work of this Congress has revealed to us that, while this knowledge is indispensable, it is not enough by itself to constitute an automatic stimulus to the world timber trade. As Dr. Hernán Santa Cruz has told us, we must expand the areas of free trade and facilitate international trade. But, above all, we must produce cheaper timber.
We are grateful for the attention paid by the Technical Commissions to this question in all its aspects, from planting to manufacture, through protection and: management to extraction and transport, since the problem of cost is a decisive factor in each phase of forest production and processing. The plenary sessions have singled out those institutional requirements that may serve to widen the margin between cost and profit in wood production and to make the forestry enterprise economically viable.
While seeking solutions to the problem of costs, we also approach the problem of financing, since capital for economically sound enterprises must not be found wanting. The discussions on the question of financing have brought out a key point in my opinion: we must make serious efforts to set out our arguments convincingly in order to attract investments to the forestry sector. A necessary condition for achieving this aim is a more thorough study of the relationships between costs and profits in the forestry enterprise; it offers the only means whereby we shall be able to speak to financiers and economists in their own language.
This is of great importance in all countries but especially so in the developing countries, which often have the soils and climate necessary to produce timber at competitive prices but leek the capital required to develop their forests or to establish forest plantations and industries. I believe that industrialized countries will not lose sight of these opportunities and that in future we shall see a much greater flow of capital for investment in forestry across national borders. This will; be facilitated if countries short of capital can attract it by offering adequate security and incentives for investors, without prejudice to their own national interests.
However, the increasingly international nature of forestry is not confined to money and products but - first of all, I would say - is a matter of men and ideas. Your discussions on research and on forestry education have shown that schools and research centers working in isolation are a thing of the past. The exchange of knowledge and personnel in the forestry sector must be expanded, and I am sure that this will redound to the benefit not only of countries where trained personnel and funds are less plentiful, but also of the more advanced nations, since the dissemination of scientific and technological achievements, together with human contacts, will contribute to a better worldwide balance.
This foreseeable increase in the international impact of forestry gives timeliness to your Resolution calling on FAO to reinforce the activities of its Forestry and Forest Products Division, which for years has been the main forestry agency with a worldwide charter.
Turning to the prospects within national boundaries, I feel that the broader international vision we now possess, together with the rapid social and economic changes we are witnessing, will not fail to permeate forest policies and institutions in our own countries. For instance, forestry development planning, which has been so wisely treated at this Congress, will gain momentum as we gain a better knowledge of the potential resources and requirements of other countries. We are now convinced that our task is not so much one of preserving renewable sources but rather of developing them and improving their management. This presupposes a careful distribution and scaling of investments, the harmonization of the various direct and indirect uses of forestry, and a better integration of forest industries with their forestry foundation, which can only be achieved through more precise and methodical planning than is involved in mere forest policy.
But it is pointless to plan for the forestry sector in an isolated manner; forestry experts must therefore pass beyond their traditional frontiers and take a more active part in drawing up national development plans. Implicit in this objective is the granting to Forestry Administrations of a sufficiently high position within the administrative hierarchy and recognition of the great contribution to planning that may be expected of foresters by reason of their experience in the long-term management of extensive areas and essential resources.
In order that the forester may successfully perform these tasks, I believe it is also necessary to transcend the limits of classical forestry science. It is necessary to strengthen the teaching of economics and planning methodology without, however, losing sight of the traditional wellsprings of our own forestry training and background, since it is up to us to synthesize the various specialized fields. We should take the new instruments offered by other disciplines and adapt them to the requirements of our work, but we should also defend what is essentially forestry, as well as our right to decide on matters concerning the biological entity formed by the forest.
I should now like to touch upon your deliberations on the matter of the indirect benefits to be derived from forestry. We must persevere in our efforts to identify and quantify the benefits offered by the forestry sector in terms of soil protection, water management, preservation of fauna and recreation. Only thus shall we be able to mold public opinion and convince governments that money must be spent to keep up and enhance these functions of the forestry sector, and arrive at an equitable decision as to who pays the bill.
This Congress has shown us that we must not be satisfied with doing our forestry job properly: we must keep the public better informed as to what we do and why we do it. In many countries, moreover, we need to give greater stimulus to private forestry initiative by promoting associations and co-operatives, and by seeing to it that a forest owner has a guarantee of continuity and technical help indispensable for making long-term plans for development.
I know I have not succeeded in summarizing all the conclusions that could be drawn from your discussions and in particular from the meetings of the ten Technical Commissions. To do so adequately would require much time, so much so that I wonder whether it would not be of advantage for future congresses to find a formula for restricting the variety and complexity of subjects to be dealt with. Nonetheless, the Congress we are bringing to a close today impresses me as having been extremely fruitful, and this is due to the great contributions all of you have made.
Once again I wish to express my appreciation for your efforts and in particular for the very efficient work done by FAO which has helped so much in planning and carrying out the business of this Congress. I am certain some of you have found faults and defects, but I am equally certain that you will have understood that they have come about solely because of the limitations of our capacity and means. Thus I am confident, as I wish you a happy return to your homes, that you will carry with you a pleasant memory of this Congress.
For my part, I shall treasure the best of memories, because at this Congress we have not merely aired questions relating to our scientific, technical or professional concerns but we have discussed very amply in the course of our debates perhaps more than ever before - matters such as population, social welfare, employment, security, needs; in a word, Man. And that is as it should be because we have come together here not only as professionals, administrators, scientists, owners or industrialists to examine the problems we have in common. We have come together, above all, as men of goodwill endeavoring to place our collective efforts at the service of mankind.
World trends in wood resources and requirements
Planning the use of forest potentials
Institutional framework for forestry development
Financing forestry and forest industries development
¹ These are not final authoritative texts. Publication of the Proceedings of the congress is of course the privilege of the Spanish Organizing committee.
1. The Sixth World Forestry Congress welcomed the study submitted by FAO entitled Wood: World trends and prospects as the first integrated global appraisal of major trends in the world forest and forest products economy.
2. Members stressed the extreme importance of such appraisals for a proper understanding of the intimate relationship between economic growth, wood needs and wood supplies. These analyses serve to illuminate the problems and prospects against which policy decisions must be taken; and to provide the quantitative background for sound forward planning that is so essential, given the relatively long wood production cycle. With the world economy in rapid change, there is continuing need for analyses of this type at both regional and world levels.
3. The Congress recommended, therefore, to governments and to FAO that analysis of trends in the forest economy be initiated, continued or intensified with systematically improved basic information, with increasing attention to the cost/return aspects of forest products supply and with recognition of the usefulness of long- as well as medium-term projections of future trends.
4. The unprecedented changes taking place in the world economy are being accompanied by equally profound developments in the wood and wood-using sectors. The world's population and economic wealth are both growing at rates which have never before been achieved over any sustained period. But the widely disparate rates at which they are growing in different parts of the world is bringing about major shifts in the geographical distribution of population and wealth.
5. The rising demand for wood and wood products is a concomitant of this expansion. It also reflects the geographical concentration of income and is thus heavily concentrated in the industrially developed countries. These advanced countries, which contain less than a third of the world's population, will account for 70 percent of the extra industrial wood needed by 1975.
6. In some of the developed regions, this upsurge in demand since midcentury (in sharp contrast with the relative stability in demand during the first half of the century) is already imposing strains on the supply sector.
7. The growth in demand is accompanied by a rapid change in the pattern of demand. Wood is increasingly being used in processed rather than round form, and it is the more highly processed forms - paper, paperboard, and panels - for which demand is most dynamic. Thus the mixture of sizes, qualities and species of wood required from the forest is also changing rapidly. This has profound implications for forest policy and management.
8. The Congress emphasized that, though its discussions were based upon forward estimates of what was likely to develop by 1975, the trends disclosed in this relatively short period would continue through the last quarter of the century. Thus the problems stemming from the continuing expansion and changing pattern of demand will intensify in the subsequent decades.
9. The Congress affirmed that there is not now, and need not be in the future, any overall world shortage of wood. Additional supplies can be obtained by extending forest operations into yet unused areas; there are tremendous opportunities for raising productivity in areas presently in use and for establishing new plantation forests, and much more effective use can be made of wood now harvested. However, a certain concern was expressed with respect to this mobilization of forest resources because of existing and possible developments in the relationship between production costs and market returns for forest products, and it was stressed that the production factors need to be kept under close review. Investigation of the economic base of expenditure in forest work and of the ways and means of reducing this expenditure, and also scientific investigation of the process of price formation in forest production, need more attention than they are now given.
10. At the growing and harvesting stages of the wood production process, technology has barely begun to make its contribution. The coming years can be expected to produce a technical revolution in these stages comparable to that which has already taken place in agriculture in the advanced countries. These developments are being facilitated by technological progress in the processing stages which permits a more integral utilization of the forest crop. Thus technology is enabling wood to be grown and harvested more quickly and more cheaply; it is also raising the efficiency in use of each cubic meter harvested. While in some end uses the technological substitution of wood by other materials will certainly continue, this is likely to be more than offset by the steady development of new applications and new markets for wood.
11. However, even with maximum efforts to raise productivity and improve utilization, wood deficits in certain areas of the world will grow and new deficits will arise.
12. A growing proportion of the world's wood needs will be satisfied through trade, in particular in western Europe and Japan. Most of the new or enlarged trade flows will be in products - pulp, paper and sawn softwood - most readily supplied by the established producers in the conifer-rich forest lands of the north temperate zone. Certain developing countries favored by soil and climate for the cheap production of coniferous timber may well share in this expanding trade.
13. There will also be a need for a much larger flow of hardwoods of the sort found predominantly in the tropical rain forests. But the countries endowed with such forests will encounter difficulties in meeting this demand. Apart from the problems associated with their early stage of development, existing tariff structures in, and trade links with, the principal importing countries discourage the needed expansion and upgrading of trade.
14. Over most of the developing world, the adverse trade in forest products reflects not wood deficits but inadequate domestic processing facilities. Considerable investments in both forest development and forest industry plants will be needed if the rapidly rising wood needs are to be met. In addition to the monetary investment necessary, this mobilization of resources will require the application of knowledge and skills made available through increased training and technical assistance. It will also require a concerted and integrated effort by both public and private sectors and by the producers and industrial users of wood; in particular, to ensure the proper relationship between forests and agriculture and to ensure the proper balance between development of wood production and the development of wood-using industries.
15. The Congress recommended that the industrially more advanced countries, in recognition of the role accelerated development of the forest and forest industry sector of the developing countries could play both in the economic development of these countries, and in supplying a growing part of the needs of the rest of the world, should intensify the transfer of the necessary skills, technology and capital to the developing countries. The Congress drew the attention of industrialized countries to the interest for the developing countries of reducing as rapidly as possible the tariffs and other restrictions which hinder the export of wood products from the developing countries to the developed.
16. Moreover, FAO, the United Nations Development Program, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the other international agencies concerned, should intensify and expand their programs of technical and financial assistance directed at the development of the forest and forest industries sectors in the developing countries.
17. Governments should recognize the unusually important role that the forests and forest industries, if properly developed, can play in promoting agricultural, industrial, social and economic progress, and should ensure that the resources necessary to bring about this development be devoted to the wood sector. The Congress called attention to the fact that national development plans for the forestry sectors should take into account international market conditions and that governments should also regularly review their own policies against the background of the regional and worldwide studies undertaken by international organizations. In particular, account should be taken of the extent to which national needs can best be met by overseas supplies and the extent to which national resources can contribute to satisfying world needs elsewhere.
18. To this effect, the Congress pointed to the desirability of periodic confrontation at the regional and world level of national plans for the development of the forestry sector. Only by concerting national plans at a regional and world level can optimum use of the forest resource in the interest of all people be ensured.
19. In discussing "Planning the use of forest potentials," the Congress reviewed, first, the future of management planning of the forest enterprise itself, including forest industrial development, and then the integration of forestry plans with regional and national planning. In both, account was taken not only of world trends in wood resources and requirements, but also of the many uses of forests other than wood production.
20. Foresters, who have been concerned with planning for a century and more, seem now to be lagging far behind the wood-using industries, particularly pulp manufacture, in both management and practice. They have at their disposal not only developments of machines, new products and techniques, but also new analytical methods and managerial theories and techniques, so that they can readily analyze rather complicated activities and increase the efficiency with which enterprises are directed and controlled. All countries should use to the full these latest aids to planning management and practice.
