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V. Activities and programs of the organization

A. Introduction
B. Department of public relations and legal affairs
C. Technical department
D. Department of fisheries
E. Department of economic and social affairs
F. Other activities
G. Interagency relations and consultations on matters of common interest
H. Technical co-operation programs
I. Program of work and budget 1966-67
J. Review of the organization's general structure

A. Introduction

145. The Conference approved in general the draft Program of Work for 1966-67 prepared by the Director-General. It had a number of recommendations and suggestions for changes of emphasis which could be accomplished within the proposed budget level, and these are listed below under the appropriate divisional or departmental headings. Similarly, the view of the Conference about the lines of development of the work in the future beyond 1967 are listed under Divisions and Departments.

B. Department of public relations and legal affairs

Public information
Legislation research
Other matters

Public information

Recommendations and Suggestions on Points Affecting the program of Work within the Approved.
Budget for the Biennium 1966-67

146. The Conference recommended that more emphasis should be given to meet the demand for information in the developing countries, taking Into consideration the worthiness of the message, plainness of language and receptiveness of the audience. It ended that the difference that existed between the problems and the information needs of developing and developed nations be clearly recognized by the Information Services of FAO, and that the material produced by them be adapted to these different needs. It further recommended that stories about field projects and development of natural resources be given prominence.

147. The Conference recommended that special care should be taken to avoid producing Information material which could be Interpreted as propaganda or self advertisement. It felt that the Organization should inform the public of both achievements and failures in FAO's field work.

148. The Conference recommended that more attention be paid to ascertaining the exact nature of the demand for Information material, advisory and training services which could be provided by FAO. In this connection, It noted that an analysis of press clippings from selected countries to be undertaken in 1966 -67 would give a more accurate assessment of the response to FAO's Information output.

149. The Conference stressed that the Council, in its forthcoming review of the Organization's information activities, should endeavor to assess their effectiveness by a review of the results achieved.

150. The Conference welcomed the proposal to decentralize the greater part of the distribution of public information material to the appropriate regional information officers. It feared, however, that a lack of adequate distribution facilities in these Regional Offices might present a severe problem, and expressed the hope that ways and means could be found to overcome this.

151. The Conference agreed to the Director-General's proposal for the publication of an FAO Magazine on the lines of the dummy submitted, and taking into account the modifications proposed in the course of the discussion in the Technical Committee on Information and Publications. It recommended that the Director-General continue and conclude negotiations with publishers and/or advertising and sales agents to reach the most favorable solution for producing regularly within the limits of the 1956-67 budget such a magazine, which should be of a high standard aimed at an opinion-forming audience both in the developing and developed countries. It further recommended that the terms of any agreement to be entered into should be considered by the Finance Committee with a view to making appropriate recommendations to the Director-General before final acceptance. It further suggested that the Magazine avoid the appearance of being engaged in self advertisement for FAO, and should be more concerned with the mobilization of effective support for the Organization's objectives and alms. The Magazine would replace the present Freedom from Hunger, and Its further development would be financed through additional revenue from advertising and subscription sales, with a limited free distribution. The Conference recommended that FAO should maintain control over the contents of the Magazine, including advertising.

Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966-67

152. The Conference, noting the Increasing possibilities of reaching a wider public especially in the developing countries through radio and eventually television, recommended that this trend be reflected in future information programs.

153. The Conference discussed the role of agricultural information services in agricultural development, which had been specifically referred by the Council to the Technical Committee on Information and Publications. The Conference regarded these services as the most important aspect of the Organization's information work, and considered in particular the program of farm broadcasting as an integral part of a fuller program of assistance for the development of national information services in developing countries. It hoped that agricultural information work could be augmented, through all available means at the earliest possible date. It pointed out that the transistor set was rapidly expanding the use of radio as a means of mass communication in rural areas and remote areas where electric power was not available.

154. In considering specific ways and means of strengthening agricultural information services in developing countries, the Conference recommended that more fellowships should be provided to workers in such services, that more consultant assistance be given in the establishment of national agricultural services in these countries, that assistance should be increased to the same countries in the production of extension aids, and that consideration should be given to audiovisual aids
Including farm television in organizing broadcasting seminars.


Recommendations and Suggestions on Points Affecting the Program of Work within the Approved Budget for the Biennium 1906-67

155. The Conference noted with approval that during the 1966-67 biennium efforts would be continued to keep down the cost of Internal translation. It recommended that the experiment begun in 1964 of increasing the amount of translation performed by external translators be continued, and that the Conference should examine the whole question in 1967 in the light of a report to be prepared by the Director-General on the results of the experiment Including the questions of finance, the quality of translation and experience of other bodies with similar language problems.

156. The Conference recommended the immediate establishment within the Department of a Documentation Center. It further recommended that this Center be located in the Publications Division as it would, at first, be dealing mainly with material, produced within the Organization. At a later stage the Center should collect the results of original agricultural research in Member Countries and make those available to other Member Countries. It agreed that Us location should be reviewed after experience in Its operation had been obtained. The Conference welcomed assistance from the Special Fund in the financing of the Center, and expressed the hope that this contribution would be a continuing one.

Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966-67

157. The Conference noted that It was often necessary for Governments, particularly in countries which did not use any of the official languages, to adapt FAO publications for republication in the local language, and recommended that Governments should be asked to report on the use which they had made of the publications. Such comments should then be taken into account in preparing future publications.