FIGURE 2. - Don Francisco Ortuño Medina, President of the Congress, addresses the final plenary session. Left to right at the dais are: N. A. Osara, Director, Forestry and Forest Products Division, FAO Co-President J. Alves, Director-General of Forests, Portugal; Honorary President E. Saari (President of the Third World Forestry Congress, Finland); Honorary President R.E. McArdle (President of the Fifth World Forestry Congress, United States); Go-President L. Velay, Director of Forests France; Go-President A. Berrada Director of Waters Forests and Soil Conservation, Morocco; Associate Secretary-General L. Gimenez- Quintana, FAO.
21. Among the traditional management concepts discussed was that of sustained yield. While it was considered that this concept remains essential in preparing model production plans, such plans must be sufficiently flexible so that they can be varied upward or downward in accordance with changing techniques and demand for wood. Above all, cost/benefit analyses or other methods of evaluating benefits must be the base of sound forest management.
22. Forest management planning is closely dependent on economic and social conditions, and provisions must be made for flexibility to allow for changing circumstances - for instance when a country moves from a subsistence economy to a marked or industrial economy lending to changes in wood requirements, or when changes occur in the costs of production. An important factor in developed countries is that manpower is becoming in short supply and the management plan must therefore provide for increasing human productivity. This same factor will, in the future, affect developing countries.
23. The (Congress also recognized the increasing importance of nontimber values and the need, in order to avoid conflict, to draw up multiple-use inventories and to use these in making forestry plans. Another purpose of the multiple-use inventory is to make available to local managers comprehensive information on what can be done with all the resources under their management. Finally, it is essential not only to assess the nontimber needs, but also to evaluate the role of the forest in terms of benefit to the community.
24. Turning to logging and transport, the Congress stressed that large-scale operations, vocational training and mechanization were essential steps for decreasing the cost per cubic meter delivered to the factories and overcoming the manpower shortage in many countries. This trend will inevitably involve the grouping of forest owners and greater integration between logging operations and forest and forest industry planning. In fact, forest management planning would probably have to cover logging operations; silvicultural practices would have to be modified; and the effect on recreation and the landscape would have to be borne in mind.
25. Discussion next turned to selling techniques, which constitute a link between forestry and forest industries. If appropriately worked out,: selling methods could help in the problem of guaranteeing a continuing supply of wood from forest to industry. End uses of wood were: also considered, particularly the question first raised: in an earlier meeting, whether in fact sawnwood would disappear altogether as an end use or whether sawmilling should be stimulated. Some countries, where there is a need to employ the maximum amount of labor and where skills are lacking, may find it expedient initially to introduce simple labor-intensive factories as a first step toward the introduction of highly automated industries.
26. For the immediate future, the process of forest development in many countries has to be planned in stages similar to those of general economic development. At the beginning sawmills can be established. As more experience and capital become available, the forestry enterprise can move through successive stages into more finished sawnwood and sawnwood products: veneer, plywood, insulation board, particle board, and finally pulp and paper. The role of forest industries in economic and social growth was stressed. Many phases of the forest industries have relatively low capital requirements high labor inputs and rural location. Thus such industries can provide a useful intermediate stage between subsistence agriculture and full industrialization.
27. The existence of "frozen capital" in many forests was accepted. The Congress urged that 'countries review their frozen capital and make plans for it to be converted into more liquid form and- reinvested in the economic growth of the region.
28. The Congress recognized that the shift from the mechanical processing of wood to chemical processing involved a major change in the economic characteristics of the forest enterprise. This trend involves a shift from a labor-intensive industry with low capital requirements appropriate to the early stage of economic growth to a capital-intensive, low labor. requirement industry' appropriate to the more advanced stages of industrialization. Pulp and paper manufacture is marked not only by important internal economies of scale but also by significant external economies of scale by linkage with other industries in the form of technological skills, reserve of skilled labor and various service industries.
29. The integration of various forest industries could materially help in achieving perhaps 75 to 85 percent utilization of the wood raw material, and this: could increase its value. Clearly the location of such combined 'industries must be decided with due consideration to biological forest potentials, availability of manpower, communications and relations with other industries.:
30. National forestry development plans have an important role in achieving co-ordination between forest research and forest industry. Within a country, regional planning was suggested as a sound intermediate means of ' ensuring that national objectives are properly translated in local forest management plans. For planning purposes, a "region" may be a river basin or a watershed, but in many instances better results will be achieved by using recognized administrative divisions which will make implementation more easy. For big countries, forest typology was recognized as a useful tool for regional planning. This relatively new activity of national and regional planning needs specialists, and all countries should arrange for the training of qualified personnel.
31. The final prerequisite for the acceptance and implementation of a forestry plan is that it be intelligible and convincing to the legislature, Ministry of. Finance or financing institutions, and acceptable to ordinary people. Public relations is an essential part of planning.
32. In conclusion, the Congress:(a) recognizing that timber trends studies provide one essential base for sound regional and national planning, recommended that FAO continue and refine its studies, to keep them alive and dynamic: the studies must also go beyond the monetary elements to give full recognition to extra-market values and costs, and should recognize the effects on the balance of payments by distinguishing between domestic and external costs and returns;
(b) reaffirmed its adherence to the principle of "multiple use" promulgated by the Fifth World Forestry Congress, provided that (i) this concept is taken to mean, not that all forests everywhere should be used for all purposes simultaneously, but that in planning the objectives should be the optimum 'mixture of uses - optimum for the community as a whole; ´(ii) the uses should be justified on a firm basis of cost/benefit or other form of assessment of good accruing to the community;
(c) recognizing that, under present conditions, the problem of increasing forest productivity is assuming more and more significance and embraces a broad; range of questions of importance to world forestry, the solution of which will demand co-ordination and the joint efforts of many countries, expressed the desirability of forming under the aegis of FAO a co-ordination center supported by regional and special committees for studying this problem;
(d) recognizing the importance of afforestation programs all over the world and the difficulties encountered in implementation, recommended (i) to governments and international agencies responsible for assistance to developing countries that full weight be given; to any request for aid in afforestation, either as a donation or as' a' loan, at a rate of interest and for a duration compatible with the financial situation of the requesting country, and (ii) that FAO strengthen and expand its seed-collecting program in order to be in a position to assist countries starting extensive afforestation schemes.
33. Under this heading the Congress deals 'first with forestry research and education; then with the problems facing public administrations, in both centrally-planned and free market economies, and with the importance of enlisting public support for forestry development; and lastly with problems of private forestry and the role of professional forestry associations.
34. The Congress recognized that research is becoming a matter of increasing political concern, owing to the -magnitude of the national resources required to pursue it and to the: contribution it can make to economic growth. Tribute was paid to the complementary work of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and FAO in promoting international co-operation in the field of forestry research, but it was recognized that the considerable financial resources and the number of highly trained personnel i required for research work point to, the need for increased efforts to disseminate existing knowledge and research techniques.
35. By and large, research work is still aimed at solving the problems of the industrialized countries. In their own interests, these countries should relate their ' research programs more closely to the special problems of forestry development in the developing world, possibly by tying part of their research funds to this purpose. The developing countries, in turn, should gear their forestry research programs carefully to the objectives of their national development plans and encourage their forestry education centers to engage in research work. While the developing countries should pay special attention to adapting to their own particular needs the scientific knowledge and technology already available, it was pointed out that they must also develop their' own basic research. Co-ordinated action between groups of countries or even concentration of efforts in a centrally-based institute may be required.
36. The Congress considered that the key issue for the advancement of forestry in the developing countries is education. 'It welcomed and supported the orientations given by the FAO Advisory Committee on Forestry Education. The basic unit in a system of forestry education is the professional college, with strong ties with a university. In many countries short-term needs require emphasis on the development of schools for forest rangers and forest products technicians.
37. The Congress regarded the creation of a favorable current of public opinion concerning forestry problems to be necessary in the national interest. The educational system for forestry must therefore also include a sustained educational effort directed at everyone, from schoolchildren to the general public, the forest worker, the forest user and the political leader. To be truly viable and self-perpetuating, the forestry education system requires another element: the postgraduate university, with its accompanying research program.
38. No forester can be fully acquainted with all the branches of knowledge involved in forestry. Specialization is indispensable, even at the ranger level. Specialists may be trained in other types of colleges or schools, but forestry faculties should aim primarily at forming those capable of synthesizing the various scientific fields involved in forestry, and of making decisions. This is one of the main reasons why a forestry faculty should have. at its disposal the full resources of a major university. A major function of the university is to give the professional forester the ability to cope with his complex responsibilities. In the developing countries, however, such responsibilities often weigh heavily on the forester already in the very early stages of his career, and there is a need for postgraduate courses to facilitate the formation of decision-making' capacities.
39. The knowledge possessed by a forester on completion of his training cannot suffice for the whole of his career. This problem, already tackled by some countries, requires wider attention. It could be solved, for example, by providing special courses to bring a forester's knowledge up-to-date and giving him the opportunity to attend them.
40. The Congress expressed appreciation of the efforts made through multilateral and bilateral aid programs to promote forestry education in the developing countries. Co-ordination between these programs should be improved and more use made of the arrangements whereby a well-established forestry faculty assists in the strengthening of a newly created faculty, to their mutual benefit.
41. The great speed with which social, economic and technical conditions are changing cannot fail to influence the formulation of national forest policies. The accelerated consumption of all resources that goes with population growth and economic development brings about a shift of emphasis from restrictive conservation to the planning and management of the renewable resources under the control of a forest administration; The forestry sector is playing an increasingly important role in economic development and new relationships have developed between forestry, industry and agriculture that must be taken into account in forest policies.
42. The time has come to make a synthesis of all these changes and of their influence on the formulation of forest policies. The Principles of Forest Policy that stemmed from the Third World Forestry Congress and that were later adopted by the FAO Conference are still valid, but there is a need for updating them, taking into account the differences between the various world regions and the requirements of both developed and developing countries.
43. The Congress considered that national forest administrations have, in general, played the leading role in the advancement of forestry and that their responsibilities are steadily growing as a result of population growth, socioeconomic development and the progress made in science' and technology. They will only be able to manage their increased tasks if they have the necessary human and financial resources and a sufficiently high status within the whole national administrative structure.
44. The two main pillars on which public forestry administration rests are the law and collaboration with other branches of the government and with civic activities. It is through adjustments in the law and through effective collaboration that public forest administrations can maximize the contribution of the forestry sector to economic development needs, and adapt themselves quickly to the new conditions created by the expansion of urban civilization. In particular, they must participate actively in the preparation of national development plans and co-operate in forestry research and education.
45. The main point of general interest stemming from the comparison of public forest administrations in centrally-planned and free market economies is the importance of integration between forest industries and their forest base, which can be easily achieved within the former type of economy owing to the very nature of the economic system. In free market economies, it can be successfully achieved when forest industries own their own forests. In other cases, comparable results can be obtained through institutional arrangements, such as collective marketing agreements among forest owners and, especially in the developing countries, long-term contracts and forest concessions that provide adequate guarantees and incentives for modern forest industries, while safeguarding national interests.
46. Changing social and economic circumstances make it increasingly clear how far the implementation of forest policies depends on the support-of an enlightened public opinion; yet, paradoxically, it appears that, as forest policy takes on new dimensions, it is ceasing to receive the support of public opinion, as if in affecting broader cross sections of the population it were losing its force of impact and penetration. This underlines the need for improved public information on forestry as the popularization of knowledge is a basic factor in reconciling the exigencies of a forest policy and the attitude of public opinion. Most successful public opinion campaigns in the past have been directed at ensuring resource protection. Such campaigns must continue, even in the developed countries, but they can be more effective if they show the contribution that the mobilization of forest resources can make to economic development and welfare. The Congress considered that foresters should pay more attention to public relations and it hoped that a project now being jointly sponsored by the Swedish Government and FAO, which makes a start at putting the tools of modern public relations activities at the disposal of developing countries, will be only the first of a series of similar initiatives.
FIGURE 3. - Award ceremonies for the International Festival of Forestry Films, at the reception offered by the Mayor of Madrid in the beautiful Retiro gardens on the last night of the Congress. Don Francisco Ortuño Medina presents a cup given by the National Syndicate for Timber and Cork to Shri Hari Singh, Inspector-General of Forests India, for the educational documentary film "Call of the Khedda."
47. Private forestry plays a primary role in the forest economy of numerous countries, many of which are among those which traditionally account for most in the world forest and forest products economy. The problems peculiar to private forests differ widely according to the type of ownership. While large-scale forestry as an integral part of wood-processing industries comes close to the requirements of a market economy, farm forestry and related forms of ownership face a number of serious problems, such as the farmer's lack of forestry knowledge, and the inadequate size of holdings. The Congress regarded the main problem to be lack of long-term planning and the fact that forestry occupies a secondary position in the farmer's decisions. The traditional functions of farm forests are, generally speaking, becoming secondary, and commercial production of timber is now their primary function. At the same time, farm forestry increases the productivity of the farming unit in which it is included by making possible fuller use of its manpower and equipment.
48. The Congress recognized that private forests need growing investments which: will only be forthcoming if there is a guarantee of continuity, particularly in terms of stable ownership, insurance and remunerative wood prices. This requires adequate measures within the fields of both forest policy and general economic policy. Farm forestry, in particular, needs further support through structural improvements, technical assistance and the encouragement of co-operatives and associations. The discussion based on the example of the work carried out by the Norwegian Forest Owners' Association made clear the interest of forest management plans for farm forests and of combining the respective plans for forestry and for agriculture in the farm units, but it is essential for (he success of such plans that the farmer is sufficiently confident in his capacity to implement them. This can be attained if the farmer himself participates in the preparation of the plan and if this plan comprises the total economic enterprise of the farmer.
49. The Congress discussed the role that the various: forestry groupings and associations play or could play in the implementation of national forest policies. It is through such associations that government authorities can explain the objectives of these policies to those concerned, and it is to such associations that governments entrust wide responsibilities for the implementation of such policies. However, any association is, in fact, a pressure group that will tend to orientate in a given direction the national forest policy. In the complex world of today, such pressure groups, if they represent homogeneous or at least well-balanced interests, constitute a useful element of information for those responsible for economic and social policies.
50. Most important among the forestry associations are the professional forestry associations, grouping the technicians of forestry and forest industries on whom depend the correct implementation of forest policies and the planning and organization of industries. The professional forestry associations also fulfill the rule of homogeneity, and the experience of the countries where such associations already exist indicates that it would be to the advantage of all countries to form such associations, even though the number of professional foresters may be low. The Congress considered that the condition of homogeneity referred to earlier might favor an undesirable proliferation of forestry associations. For this reason it might be useful to form at the national level a federation of such associations which, in turn, could eventually group itself with other national federations into a union at international level.
51. In the course of their interventions, various members made the following proposals which were endorsed by the Congress:(a) that the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations expand its work of co-ordination and dissemination of forestry research at the international level;
(b) that FAO consider the possibility of establishing a center for the development of the maquis areas in the Mediterranean basin;
(c) that the Director-General of FAO should strengthen the Organization's present work of collecting and disseminating information on forest legislation, and issue a worldwide publication containing a resume of the legislation of each country, the positive or negative results of such legislation, and a list of numbers and dates of forest laws enacted;
(d) that the Director-General of FAO should undertake the preparation of a revised version of the FAO study Forest policy, legislation and administration, in which account would be taken of the new problems and conditions facing forest administrations as a result of the present rapid changes in world economic and social conditions.
52. The Congress also recorded that the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, through publication of Forestry abstracts over the past 27 years, had greatly benefited forestry by providing a unique service in the worldwide dissemination of forestry knowledge. The Congress commended the Commonwealth Bureaux, and expressed the hope that the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau would enlarge its activities sufficiently to maintain coverage of the expanding volume of forestry literature. The Congress also expressed its appreciation of the work done by other international and national agencies contributing to the dissemination of forestry knowledge.
53. The main purposes of the papers presented to the Congress on this subject were:(a) to estimate the forestry investments needed in the main geographical regions of the world to attain the production targets set out in the FAO study - Wood: World trends and prospects;
(b) to review the distinctive features of capital formation in forestry, especially in terms of its attractiveness as an object of investment;
(c) to identify the major obstacles standing in the way of the three main sources of forestry finance - credits, government expenditures and self-financing; and
(d) to propose policies to increase the availability of funds for forestry and to propose new approaches intended to lessen the effects of fund scarcity through international co-operation, trade development agreements and similar actions.
54. The Congress took note of the FAO estimates which indicated that for the period 1961-75 close to U.S. $39,000 million would have to be invested in new wood products processing capacity, about $3,300 million in logging requirements and $4,900 million for forest management activities. Of the additional processing capacity, pulp and paper manufacture would account for 86 percent, wood-based panels 8 percent and sawmilling 6 percent. In pulp and paper the developing countries would have about 16 percent of this expansion, but due to higher costs this would take up about 25 percent of the total investments expected in the industry.
55. In logging, the developed countries would account for about 68 percent of the new investment. The estimates of additional investments in management could also be expected to occur largely in the forests of the developed countries.
56. Despite the fact that many governments recognize the importance of early and substantial investments in forestry and forest industries, the Congress recognized that, from a global point of view, the amount of investment currently being made in such projects is inadequate. The developing countries have obtained a small share of the worldwide postwar expansion of forest industries in spite of their large forest resources and growing world markets.
57. Speakers pointed out that a worldwide production policy, mobilizing all existing resources, would be beneficial in attempting to expand forest industry to meet the expected demand for forest products. It was considered necessary in formulating programs for forestry investment that regions and resources which do not presently enjoy the most favorable technical and economic conditions be included in such programs.
58. Discussing the causes of inadequate investments in developing countries, members of the Congress expressed the view that these were largely due to insufficient availability of basic data, lack of qualified economists and development planners, as well as the frequent lack of co-ordination between different government agencies in dealing with forestry and forest industrial development programs. Instability of political environment in many of the developing countries also added to the difficulties in obtaining adequate financing, particularly from abroad. It was also pointed out that in the developing countries the costs entailed in importing equipment and in the installation of services were frequently excessive, to the extent that they did not justify the financing of a project. Lack of industrial and transport infrastructure also has a deterrent effect on forestry and forest industrial development projects.
59. The Congress recognized that the principal characteristics of forestry investment, namely the long time lag between the initial investment and yield, and the fact that investments in forest industries are generally capital intensive, make it difficult to find readily the necessary financing from sources currently available for investment. As access to normal bank credits is rather unlikely in the case of long-term capital requirements, the establishment of a special credit institution, modeled on the lines of the agricultural development credit institutions operating at present in many countries, was considered as one way of providing the necessary long-term credit. Many of the developing countries possess climatic and soil conditions which favor short tree rotations, which in itself helps to eliminate one of the major banking problems relating to forestry investment.
60. A number of factors determine the attractiveness and justification for forest investment. Authors of papers listed adequacy and accessibility of raw material, availability of markets, a favorable forest growth rate, a satisfactory ownership pattern, adequate forest legislation coupled with a forward-looking forest policy, a reasonable amount of government control, political stability and confidence in the managerial ability, as prerequisites to attract needed capital for forestry investment.
61. The Congress recognized that in certain cases governments are also faced with the problem of obtaining funds for forestry efforts not specifically for timber production and where the results may not be immediately expressible in economic terms.
62. The Congress underlined the many advantages to the developing countries of increased investment in forestry and forest industries. In many of these countries forests form a renewable resource which can provide raw materials in large quantities for continuing industrial activity. Coupled with this is the favoring trend of an increasing world market, the possibility of import savings and greater foreign exchange earnings to the country and the better utilization of an under- or unemployed labor force.
63. The Congress summarized the sources of financing for forestry investment under the categories of government institutions, private domestic and foreign capital, bilateral loans and funds from international financing agencies.
64. Of particular interest is the growing receptiveness of international financing agencies to investment in forestry and forest industries projects. These projects may be considered as falling into the following five categories:(a) infrastructure investment in communications designed to make possible forest exploitation;
(b) investment in plantations to meet raw material demands of existing forest industries;
(c) investment in plantations to meet raw material demands of future forest industries;
(d) investment in a forest industry plant;
(e) investment in forest plantations for protective purposes.
65. The Congress emphasized the importance of domestic capital forming a part of the total investment required for the financing of a forestry project. It drew the attention of institutions satisfied with long-term, low-yield investments to the opportunities offered for investment in forestry projects.
66. In all cases where investment is proposed it is of overriding importance that a good prospectus be prepared and made available to possible investors.
67. The Congress stressed that forestry investment in the developing countries may be hindered by lack of the basic data and qualified personnel. It is essential, therefore, that in the preparation of a forestry investment program the need for training personnel and the execution of forest resource surveys are not overlooked.
68. The Congress discussed the problem of an acceptable rate of return on forestry investments. It was clear that no precise figure may be stated although for prospective investors general rules of thumb are often used. It was stated that lower rates of return than are required for other industries are often acceptable in forestry. But it was recognized that higher rates of return are necessary to attract capital for forestry investment in the developing regions where higher risk conditions at present prevail. The suggestion was made that, in estimating rates of return on forestry investments, it would be well to consider wood production aspects separately from more intangible returns such as improvement of the social infrastructure and welfare values. It might be possible to break down a total investment cost into the two categories and calculate the rate of return on the wood production portion separately.
69. The Congress discussed means of encouraging additional investment in forestry in developing countries. It recommended that forest authorities familiarize themselves with methods of preparing investment proposals. It was pointed out that the establishment of a forest development planning agency would result in more recognition of this important area of national development. At all times there should be close co-ordination between the government agencies involved in the several sectors of development planning. Furthermore, closer co-ordination should be encouraged between individual governments for regional planning and even regional projects.
70. The Congress referred to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for further study the views expressed by members that the Regional Development Banks should be encouraged to grant long-term and low-interest loans to finance forest plantations and forest industries development in developing countries.
71. Some members felt that, in the face of increasing competition for investment funds, it would be advantageous to nominate a special Development Bank to act as an intermediary and channel through which developing countries could secure foreign financing for forestry. It was emphasized that the attractiveness of investment in forestry would be enhanced if a clear and reasonable forest policy existed in a country. Furthermore, forest investment would be encouraged by an enlightened attitude which reduced royalties, taxes and import duties in a country in the early stages of forestry development.
72. It was also considered that governments might encourage investments from social security funds and other similar institutions in afforestation projects, and should introduce measures to guarantee the results of investment by the aforesaid organizations, given their social purposes.
73. Views were also expressed that, especially in developing countries, governments should make provision in forest legislation for tax-free contributions and adequate inducements to be made for savings to be amassed for use in financing programs of forestry restocking and industrialization.
74. The Congress noted with interest the successful cooperative organizations of forest owners in some developed countries as a means of financing and developing both forestry and forest industry activities. It felt that this approach warranted study for possible use, modified to local conditions, in some of the developing countries.
75. In this connection the Congress drew to the attention of countries where similar economic conditions prevail, the system of forest industrial complexes operated in Mexico.
76. Co-operative activities among forest owners in any country of the world constitute one potentially very important way of helping to solve the great problem of financing private forestry. Co-operation in all its forms always represents a powerful economic element, and it would be unfortunate if this possibility were not also used to its widest extent in forestry. The implications would not only be economic in the sense of money returns, but would also considerably improve the standard of management, harvesting and marketing techniques.
77. In its efforts to further forestry in the world, FAO itself should give wider consideration to the possibilities offered by voluntary co-operation between forest owners in forest management, marketing and forest industries, and should actively promote and stimulate all kinds of groupings of forestry producers according to the conditions prevailing in individual countries.
I. Tree improvement and afforestation
1. Regional centers for the preservation of genetic stocks should be developed under FAO co-ordination and within the framework of the germ plasm conservation program being envisaged by FAO.
2. The efforts of the Governments of Australia and Mexico to make available seed of eucalypts and pines for provenance research were acknowledged with great appreciation and the hope was expressed that FAO would be given additional means to continue assistance in this field on an increasing scale.
3. Economic aspects of tree breeding deserve a thorough examination at a second joint FAO/IUFRO World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, possibly to be held toward the end of the decade in the United States of America.
4. A World Symposium on Tree Physiology, to be organized jointly by FAO and IUFRO, should be implemented, possibly in the latter part of 1968. (Supported also by Commission III.)
5. Before embarking on large-scale afforestation programs, governments should ascertain that all the necessary preliminaries (definition of the objects of management, market studies, species and provenance trials assessment of site potential, investigations into the possibilities for forest transport and mill-site factors) have been complied with. A manual by an international organization, such as FAO, would fill an existing gap and would be helpful both for developing and for some developed countries.
6. Especially useful for developing countries would be a set of sufficiently reliable but easily identifiable site factors, the evaluation of which before planting would be simple enough to be accomplished also by nonspecialists. IUFRO was invited to give thought to this matter and the hope was expressed that FAO would soon initiate action in the field of forest soils.
7. There is need for a worldwide body, set up ex novo by an international organization such as FAO, or resulting from the transformation of existing bodies with similar terms of reference but covering a more limited geographic area, to study thoroughly problems related to the afforestation of difficult sites, due attention being paid to the economic aspects. A series of ad hoc meetings dealing in succession with the different sites (dry areas, wetland, steep slopes, areas above the tree line, saline and alkali soils, rain forests, freshwater swamps, sand dunes, etc.) could attain the same objectives in perhaps a more flexible way.
8. The Commission drew the attention of the Director-General of FAO to the interest of FAO's pursuing further its studies on the utilization of desert and semidesert lands and the possibilities of halting the advance of desert conditions, especially in the lands south of the Sahara where this problem appears particularly urgent.
II. Forest protection
9. The Commission recommended that FAO provide leadership in forest pathology and entomology, to assist in programs such as disease and insect impact surveys and research, and to stimulate international co-operation in planning and co-ordinating research. Greater FAO and IUFRO participation in forest disease and insect extension activities should be promoted, including the preparation, translation and distribution of instructions on how to apply disease and insect control practices at the local level.
10. Great harm is inflicted on the forests in many countries by forest fires. It would therefore be advisable for FAO to organize a special committee to elaborate the most effective methods and equipment for forest fire control and facilitate exchange of experience in this field.
III. Forest management and silviculture
11. The Commission commended the reorganization of the financing and procedures for the Forest Terminology Project, and expressed satisfaction that the basic English language part of it would be completed by 1970. It urged FAO and other international and national organizations to assist in the publication and wide distribution of terminologies in both developed and developing countries.
12. The Commission recommended that FAO and IUFRO collaborate in facilitating an exchange of information on the use of computers in the field of forestry research and management. To that end, the following were proposed: the establishment of an international committee of specialists entrusted with studying the problems involved in the supply of computers to the forest services of developing countries; arrangements for programs of training in the use of computers; and the organization of an international seminar on the use of computers in silviculture and in forest management, such seminar to be attended by directors of forest services and research bodies.
13. FAO should incorporate into its program of work, under the aegis of the respective FAO Regional Forestry Commissions, a systematic analysis of today's and future silvicultural systems. This task should be carried out by experienced silviculturists who might be engaged by FAO on a consultant basis.
IV. Wood harvesting, logging and transport
V. The human factor in forestry
14. Because in developing countries the professional training of forest workers is still in an embryonic stage and on the whole forestry work is arduous and sometimes dangerous, the Commission urged that the international organizations concerned should intensify their activities to improve the social security and productivity of the forest worker.
VI. Forestry questions specific to tropical regions
15. (a) The Commission urged that the newly established FAO Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics should continue FAO's earlier studies of the problem of shifting cultivation and its control.
(b) The Commission proposed that FAO institute a working party of representatives from the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, economics, forestry, agriculture, pedology, ecology and political science, and charged with reviewing the problem of shifting cultivation so as to develop a program of study and research which will lead to a fundamental understanding of the problem and its control.
16. In respect of international trade, the Commission recommended that international agencies, e.g., FAO and UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), undertake research in market and trade development in forest products with a view to opening up new or expanding current markets.
17. The Commission requested the Director-General of FAO to include in his program of work for 1968-69 plans for a World Tropical Forestry Congress. The new FAO Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics may be asked to organize such a congress.
VII. Forest industries
18. The Commission stressed the importance of the utilization of lesser known species, especially in connection with the urgent problem of improving the housing situation in many areas of the world. There was need to disseminate the results of research as rapidly and completely as possible. It noted with satisfaction that FAO was engaged in collecting and exchanging information about species in some regions, e.g., Latin America, and recommended FAO to take steps to extend these activities to other parts of the world.
19. In order closely to associate forestry and forest industry development, small-scale demonstration plants could be useful in developing countries where surveys have shown possibilities for economic exploitation. Such plants could also be of great value in developing methods of using lesser known species. The Commission urged FAO to pay attention to possibilities of creating such demonstration or pilot plants.
20. The industrial utilization of bark was one field where further research was needed. FAO and IUFRO were urged to study possible methods to induce further research and investigations in this field and to disseminate available information both of scientific results such as on the chemical composition and modification of bark and on technical solutions of its use developed in different countries.
21. In the context of water needs by forest industries and water pollution problems, the Commission emphasized the importance of progressive development and codifications of international law concerning the use of international drainage areas and urged the competent bodies of the United Nations to encourage such development.
VIII. National parks, forest recreation and wildlife
22. The Commission expressed the view that FAO should examine the possibilities of establishing a wildlife training school or college, on the lines of the existing school in Tanzania, in a suitable country in Asia, which should be chosen after consultation with the interested countries.
23. National and international organizations were recommended to give increasing emphasis to ecological concepts in developing and improving methodology for management to maintain adequate vegetative cover, where the principal form of land use is watershed protection or national park management, and in areas specially set aside for wildlife management or for recreation. It further recommended that FAO strengthen its activities in these fields.
IX. Forest influences
24. The Commission, recognizing the important contribution that scientific studies on forest influences may make to developing countries, and recognizing that most of such studies now undertaken are confined to the United States, Europe, and the U.S.S.R., recommended that FAO take the lead in extending such activities to other regions of the world, and in compiling and evaluating the results obtained.
For this purpose FAO might reactivate and mobilize the Working Parties on Watershed Management that exist in the various regions of the world, and specifically include forest influences in their terms of reference and in their work programs.
IUFRO, in collaboration with FAO, should encourage the development of a methodology which would permit easy comparison of results between countries.
FAO should also study the possibility of establishing more research stations on forest influences under different conditions, which could also offer specialized training in the various fields involved.
25. The Commission recommended that FAO and research institutes in member countries should closely collaborate with Unesco during the International Hydrological Decade which that Organization has launched.
26. The Commission recommended that the conservation and the utilization of forest resources and putting to use the protective influences of the forest for the welfare of local populations be recognized in member countries as appropriate lines of activity to warrant support under the Freedom from Hunger Campaign.
X. Forest economics and statistics
27. The Commission considered that there was insufficient knowledge of methods and principles for land and particularly forest land classification. It recognized the basic importance of comprehensive land and land-use statistics, particularly in regions subject to shifting cultivation, land deterioration and flood. Because such statistics are essential in planning and determining land-use policies, particularly for such marginal lands as may be subject to reclamation and afforestation, the Commission recommended that research institutions, preferably under the auspices of IUFRO and in collaboration with FAO, investigate the methods for land, and particularly forest land, site classification aiming at finding internationally applicable methods.
Richard E. McArdle (U.S.A.)
Eino Saari (Finland)
Francisco Ortuño Medina (Spain)
L.H. Velay (France)
L. Berrada (Morocco)
J. Alves (Portugal)
D. Fairbairn (Australia)
C. Ngowenubusa (Burundi)
S. Sauvé (Canada)
P. Avaré (Gabon)
J.C. Pineda (Honduras)
Sawadogo (Ivory Coast)
H. Cravatte (Luxembourg)
J. Rens (Surinam)
H. Beresford-Peirse (U.K.)
E.P. Cliff (U.S.A.)
I.S. Melekhov (U.S.S.R.)
N. Altuve Gonzáles (Venezuela)
M. Prats Zapirain (Spain)
L. Giménez-Quintana (FAO)
R. de Rada Martínez (Spain)
J.J.E. Dosne (FAO)
M. Briones Ledesma (Spain)
Heads of Delegations
N.A. Osara FAO
J. Speer (President of IUFRO)
F. Ortuño Medina (Spain)
Co-Presidents of the Congress
Vice-Presidents of the Congress
Jack C. Westoby (FAO)
M. Prats Zapirain (Spain)
A. Ureña de Manzanos (Spain)
L. Berrada (Morocco)
F. Bazán (Peru)
J.A. Petkov (Bulgaria)
M.I.S.B. Rukuba (Uganda)
L.H. Velay (France)
L.J. Vernell (FAO)
E. Caliwara (Philippines)
A.J. Bello Dias (Portugal)
Hamda Hafsia (Tunisia)
1. WORLD TRENDS IN WOOD RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS
L.S. Melekhov (U.S.S.R.)
K. Sakaguchi (Japan)
S.L. Pringle (FAO)
J.E.M. Arnold (FAO)
2. PLANNING THE USE OF FOREST POTENTIALS
H. Beresford-Peirse (U.K.)
I. Mïlescu (Romania)
R.G. Fontaine (FAO)
O. Carare (FAO)
3. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT
M. Altuve González (Venezuela)
J.M. Belo Lisboa (Brazil)
L. Giménez -Quintana (FAO)
J. Prats Llauradó (FAO)
4. THE FINANCING OF FORESTRY AND FOREST INDUSTRIES DEVELOPMENT
E.P. Cliff (U.S.A.)
P. Sköld (Sweden)
E. Kalkkinen (FAO)
B. Husch (FAO)
I. TREE IMPROVEMENT AND AFFORESTATION
A. de Philippis (Italy)
E. Okon (Nigeria)
J. Lopez Camiño (Cuba)
J. Cherrey (France)
R.Z. Callaham (U.S.A.)
P. Turpin (France)
O. Fugalli (FAO)
II. FOREST PROTECTION
Hari Singh (India)
L. Brichet (Belgium)
B. Pospisil (Czechoslovakia)
V.J. Nordin (Canada)
M. Andersen FAO
III. FOREST MANAGEMENT AND SILVICULTURE
M.R. Jacobs (Australia)
Amir Ahmed Khan (Pakistan)
R. Ender (Austria)
P.W. Maplesden (New Zealand)
A. Métro (France)
P.A. Durgnat (FAO)
IV. WOOD HARVESTING, LOGGING AND TRANSPORT
L.Z. Rousseau (Canada)
A.E. Langsaeter (Norway)
L.D. Roos (U.S.S.R.)
D. Johnston (U.K.)
H. Chauvin (FAO)
V. THE HUMAN FACTOR IN FORESTRY
A. Piha (Finland)
F. Eko-Ebongué (Cameroon)
J. Tsur (Israel)
B. Strehlke (Germany)
I. Kissin (FAO)
VI. FOREST QUESTIONS SPECIFIC TO TROPICAL REGIONS
T. Gill (U.S.A.)
D. Banijbatana (Thailand)
P.L. Giffard (Senegal)
R.A. De Rosayro (FAO)
E.A. Quist-Arcton (FAO)
VII. FOREST INDUSTRIES
M. Muñoz Alava (Chile)
J. Kileo (Tanzania)
L. Kirves (Finland)
B. Steenberg (Sweden)
E. Garnum (FAO)
VIII. NATIONAL PARKS, FOREST RECREATION AND WILDLIFE
A. Staffers (Netherlands)
E.A. Takacs (Argentina)
F.W. Addo Ashang (Ghana)
Lloyd W. Swift (U.S.A.)
T. Riney (FAO)
IX. FOREST INFLUENCES
F.J. Klose (Germany)
Salah Juma'a (Jordan)
D.F. Dyer (Jamaica)
A.L. McComb (FAO)
K.H. Oedekoven (FAO)
X. FOREST ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
J. Jungo (Switzerland)
J. Manuel González Carrillo (Mexico)
J. Jeremic (Yugoslavia)
N.K. Hermansen (Denmark)
M. de Backer (FAO)
Technical commission I
Technical commission II
Technical commission III
Technical commission IV
Technical commission V
Technical commission VI
Technical commission VII
Technical commission VIII
Technical commission IX
Technical commission X
Wood: World trends and prospects
General paper (6CFM/G/Pl)¹
¹This general paper may be obtained from the Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Rome, Italy. All other documents are only obtainable from Sr. M. Prats Zapirain, Secretario General, Dirección General do Montes, Ministerio de Agricultura, Madrid, Spain.
1/1 Wood: world trends and prospects [Unasylva, Volume 20 (1-2), Numbers 80-81] FAO Forestry and Forest Products Division
Special papers (6CFM/E/Pl)
1/1 Trends in the use of forest products in Australia A.G. Hanson
1/2 Tendances de la consommation du bois dans la République populaire de Bulgarie Chr. Sirakov
1/3 Objectives for wood production R.F. Turnbull
1/4 Forest pulp and paper and woodworking industry of the U.S.S.R. Fyodor Varacksin
1/5 Projection du commerce portugais de l'exportation du bois d'emballage dans le marché international
J.C.M. Ferreira da Costa
1/6 The world's forest resources and their adequacy
1/7 The promise of technology
Dr. Franz Kollman
1/8 The promise of technology
Lincoln R. Thiesmeyer
1/9 Les promesses de la technologic
General papers (6CFM/G/P1)
2/1 The introduction of more effective wood selling techniques
H. Tromp & F. Schmithüsen
2/2 Integration of forest development plans and regional development plans with emphasis on watershed management
Chas. A. Connaughton
2/3 The integration of forest development plans and national development plans - How to make the forestry case at the national level
2/4 Planification du développement de l'industrie forestière
N. St. Dumitrescu & A. Fuchs
2/5 The new trends of thinking in forest management methods
2/6 Integration of forest development plans and national development plans - The administrative and operational problems and possible solutions
Arthur W. Greeley
2/7 Planification et organisation des opérations d'abattage et de transport dans l'entreprise forestière
2/8 Planificación del desarrollo de la industria forestal
Paulino Martínez Hermosilla
Special papers (6CFM/E/Pl)
2/1 Integración industrial: evaluación de factores básicos para la integración de la industria forestal en México
Armando Rendón V.
2/2 Bases para formular programas nacionales forestales en los países en desarrollo
Nicolás Robles Hernández
2/3 The role of forest industries in industrial development in tropical Latin America
Gordon D. Lewis
2/4 The changing face of Indian forestry
2/5 Missouri shows the way
George S. James
2/6 Unas consideraciones sobre la planificación silvicultural en los Trópicos
2/7 Watershed improvement through forestry programs in the TVA area
Kenneth J. Seigworth
2/8 L'unité de conception de l'édification de l'espace des peuplements - Condition d'un plus haut degré d'organisation économique
2/9 Making out the case of forestry at the national level
Nicolas P. Lansigan
2/10 The Canada land inventory Of ARDA
2/11 Rebirth of the forest economy of the south
2/12 The forester in a troubled world
2/13 Tendencias de la industria forestal mexicana
Jaime Carrillo Sánchez
2/14 Política forestal del Gobierno revolucionario de Cuba
Dirección General Forestal del Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria, La Habana
2/15 Economic planning of farm forests
Göran von Malmborg
2/16 La conception polonaise de la production secondaire forestière en théorie et en pratique
2/17 El bosque como recurso natural renovable y su influencia socioeconómica
Pablo Seidler & Roberto Villaseñor
2/18 Le développement des industries forestières de l'Autriche dépend de la recherche du bois et des essences et assortiments mineurs
Edgar W.E. Mörath
2/19 Forest planning system in Korea
Han Wook Cho
2/20 The role of forestry development in national planning with particular reference to developing countries of the Mediterranean and Near East regions
2/21 Le développement forestier au Portugal
Ernesto da Silva Reis Gois
2/22 New trends in thinking in management methods of the forest
D.R. Johnston & D.Y.M. Robertson
2/23 Role of minor forest produce in planning the use of forest potentials in Pakistan
2/24 Utilisation du bois de hêtre dans la République populaire de Bulgarie
2/25 Caractéristiques du système d'aménagement des forêts en Roumanie
I. Popescu-Zeletin & Ion Mïlescu
2/26 The planning, organization and implementation of a large-scale afforestation and reforestation in the Philippines.
Jose Viado & Leonardo D. Angeles
2/27 Planning for forest industrial development in the Philippines
Cirillo A. Arellano
2/28 Resource management on the public lands
Charles H. Stoddard
2/29 Plan de desarrollo forestal
Corporación Chilena de la Madera
2/30 An increase of commercial consumption of wood and transformation of the structure of the U.S.S.R. forest fund,
Procep Vasilyevich Vasilyev
2/31 Main principles of forest economic division into zones
2/32 Forestal en el delta del Paraná para cubrir las necesidades del país
2/33 Explotación forestal, transporte comercio e industria moderera en el Ecuador
2/34 Politique forestière au Portugal
José Luiz Calheiros & Segismondo Saldanha
2/35 The forest layout in Sweden
2/36 Forests of the future and a program of their future
2/37 L'équilibre agriculture-forêt et le développement forestier dans les régions du Sud-Est belge et spécialement en Ardenne
General papers (6CFM/G/Pl)
3/1 Le rôle des associations forestières professionnelles
3/2 La politique forestière et l'opinion publique
J. de Vaissière
3/3 Public forest administration
3/4 Forestry education in a changing world
3/5 Private forestry - A review of problems
3/6 Forest administration in centrally planned economies
Zbigniew Kulczycki & Ludwik Jastrzebski
3/7 Means of rationalization in farm forestry, in pursuit of an intensified utilization of its production capacity
3/8 Forestry research
Special papers (6CFM/E/PI)
3/1 Intervención de la administración pública en los montes de propiedad privada con particular referencia al caso de España
Luis Vilaclara Mir
3/2 La ordenación de montes y la investigación en una unidad forestal en México
Roberto Mendoza Medina
3/3 Vers une politique forestière humanitaire
3/4 Coopération et développement économique forestier
3/5 Continuing education in natural resource management
R.E. McDermott, P.W. Fletcher & W.W. Mair
3/6 Les tâches de la forêt privée au sein de l'agriculture européenne
3/7 The role of trade and citizen associations in promoting forestry
Kenneth B. Pomeroy
3/8 Toward an orderly resolution of the responsibility of the Federal Government for outdoor recreation in the U.S.A.
John F. Shanklin
3/9 The developing of farm forestry in Finland
3/10 Delays in the application of research results to silvicultural practice, with special reference to the less developed countries
Harry G. Champion
3/11 The unique role of the protection forester
Kenneth A. Burkholder
3/12 The limits of governmental forestry supervision
3/13 The development of forestry schools
Domingo M. Lantican
3/14 Directives de la politique forestière italienne
3/15 Measures planned and realized by the forest owners for the improvement of timber utilization
3/16 La forêt privée - Un examen des problèmes
3/17 The evolution of forest research programs in the developing countries
M.S. Philip & J.D. Matthews
3/18 Private forestry in Britain and its problems
3/19 Une solution aux problèmes du travail en forêt an Maroc: les coopératives forestières de bûcherons
3/20 Responsibilities of a professional forestry society to the public
John R. Meyering
3/21 Protección forestal
Juan Bautista Gaillard
3/22 The influence of legislation on intensification of forestry in countries with centrally planned economies such its exemplified by the Polish People's Republic
3/23 La conservación de los bosques naturales
3/24 The role of nature conservation associations in the conservation, reactivation and rational management of forest fires
3/25 Gemmages abusifs. Un critère pour le calcul de l'indemnisation
Carlos Augusto Soares Machado
3/26 World forest service
Ruben de Mello
3/27 Forestry educational practices in the U.S.S.R.
Alexander Pimenov & Boris Ionov
3/28 Divulgation forestière
Maria Elisa Frazão Prats
3/29 Technical co-operation between the Philippine Forest Products Research Institute and foreign laboratories on forest products and research
Manuel R. Monsalud
3/30 Le boisement dans la propriété privée an Portugal
Antonio Manuel de Azevedo Gomes
3/31 Statistical thinking: An important task of forestry education
3/32 Educación e investigación forestal - ¿Dónde comenzar?
John M. Yavorsky
3/33 Education in wood science and technology in the United States
Everett L. Ellis
General papers (6CFM/G/Pl)
4/1 Forest investments from a government point of view
4/2 Special consideration of problems related to the financing of forestry and forest industries in developing countries
4/3 Forest investments from the landowner's point of view
Karl Erik Onnesjo
4/4 Forest investment from industry's point of view
4/5 Banker's view on financing the development of forestry and the forest industries
4/6 Some considerations relating to investments in forestry
4/7 Financial planning for the construction of wood products mills
4/8 The financial implications of world timber trends
FAO Forest Economics Branch
4/9 International forest financing²
P. Marc Henry² Not submitted to consideration of the Congress.
4/10 Les investissements forestiers du point de vue du gouvernement
Special papers (6CFM/E/Pl)
4/1 Are public promotional measures for forestry justified and necessary?
Count von Westphalen
4/2 Problems of industrial development in tropical forest regions
4/3 El crédito forestal en la República Argentina
Italo A. Taccari
4/4 Instituciones de Ahorro para el financiamiento de planes de repoblación forestal - Sociedades de reforestación y ahorro
Rolando Garrido Paulet
4/5 FAO's new program to assist industry investment in developing countries
Alexander Gunther Friedrich
4/6 The role of a large-scale wood products installation in a developing economy
Paul M. Levine
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
I/1 Physiological implications in afforestation
Theod. T. Kozlowski
I/2 Afforestation techniques for difficult sites - Wetlands
Roger Lines & S.A. Neustein
I/3 Afforestation methods for difficult sites
I/4 Tree improvement and economics; A neglected interrelationship
I/5 Tree breeding for pest resistance
Robert Z. Callaham
I/6 Les facteurs économiques dans le choix d'une méthode d'amélioration
I/7 Afforestation techniques for difficult sites: and areas
M. Kolar, R. Karschon & J. Kaplan
I/8 La culture accélérée des arbres forestiers
I/9 Tree improvement in developing countries:
I/10 The planning, organization and implementation of a large-scale afforestation program in Ontario, Canada. Criteria, objectives, problems, solutions
I/11 Les techniques pour l'évaluation du potentiel de la station dans des climats tempérés
I/12 La, organización de un programa nacional de repoblación forestal
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
I/1 Afforestation in the Hawaiian islands
Lester W. Bryan
I/2 Essentials of a tree improvement program for developing countries with special reference to fast grown species for industrial plantations in the tropics
I/3 Growing process and wood properties of different ecotypes of larch
I/4 Duff - A lethal seedbed for overwintering Engelmann spruce seed
T.W. Daniel & Dr. Gerhard Glatzel
I/5 Cross- and self-incompatibility and natural selfing in yellow poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera L.
Kingsley A. Taft, Jr.
I/6 The problem of a probit measure and index of the potential productive capacity of forest land
I/7 Growth rates of introduced trees of Hawaii
Russel K. LeBarron & Nobuo Honda
I/8 Quantitative techniques for relating site conditions to the productivity of certain conifers
in North Wales
D. Kinloch & G. Page
I/9 The afforestation of blanket bog areas in the British Isles
I/10 Intra-specific hybridization in tulip poplar
Gerald R. Stairs & James Wilcox
I/11 Genetic population differences and stocking density in regeneration
I/12 Some cytological and morphological evidences of X Pinus rigida radiata
I/13 Some physiological implications of anti-transpirants
I/14 Root growth characteristics of coniferous nursery stock related to field survival
Edward C. Stone
I/15 Seed collection zones for Douglas fir in Canada
Philip G. Haddock & Dr. Oscar Sziklai
I/16 Variation in drought resistance of young gymnosperm seedlings
I/17 Estado nutritivo de diversas repoblaciones forestales de coníferas en la España semiárida
F. Velasco & J.M. Albareda
I/18 Discontinuity in reforestation in practice and in research
I/19 Resistencia a las heladas invernales de forestales jóvenes cultivados en la zona Norte irrigada, de Mendoza
Julio Cesar Burgos
I/20 Repoblaciones de crecimiento rápido en la cornisa cantábrica y Noroeste de España
José Javier Nicolás Isasa
I/21 The potential role of haploid sporophytes in forest genetics research
Reinhard F. Stettler
I/22 Survival, growth and chlorosis of conifers planted on acidic and alkaline soils on hillsides in southwestern Wisconsin
Joseph H. Stoeckeler
I/23 Estudios sobre la impermeabilidad de la semilla de Gleditschia triacanthos L.
Héctor Martínez Martínez
I/24 Polyethylene tube applied to nursery and reforestation practice
Peter L. F. Peng
I/25 El conocimiento de la productividad de un suelo forestal per medio de experiencias limitadas
Salvador Bara Temes
I/26 Simplified determination of site quality by means of basal area and diameter
I/27 Utilización del eucalipto come género de repoblación con especial atención a las especies productoras de aceites esenciales
Gaspar de la Lama Gutiérrez
I/28 Mecanización en las repoblaciones, especialmente en las de eucalipto
José Maria Andreo Rubio
I/29 Comportamiento racial del Pinus pinaster en el noroeste de España
I/30 The evolution of' a plantation technique for Callitris intratropica in the Northern Territory of Australia
I/31 Experiments on the physiological differentiation of tree species and forest plants and their importance for the afforestation of different sites
Dr. H. Schmidt-Vogt
I/32 Début de l'expérimentation en montagne du peuplier et du saule en Italie
I/33 Effect of altitudes and light-intensities on the growth of seedlings of Taiwania
I/34 Un intento de aplicación de los bioclimatogramas a las repoblaciones de Pinus pinaster, sol., en España
José Luis Montero de Burgos & Gabriel Catalán Bachiller
I/35 The genetic improvement of Pinus radiata in Australia
I/36 Effects of gibberellin on germination of seed of some important conifers in Taiwan
Tze-Ting Wang & Chia-Tsang Liu
I/37 Experiences with Pinus contorta in the Republic of Ireland
I/38 L'approvisionnement des graines forestières et le contrôle de leur origine
I/39 Grafting umbrella pine in the open
I/40 Anatomical investigations on pine grafts
I/41 Problems of tree improvement near the Arctic and the alpine tree lines
I/42 Algunos estudios y experiencias realizados con Pinus caribaea Morelet en Cuba
A. Betancourt Barroso
I/43 Técnica en el manejo do viveros forestales empleada en Cuba
Vicente Díaz Serrano
I/44 Plantaciones forestales en Cuba
José R. Gómez Ricaño
I/45 L'élevage en mottes préfabriquées des plants forestiers an Maroc
R. Dureuil & J. Claudot
I/46 Herbicides for weed control in forest and windbreak tree plantations
Walter T. Bagley
I/47 Afforestation in the coastal districts of Norway
I/48 Physiology-of dormancy in woody plants
I/49 Expérimentation du Populus tremula L. en Italie
I/50 Observations sur quelques descendances italiennes du pin d'Alep
I/51 Observations sur la germination de quelques eucalyptus de montagne
I/52 Observations préliminaires sur la culture des semis en bandes surélevées et on godets «fertil»
I/53 The absorption of phosphate in Eucalyptus trabutii
I/54 Introduction of Pinus pinaster into Western Australia
I/55 The choice of spacing in poplar plantations in relation to environment factors
I/56 Three applications of diallel patterns to tree breeding in Zambia
J. Burley, P.M. Burrows & E.N.G. Cooling
I/57 The application of biochemical test to the seeds of some Turkish forest tree species
I/58 Reafforestation experiences with rapid hand planting methods
I/59 Comportamiento del Pinus thumbergii en la costa Atlántica-Miramar
Raúl A. Espil
I/60 Aspectos que alientan el desarrollo de un programa de mejoramiento y repoblación forestal en la Provincia del Chaco (Argentina)
César R. Lombardi
I/61 Pinus caribaea plantations in Surinam
I/62 Role of eucalyptus as a raw material for pulp industry
I/63 Afforestation of difficult sites
T.N. Srivastava & I.M. Qureshi
I/64 Aspects concernant la culture des peupliers euraméricains et du saule blanc dans la plaine alluviale du Danube
Clonaru Alexandru, Nicovescu Horia, Oczkay Susana & Dinca Ilie
I/65 Quelques aspects concernant le reboisement des terrains dégradés de Roumanie
E. Costin, C. Traci & C. Arghiriade
I/66 Photoperiodism in Pinus nigra seedlings
I/67 Some data on stem form and stem volume of young Caribbean pine in Surinam
P.G. de Vries
I/68 Etablissement d'une plantation de mélèze laricin dans une tourbière à sphaigne par aération
I/69 La sylviculture accélérée: l'amélioration génétique et l'augmentation de la productivité forestière an Portugal
Domingos Pereira Machado
I/70 Selection of the main forest forming tree species in the Ukraine
I/71 Mechanization of reforestation operations in plain forests of the U.S.S.R.
Grigoryi Larukhin & Mikhail Albyakov
I/72 Mechanized afforestation of mountain slopes in the U.S.S.R.
I/73 Physiological bases and afforestation in the moist-tropical zone
Andrei Yatsenko-Khmelevsky & N. Baidalina
I/74 Forest regeneration in the U.S.S.R.
I/75 Improvement of seed of exotic forest trees for use in Zambia
I/76 Soil survey and site selection in Zambia
I/77 Vers une production en masse de plants génétiquement améliorés de Pinus radiata par bouturage sous brouillard artificiel
I/78 La spiralisation des racines dans l'élevage des plants en pépinière - Conséquences et remèdes
H. Hafsia & A. Franclet
I/79 Recent highlights of tree breeding in Queensland
M.U. Slee & J.J. Reilly
I/80 Quelques considérations sur l'adaptation de la sylviculture accélérée an développement économique portugais
Domingos Pereira Machado & Vasco Albuquerque Quintanilha
I/81 Cambial activity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn: The relation to extension growth in young saplings
Y. Waisel, Ilana Noah & A. Fahn
I/82 A review of afforestation experience in Ireland
I/83 Basal area of E. saligna in cerrado soils of the State of São Paulo
Helladio do Amaral Mello, F. Pimentel Gomes, C. Pimpílio de Abreu, A. Silveira Alves, J. Walter Simoes & R.A. Guedes Pereira
I/84 Improvement of exotic pine seed sources in Rhodesia
F.B. Armitage & R.D. Barnes
I/85 Estimating biological productivity of forests on the basis of ecological factors, climatic and edaphic-evolving of an index of productivity
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
II/1 Detection and control of forest fires: Recent developments in techniques and research
II/2 Criteria governing control of forest diseases and insects in the United States
II/3 Les incendies de forêts
II/4 Training, extension and international co-operation in forest disease research
II/5 The importance of forest diseases and insects and appraisal and prediction of the hazards
II/6 Procedimientos químicos de lucha contra, las plagas y enfermedades forestales
José A. Torrent
II/7 Present world situation in regard to the spread of internationally dangerous forest diseases and insects
Tecwyn Jones & J.A.S. Gibson
II/8 Protection of the forest against game
II/9 Biological control of forest pests
II/10 Protection of forest against wildlife in the tropics
II/11 Quarantine and biological background
D.H. Phillips and D. Bevan
II/12 Intelligence systems for forest fire control
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
II/1 Brooming in Scots pine in Czechoslovakia
Vlastislav Jancarik & Ctibor Blattny
II/2 Lodgepole needle miner controlled by aerial prays
George R. Struble
II/3 Plan de defensa de las comarcas forestales contra los incendios
II/4 Defensa contra los incendios forestales
II/5 Possibility of using rare earth metals for labeling forest insect pests in spreading experiments
Else Jahn & Norbert Weidinger
II/6 Disease resistance of poplars - Problems, aims, tasks
II/7 Les dégâts du gibier et la lutte contre eux en Autriche
II/8 Smoke damages in Austria
II/9 A co-operative research project on Sirex noctilio
II/10 Calculations on forest fire spread by flame radiation
C.E. Van Wagner
II/11 Damage done by the root-rot fungus, Fomitopsis annosa (Fr.) Karst, particularly to Scots pine stands in Finland
II/12 The position of prevention of damage caused by game in West Germany
II/13 The fire control problem and fire research in Australia
II/14 Community effect of biological control in mixed stands
II/15 Protección forestal, continental sudamericana
Santiago Herrera Autter
II/16 Resistencia a la Phytophthora cambivora y Ph. cinnamomi de, algunas variedades de castaños
II/17 Essais de lutte chimique contre Paranthrene tabaniformis Rott. attaquant le peuplier
E. De Bellis & B. Cavalcaselle
II/18 Recent developments in fuel reduction by burning in Victorian forests
II/19 Protection de la forêt - Assurance - Incendies des forêts
António Jose Bello Dias
II/20 The economic importance of the main diseases in the Portuguese forests
Natalina F.S. De Azevedo
II/21 The pathogeniticity and persistence of Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx. in Pinus radiata D. Don
G.C. Marks, R.J. Grose & G. Minko
II/22 Protection des arbres dans les agglomérations dégâts causés par le gaz de ville aux platanes
II/23 La forêt et le gibier
J. Lochman, V. Hanus & M. Ribal
II/24 Les dégâts causés par les exhalaisons industrielles dans l'exploitation forestière de la République socialiste tchécoslovaque
II/25 Inspección de productos forestales en puertos y fronteras de España
II/26 Estudio objetivo del grupo formica rufa en España
II/27 Los encinares y sus tratamientos sanitarios
II/28 Tratamiento contra los perforadores del chose Cryptorrynchus lapathi L. y Saperda carcharias L. mediante el combate de los images
II/29 Depósito y persistencia de insecticidas aplicados per espolvoreo
II/30 Campañas de erradicación de la "procesionaria del pino" Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff
II/31 Enemigos naturales de la Lymantria diaper L. en España
II/32 Epizootias bacterianas provocadas artificialmente sobre Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff Adolfo Rupérez
II/33 Estudio sobre la biología y tratamientos del Pissodes validirostris Gyll Pedro Bachiller
II/34 Importancia de Melanophila picta Pall. y su combate
José Fernando Astiaso Gallart
II/35 La Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff en España
II/36 Recherches sur l'écologie, la biologic et la physiologic de Capnodis miliaris Klug., coléoptère Buprestidae parasite spécifique du peuplier des régions arides
II/37 The most important forest pest in Greece
II/38 Chalgoza cone borers in Zhob Agency, West Pakistan
Ghulam Ullah Chaudhry & M. Anwar Cheema
II/39 Contribution à la prognose des principaux défoliateurs des forêts de feuillus de Roumanie
II/40 Invasions d'insectes nuisibles aux forêts de chêne-liège et de, chêne-vert
Carlos David Serrão Nogueira
II/41 Protection des forêts - moyens de lutte contre la chenille processionnaire
Maria Teresa Cabral, Fernanda Coelho Heitor & Maria de Lourdes Figo
II/42 Some regularities in fire concentration and spread in the Taiga
II/43 The activity of the Entomology Department
Francisco Azevedo e Silva
II/44 Forest insects in Israel
II/45 Destruction of Acalla undula in forests of Turkey
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
III/1 Why are forest trees planted in and zones?
III/2 Evolution et tendances dans les techniques sylvicoles appliquées aux peuplements forestiers autochtones
III/3 Los tratamientos silvícolas de los bosques vírgenes en climas templados y tropicales. Regeneración conservadora frente a la instalación de plantaciones industriales
Rodolfo Rodríguez Caballero
III/4 Management of man-made forests and industrial plantations: Problems and solutions
III/5 Silvicultural treatment of virgin forests under tropical climates
III/6 Application of scientific discoveries and modern technologies in silviculture
III/7 Silviculture in farm forests
III/8 Silvicultural trends in classical forest management
III/9 Silvicultural systems for rural populations - Farm woodlots and village forests
Carl E. Ostrom
III/10 The management of man-made forests and industrial plantations: Problems and solutions
Department of Forestry, Government of South Africa
III/11 Comparative analysis of costs and benefits of the various systems of silvicultural management
Henry H. Webster & Robert J. Marty
III/12 Management of industrial pine plantations in the southern United States: Problems and solutions
Donald D. Stevenson
III/13 Le problème de la conservation de la fertilité des sols sous monoculture de résineux
III/14 The use of electronic digital computers in forest research and management: The new generation
III/15 Degree of precision in estimates and inventories
III/16 Utilization of radio-isotopes in forestry research
D.A. Fraser & E.E. Gaertner
III/17 Forest productivity increase
III/18 Forêts nourricières A fourrage et à fruits - leurs possibilités et limitations dans les pays arides et semi-arides méditerranéens et du Proche. et Moyen-Orient
III/19 Comparative analysis of costs and benefits of the various systems of silvicultural management Dietrich Mülder
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
III/1 Identifying forest vegetation on aerial photographs
T. Eugene Avery
III/2 La provincia de Misiones: Una región subtropical argentina con singulares caracteres forestales
III/3 A watershed approach to problems of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems
F.H. Bormann & G.E. Likens
III/4 Basal area-mean. tree method in the Finnish national forest inventory
III/5 Studies of crown development are improving Canadian forest management
J. Harry G. Smith
III/6 Traitement des futaies de hêtres du sud de la Belgique en vue de l'obtention de peuplements jardinés
III/7 The mechanic solution of regression problems with the B-A-I instrument
III/8 The multilingual terminology project in forestry
III/9 Aspects of world forestry documentation with particular reference to the work of the Commonwealth
III/10 Responses to silvicultural treatment - Northern hardwoods type - Five years after treatment
C.E. Farnsworth & J.W. Barrett
III/11 Studies of the mineral nutrition of Canadian pulpwood species
III/12. Est-il avantageux dans la sylviculture de labourer toujours le sol?
III/13 Forest yield for different intensity of stand treatment
III/14 Industrial plantation of bamboo in India
III/15 Cruising timber without volume tables
George B. Hartman
III/16 Prescribed yield from previously unmanaged indigenous forests
K.P. McGrath. & L.T. Carron
III/17 Progresos en la mejora de pastos forestales en Galicia
Julián de Zulueta y Artaloytia
III/18 Las choperas en España
Fernando Jaime Fanlo
III/19 Mejora y regulación del pastoreo en los pastizales húmedos de Castilla la Vieja
José Antonio Canals Navarrete
III/20 Primer inventario forestal nacional
José Maria Cervera Ibáñez
III/21 La mecanización de algunos trabajos forestales Jesús Molina Rodríguez & José Manuel
III/22 Evolución y tendencias actuales de la silvicultura española
José María de Abreu y Pidal
III/23 Encinares de Extremadura
Luis Romero Candau
III/24 Los espartizales en España: sus problemas económicos
Juan de Verástegui y Bellsolá
III/25 The Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) in lower Austria
III/26 The contribution of silvicultural techniques in the improvement of Yugoslavia's forest fund
III/27 El cedro rojo en los bosques de México
Porfirio Cuanalo. Guevara
III/28 Nueva forcípula de contacto
Francisco Gómez Gallardo y Rodolfo Carretero Carrero
III/29 The use of nitrogenous fertilizer with Douglas fir
Stanley P. Gessel
III/30 Comprehensive tariff tables of tree volume and log-position volume
III/31 La relation entre le nombre de tiges à l'hectare et leur diamètre moyen aux divers Ages, en futaie pleine
III/32 Ordenación y silvicultura intensiva en los montes de Pinus pinea L. en Valladolid
Federico Baudín Sánchez
III/33 Determinación del período regulatorio en masas coetáneas procedentes de repoblaciones artificiales para su transformación en montes altos regulares
Emilio Estéban Justo
III/34 Fertilisers in British forestry - Current practice and future prospects
W. O. Binns
III/35 Crop stability assessments in man-made forests
A.I. Fraser & P.G. Pyatt
III/36 Nutrient cycles in a semi-natural oak woodland in a high rainfall area in northwestern Britain
A. Carlisle, A.H.F. Brown & E.J. White
III/37 La transformation des taillis pauvres en futaies régulières par plantation
Mako Dakov, Jordan Petkov & D. Garelkov
III/38 La producción de las masas de eucalyptus globulus en el norte de España
Alfonso Pita Carpenter
III/39 On the efficiency of some methods of forest survey
III/40 Minimizing experimental error in thinning research
III/41 Ecological research in changing forests of wilderness areas
Clifford E. Ahlgren
III/42 La destrucción de los bosques se debe al descuido en su regeneración
José Verduzco Gutiérrez
III/43 Proposed silvicultural practices to be used in harvesting merchantable timber on commercial forest lands in the western United States administered by the Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior
James W. Watts
III/44 Total interpretation in relation to broad leaved evergreen forest
John A. Howard
III/45 Application de la typologie forestière dans l'organisation de la production forestière dans la République populaire de Bulgarie
M. Marinov, S. Nedjalkov and Z. Naoumov
III/46 La transformación del bosque valdiviano virgen a bosques económicos
Friedrich Reinhold Künz
III/47 Análisis del incremento, edades y regeneración natural en las zonas de pinus de Cuba
Eliseo Matos González
III/48 Influences des conditions édaphoclimatiques hivernales sur le, type, la répartition et la, stabilité de certaines forêts naturelles du Maroc
III/49 A quantitative approach to the relationship between growth conditions and wood properties in Sitka spruce
G.K. Elliott & S.E.G. Brook
III/50 Comparative analysis of costs and benefits of the various systems of silvicultural management
III/51 The formation of teak plantations by the group planting system
III/52 Pinus radiata and its relations with the microbial conditions of the soil
III/53 La décomposition de la litière de peuplier dans le sol
III/54 Cultivo, utilización y fitotecnia de sauces en la República Argentina
Arturo E. Ragonese & Florentino Rial Alberti
III/55 Comportamiento del "pino oregón" en la Isla Victoria
Italo N. Costantino & Pablo Cassani
III/56 A silvicultural treatment of a tropical virgin forest in the Philippines for sustained yield management, with special reference to the operations of the Bislig Bay Lumber Company
Eulogio T. Tagudar
III/57 Influence de la fertilisation sur les propriétés physiques et mécaniques du bois de pin maritime
Manuel P. Ferreirinha & Tomás J. E. Mateus
III/58 The need for fertilizers in wood production
T. Ewald Maki
III/59 Quelques notes sur le développement radiculaire et aérien du chêne-liège pendant la phase juvénile
Carlos Alberto de Paixao Correia
III/60 Cartographie écologique et aménagement forestier: dix années d'application
III/61 Production forecasting and control
III/62 Criteria for managing the high forests of the villages in the region Trentino-Alto Adige
E. Ferrari & B. Hellrigl
III/63 Status and views of forest species rapid growth in Sardinia
III/64 Effect of ionizing radiation on the reproductive capacity of a pine-oak forest
III/65 Méthode par coefficients naturels pour l'étude de la structure et de l'accroissement des peuplements
III/66 Estado nutritivo y crecimiento de plantaciones de pinus en España
H. W. Zöttl
III/67 Le traitement des taillis de chêne et de hêtre en taillis simples et en futaies sur souches - leur conversion en futaie en Grèce
III/68 Relationship between height increment in Scots pine and atmospheric precipitation amount
S. Ostrowski & M. Kreutzinger
III/69 Mountainous forests of the U.S.S.R.: their utilization and reproduction
Vasilji Zacharovich Gulisashvili
III/70 Forests of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the increase of their productivity
Ivan Danilovich Iurkevich & Victor Stepanovich Heltman
III/71 Notes sur le greffage du Pinus pinaster Ait. au Portugal
Margarida d'Alpuim & Fernando Pessoa
III/72 Relations sol-végétation en fort déséquilibre. Cas du Pinus pinaster en sables avec du calcaire
Arlinda Franco Leal de Oliveira
III/73 Le châtaignier et sa valorisation par amélioration comme essence forestière
Columbano Taveira Fernandes
III/74 Fuelwood forest establishment. for the solution of the problem. of rural fuel supplies in Korea
Sung Yoon Lee
III/75 Evolution and trends in silvicultural techniques applied to natural forests in the Philippines
J.T. Utleg & Martin R. Reyes
III/76 Forest fertilization in North America
Laurence C. Walker
III/77 Statement of the growth pattern of forest plants with help of a computer
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
IV/1 Problems of logging in tree plantations - Thinning, final cutting, planning, infrastructure and equipment
IV/2 Recovery of logging waste and. harvesting of small-size wood
IV/3 Mechanization of traditional logging
IV/4 La mécanisation et les dimensions de l'exploitation: leur corrélation avec les méthodes de gestion
IV/5 The influence of mechanization on harvesting and transportation methods
IV/6 La mécanisation des exploitations forestières traditionnelles dans la forêt tropicale - résultats et possibilités d'avenir
Jean Le Ray
IV/7 The relationship between the mechanization and the size of the logging forest enterprise and the forest working plan
IV/8 Mechanization of traditional logging in temperate forests: results and future possibilities
IV/9 Theoretical principles of mechanization and automation of logging and forestry
Sergei Orlov & Lev Roos
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
IV/1 World forestry based on the complete tree concept
Harold E. Young
IV/2 Mecanización de la explotación forestal en España
José Maria Rubio Mazón
IV/3 The present phase of development of mechanical barking
IV/4 Time of use, running time and time of effective running of the power saw
IV/5 Le débardage des petits bois en Belgique
IV/6 The planning and organization of felling and transport operations in a Philippine forest
Arthur C. Balch
IV/7 Ensayos de caminos forestales afirmados por estabilización con cloruro cálcico en la provincia de Vizcaya
Miguel Villar Ortiz de Urbina
IV/8 Compositions granulométriques des empierrements de Chaussée
IV/9 Investigations in Finland concerning small sized wood
IV/10 Harvesting and utilization of small-sized wood from tending cuts in Poland
F. Budniak, K. Czereyski & E. Ilmurzynski
IV/11 The economic aspects of logging operations with respect to the road system in Alto Adige
IV/12 Installations de câbles aériens pour le débardage du bois dans les Carpates de Roumanie
G. Muresan, V. Chiribãu, I. Visoianu, Gh. Cerchez & I. Stan
IV/13 Abattage, façonnage et débardage du matériel de petite dimension des taillis
IV/14 Timber harvesting in the U.S.S.R.
IV/15 Sur la mécanisation de l'exploitation forestière
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
V/1 La formation des ouvriers forestiers
M. L. Badré
V/2 Safety and health of forest workers
V/3 Training of forest workers
V/4 The implication of mechanization on forest employment problems in developing countries: the law of discontinuous evolution
V/5 Evolución de la oferta y la demanda de empleo en trabajos forestales
V/6 Work hygienics in forest operation
V/7 Some aspects of employment in relation to the mechanization of forestry work in developing countries
V/8 The changing pattern of employment in forestry
International Labour Office, Geneva
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
V/1 Analysis and organization of labor in forestry
V/2 La formación de capataces forestales en España
Carlos Valencia Vázquez
V/3 Safety for sure in the forest
V/4 Training of forest workers in Austria
V/5 The entrance tests in the training of forest work instructors
V/6 Sécurité et protection de la santé dans les exploitations forestières tchécoslovaques
K. H. Cermák
V/7 Une tentative de formation des ouvriers forestiers en France
V/8 Vocational training for forest workers
International Labour Office, Geneva
General papers (6CEM/G/C.T.)
VI/1 Tenurial consideration in tropical forestry: the evolution of "foresthold" tenures
VI/2 Influencia de las tendencias mundiales sobre las políticas forestales tropicales en América Latina
VI/3 The impact of world trends on tropical forest policy in Asia
VI/4 Marketing and utilization of tropical forest products
F. Bruce Lamb
VI/5 The dependence of the world on the tropics
VI/6 Land capacity classification and land use planning with special reference to tropical regions
VI/7 Choice of species in the tropics in relation to world trends
Frederick F. Wangaard
VI/8 Les progrès récents dans le domaine de la sylviculture tropicale
VI/9 Forest resources of the tropical world
Frank H. Wadsworth
VI/10 La colonización de regiones húmedas en América Latina y sus implicaciones forestales
VI/11 The impact of world trends on tropical forestry policies in Africa
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
VI/1 Restrictive and incentive control of shifting cultivation
William L. Webb
VI/2 The role of land-use planning and zoning in protecting forest land resources
VI/3 Regeneration practices in the high forests of Nigeria
VI/4 Evaluating timber industry prospects in a tropical rain forest
Richard C. Wilson
VI/5 The Philippine forest resources: their fuller utilization in relation to world trends
Manuel R. Monsalud & Domingo Lantican
VI/6 Some forestry problems peculiar to tropical countries with special reference to the Asia Pacific region
VI/7 Some remarks on the natural regeneration of tropical rain forest, with special reference to a method newly applied in Surinam
VI/8 Utilisation de l'Acacia albida dans la régénération des sols en zones tropicales arides
Pierre Louis Giffard
VI/9 Go south
D. Heinsdijk & C.P. van Goor
VI/10 Some development problems of tropical savannas
VI/11 Du choix des essences et des méthodes de reboisement industriel en Côte-d'Ivoire
G. de la Mensbruge
VI/12 The lower Brazilian Amazon in the role as a source of wood products
Jean Dubois, P.H. Hallewas & O.H. Knowles
VI/13 Elección de especies coníferas para repoblaciones forestales de regiones tropicales y subtropicales húmedas
VI/14 Land capacity classification and land use planning in the Chittagong hill tracts of East Pakistan
William E. Webb
VI/15 La forêt équatoriale congolaise, son importance pour le centre de l'Afrique, et quelques aspects de la sylviculture tropicale
VI/16 Land use policy vis-à-vis forestry schemes in developing countries in the tropics. An extension of the concept of multiple use in forestry
VI/17 Industrialización de algunas especies de palmeras en los bosques tropicales del Perú
General papers (6CFG/G/C.T.)
VII/1 Wood quality and cost requirements for forest industries - Dissolving pulp
VII/2 Les qualités des bois et les investissements requis pour les industries du placage, du contre-plaqué, des panneaux de fibres et des panneaux de particules
VII/3 Presente y futuro de la industria de la resina: Sus dificultades presentes y posibles medios para resolverlas
Fernando Nájera y Angulo
VII/4 Wood quality and cost requirements for forest industries - Recent trend of pulpwood utilization in Japan
VII/5 Wood quality and cost requirements for forest industries: cultural and industrial papers
VII/6 Problèmes actuels de l'industrie du liège an Portugal: ses perspectives de développement
José Luis Calheiros e Meneses
VII/7 Raw material requirements for the manufacture of veneer plywood and blockboard in the light of recent technical developments
VII/8 Les possibilités d'utilisation des bois de qualité inférieure par autoagglomération
R. Antoine & P. André
VII/9 Les perspectives de l'utilisation du bois de qualité inférieure
VII/10 Trends in development of hydrolysis industries on base of wood wastes utilization
VII/11 I Problems of complex chemical utilization of forest raw material resources dealt with in the works of Latvian scientists
Arvid Ivanovich Kalnins
VII/12 Improvements in the utilization of lower quality wood
Herbert O. Fleischer
VII/13 Some aspects of international law concerning the use and protection of waters, with special application to forest industries
VII/14 Wood quality and cost requirements for forest industries: fibreboard and particle board
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.U.)
VII/1 Naval stores in the Philippines
Arthur B. Andersen
VII/2 Absorción, penetración y retención en la conservación de maderas por inmersión
J. Torres Juan
VII/3 Coup d'il sur l'économie des petits bois résineux et feuillus en Belgique
VII/4 Caractéristiques principales de la production mondiale de la résine de conifères et de ses dérivés
VII/5 Montes en resinación de Castilla la Vieja
Manuel María de Arana
VII/6 La celulosa en España
Luis Bustamante Espeleta & José Antonio de José Santos Viqueira
VII/7 Developments in the manufacture of laminated beams
VII/8 Variations du taux d'humidité du bois, des panneaux de fibres dures et de particules lignocellulosiques en fonction de l'état hygro-thermique de l'atmosphère
VII/9 Protection of soft wood against 'blue-stain
VII/10 The influence of defects in birth on the quantity and quality of rotary-cut veneer
VII/11 The utilization of sawmill waste
VII/12 Research on the utilization of South African grown eucalyptus timbers
D.L. Bosman & C.H. Banks
VII/13 The use of bark as raw material for board products
VII/14 Variation of some chemical constituents of wood within the stem in Populus x Euramericana dode (Guinier)
VII/15 A comparison of some methods for determining the basic density of increment cores of Euramerican poplar hybrids
VII/16 Contribución de la investigación aplicada en química forestal a la economía nacional
Tomás Rigué & José C. Tinto
VII/17 Wood characteristics of Pinus pinaster from Leiria, Portugal
VII/18 Problema futuro español de abastecimiento de madera para pasta papelera ante las posibilidades de los nuevos procesos de pasteado
José Luis Asenjo & Pedro Barbadillo
VII/19 New fiber products from wood waste and their impact on world forestry
Ben S. Bryant
VII/20 Utilisation du bois de hêtre pour la fabrication des panneaux de fibres de bois et des panneaux de particules agglomérées
VII/21 Qualité du bois de saule de la plaine alluviale et du delta du Danube et son utilisation pour la fabrication des panneaux de particules agglomérées
N. St. Dumitrescu & Gh. Badanoiu
VII/22 Pour une chimiurgie comparée en Quercus suber et Eucalyptus globulus
J. da Silva Carvalho
VII/23 Conservation of structural timber through field research in timber engineering
N.J. Masani & AX Bajaj
VII/24 Recent trends in evaluation and standardization in wood and wood products as an aid in planning for industrial development in India
VII/25 Nuevas orientaciones para la industria resinera española: normalización de sus productos y causas que la justifican
M.P. Rife Lamprecht
VII/26 Effect of the height of face, of the method and time of turpentining, and of the underwood on the resin flow on the Pinus halepensis Miller
J.C. Papaioannou & C.S. Megalophonos
VII/27 Promise of technology in the conservation and efficient utilization of wood resources, with particular reference to utilization of wood waste in Ghana
K. Kadambi & F.W. Addo-Ashong
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
VIII/1 Special significance of national parks in contributing to the economy of both developing and developed countries
VIII/2 Wildlife resources and land-use planning in East Africa and Scotland
W.J. Eggeling & J. Morton Boyd
VIII-1/3 The social and economic implications of recreation demand for national forest policies.
VIII/4 Major problems of management within national parks
VIII/5 Landscape planners: contribution to national park and forest recreational areas
VIII/6 Les repercussions sociales et économiques de la récréation sur la politique nationale forestière
VIII/7 The impact of recreation on forest lands
VIII/8 The future of forest recreation areas
Walter S. Hopkins & Wilbur F. LaPage
VIII/9 Some effects of recreation demand on forest policy and management in Great Britain
VIII/10 Principles of management in forests of green zones around populated areas of the U.S.S.R.
VIII/11 Special significance of national parks in contributing to the economy of both developed and developing countries
Neil W. Newton
VIII/12 The contribution of forestry to urbanization policies: green belts and landscape planning
VIII/13 Wildlife and man-changing values
A. Starker Leopold
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
VIII/1 Interrelationships of fur bearer management and forest management
A. de Vos
VIII/2 La ordenación del bosque en zonas de interés turístico
VIII/3 The role of the small forest park
VIII/4 The future of forest recreation areas: trees or cars or both
VIII/5 Les pares nationaux dans les pays surpeuplés: problèmes de réalisation et de protection
VIII/6 Recreation use statistics
VIII/7 Endangered species, forests and foresters
Lloyd W. Swift
VIII/8 L'élevage des rennes et la sylviculture du nord de la Suède
VIII/9 Management problems in woodland nature reserves in Great Britain,
VIII/10 The social and economic implications of recreation demand for national forest policies
VIII/11 Parques nacionales de la Argentina
Dirección General de Parques Nacionales
VIII/12 Reindeer husbandry as an example of game ranching
Taunu V. Mäki
VIII/13 The use of red deer in Highland Scotland
VIII/14 Importancia, de la fauna en el Perú relacionada con un programa de estudio y de conservación
Paul Victor Pierret
VIII/15 Integration of wild life management with indigenous forestry in Rhodesia
J.E. Wiltshire & F.B. Armitage
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
IX/1 The influence of the forest on the health of man
IX/2 Is there a dualism between the beneficial and recreational influence of the forests on the one side and its economic functions on the other side?
IX/3 Silvicultural systems for rural populations: Shelterbelts
Ralph A. Read
IX/4 The influence of shelterbelts on environment and crops
IX/5 Forest ecological influences on climate, soil, water resources and man
Herbert C. Storey
IX/6 Peculiarities of the hydrology of catchment basins and determination of the optimum forest land
IX/7 Prospects for evaluation of forest ecological influences in money terms
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
IX/1 Hidrología forestal en el Pirineo
José María Ayerbe Vallés
IX/2 Recherches comparatives sur l'influence du sapin de Douglas et du sapin sur la pédogenèse
IX/3 Shelterbelt regions in Nigeria
IX/4 Forest effect upon water conditions in some lowland catchment areas
IX/5 Des travaux de correction torrentielle Portugal: barrages en dalles de béton armé
Joao de Alveida Eliseu
IX/6 Water balance under pine plantation and natural herbaceous vegetation in the Judean
O.P. Cohen, J. Kaplan & N. Sharabani
IX/7 Quelques résultats concernant la mise en valeur des influences forestières en Roumanie
I. Popesco-Zaletin & I. Milescu
General papers (6CFM/G/C.T.)
X/1 Methodological problems in harmonizing forestry objectives: short-term and long-term objectives in the system of a planned economy
L. Hruzik & J. Jindra
X/2 Economics for forest management decisions: Capabilities and limitations
Henry J. Vaux
X/3 Ordenación de la economía forestal: la alternativa entre los bosques naturales y (las) plantaciones
X/4 Economic statistics required for policy formulation
Arnold J. Grayson
X/5 The use of economic calculations in decision making
X/6 Cost comparisons between different regions: Problems and possibilities
X/7 Accessibilité do la forêt et intensité de son aménagement
X/8 Methodology of timber trends studies in centrally planned economies
X/9 Timber trend study methods
G. Robinson Gregory
X/10 Comparative analysis of costs and revenues as - requirement of planning for progress in forestry
X/11 Standardization in forest resource surveys
X/12 The problem of varied goals in forestry
William A. Duerr
X/13 Statistical requirements for progress in forest economies and policy: production, consumption, trade and price information in economic analysis and planning
X/14 Cost analysis in logging
W.D. Bennett & H.I. Winer
X/15 Methodological problems in harmonizing forestry objectives: various forestry use objectives
X/16 Assessment of the world's forest resources
FAO Forest Economics Branch
X/17 L'élément économique dans les décisions sur l'aménagement forestier
X/18 Quelques remarques sur les statistiques nécessaires aux progrès de la politique et de l'économie forestière
X/19 Cost return analysis in forest management
Special papers (6CFM/E/C.T.)
X/1 Economic calculation and problems of the Soviet forest
X/2 Economic implications of forest size in forest management in northwest Wales
John A. Sinden
X/3 Contemporary themes in world forest economies
X/4 Optimal rotation and thinning
X/5 The possibilities of economic forest production in different types of forest, illustrated by examples from the Norwegian state forests
X/6 Les modèles de la recherche statistique des forêts dans la lumière de la politique et de la science forestière
X/7 Adequate sampling techniques in cost comparison studies
X/8 Problems and principles in national accounting for forestry in Norway
X/9 The application of linear programming to the solution of forest management problems
X/10 Emploi des méthodes mathématiques pour résoudre les problèmes de gestion dans l'exploitation forestière dans la République socialiste tchécoslovaque
It is regretted that the cover photograph chosen for Unasylva, Volume 20 (1-2), Numbers 80-81, was given the caption of another photograph which should have appeared in the same issue. The error was corrected in a later impression. The two photographs involved, with their correct captions, appear here.
The integrated mills at Aänekoski, central Finland, of Metsäliiton Selluloosa Oy. The include a sulfate pulp mill of 100,000 tons per year capacity, a sulfite pulp mill of 60,000 tons, a paper mill of 22,000 tons a board mill of 3,000 tons, a groundwood mill of 20,000 tons capacity and a chemical plant producing 6,000 tons of various derivative products. A sawmill producing 10,000 standards is also included in the complex, and in 1966 a new board mill with an annual output of 50,000 tons will be started. This company is a co-operative undertaking of Finnish forest owners (farmers), about 3,5,000 of them being shareholders. There are many other wood-processing industries owned by this co-operative group.
The integrated pulp, paper and linerboard mills of Enso-Gutzeit Oy at Kaukopää, eastern Finland. The Kaukopää Mills (not all shown in the photograph) have an aggregate annual capacity of 650,000 tons of sulfate pulp, 90,000 tons of semichemical pulp, 450,000 tons of linerboard, 100,000 tons of paper, 30,000 standards of sawn lumber, 60,060 tons of various chemical products, and 800 million kWh of electric energy. The wood is transported to the mills mainly through floating in bundles over the extensive system of lakes and rivers. The Finnish Government is the major shareholder in Enso-Gutzeit Oy, but there are also considerable private interests in the company.
PHOTO ENSO-GUTZEIT OY