158. The Conference noted that developing countries might have need of a greater quantity of free publications than was provided under the quota system, and drew attention to the desirability of examining methods of meeting this need. The Conference agreed that the quota system should be maintained, but it was suggested that consideration be given to providing additional copies chargeable to technical assistance programs outside the FAO Regular Budget.

Legislation research

Recommendation and Suggestions on Points affecting the Program of Work within the Approved Budget for the Biennium 1966-67

159. The Conference approved the emphasis put by the Legislation Research Branch on assistance to the developing countries particularly with respect to land reform and rational utilization of natural resources, including fisheries. It recommended that the Branch should ensure that all available research work carried out by other international organizations dealing with similar problems be taken advantage of.

Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966-67

160. The Conference felt that studies of land use planning, water supply, pollution and utilization, and on the establishment of recreation and nature protection areas, would benefit industrialized countries and also, with suitable adjustments, developing countries. It considered that the publication' Current Food Additives Legislation would render greater service if It could be expanded to contain all recent relevant legislation, and if the comulative index were Issued more frequently.

161. The Conference recommended that the advisory functions of the Branch be made more effective by enabling its officers to have more direct contact in the field, with EPTA and UNSF experts in particular. It requested the Director-General to consider the strengthening of the Branch to cope with Increased responsibilities in relation to the gowing importance of legislation and institutional structures as an essential part of development.


Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966-67

162. The Conference recommended that the Library be given higher priority both within the Department and the Organization, and that the Library collection should reflect FAO's interests and needs and Include an adequate proportion of material of an economic and social interest, while continuing to give due attention to technical material.

163. The Conference also recommended that the implementation of the findings of the technical comparison of professional Library gradings within the United Nations family be completed.

164. It further recommended that the Department adopt as generous a policy as possible in granting depository library status to libraries in Member Countries, and that the question of providing the regional offices with libraries be examined.

Other matters

165. The Conference requested that in future the Director-General's Program of Work and Budget should provide a clearer breakdown of expenditure between the Office of the Legal Counsel Liaison and the Off Ice of Liaison and Protocol.

C. Technical department

Office of the assistant director-general
Animal production and health
Forestry and forests products
Land and water development
Plant production and protection
Atomic energy in agriculture

Office of the assistant director-general

166. The Conference took note of and approved the activities of the Office of the Assistant Director-General, Technical Department as presented in Chapter VI A (I) of the Program of Work and Budget (document C 65/3).

Animal production and health

Recommendation and Suggestions on Points affecting the Program of Work within the Approved Budget for the Biennium 1966 -67

167. The Conference recommended that higher priority be accorded to education at all levels, and greater emphasis be placed on animal production education, as a separate discipline in higher agricultural curricula, in order to parallel work already being done in the veterinary and dairy sectors. It also recommended that possibilities of strengthening farmer education be further explored.

168. The Conference recommended that closer integration he established with other Divisions of the Organization in work on range management and on marketing.

169. The Conference stressed the importance of the preservation of germ plasm in living collections, and recommended that a conference be arranged to consider the selection and evaluation of stocks to be preserved, and means for their preservation and effective use.

170. The Conference noted that the failure of some dairy plants jointly assisted by FAO and UNICEF to achieve their objectives was attributed to lack of capital for dairy herd Improvement and expansion. It therefore recommended that multilateral and bilateral agencies be encouraged to assist in well-balanced and properly integrated programs of dairy development. In this regard, the CCP study Economic Impact of Dairy Development in Developing Countries was noted. The Conference recommended that the establishment of new milk plants should be preceded by an investigation of the availability of supplies of skimmed milk powder when such supplies were required during the initial period of development. (See also para. 338.)

171. The Conference considered that for areas with nomadic populations mobile cheese making plants needed more emphasis.

172. The Conference recommended that Immediate steps should be taken to implement the last paragraph of Resolution No. 6/63 of the Twelfth Session of the Conference relating to the control of rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

173. The Conference Up approved the draft resolution proposed by the Forty-Fourth Session of the Council on an Emergency Fund for the Control of Livestock Diseases (See para. 506, Resolution No. 35/65.)

174. The Conference requested that increased attention should be given to disease survey and control work, especially through regional and intercountry programs, particularly with regard to blue tongue, anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases, paralytic rabies in Latin America, fly control in Africa, the production of low cost polyvalent vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease, and to the development of a regional reference laboratory in India for rinderpest and rinderpest-like diseases in Asia and the Far East.

175. The Conference considered the prevention of the entry and spread of exotic diseases of vital
Importance, and therefore stressed the urgency of the work required to rationalize and harmonize sanitary regulations relating to the international movement of animals and animal products. The Conference requested the Director-General to convene the proposed session on this subject with a minimum of delay.

176. The Conference requested that the closest possible co-operation and co-ordination should be maintained with other International organizations, in particular with the International Office of Epizootics, so that duplication of effort be avoided.

177. The Conference considered that the role of wildlife in the spread of animal diseases deserved more intensive investigation. Doubts were expressed as to the practicability of commercial ranching of wildlife.

178. The Conference suggested that:

  • (a) Better balance in the use of cattle, sheep and goats should be encouraged in order to utilize fully forage production potentials.

    (b) In poultry and pig production, emphasis should be placed on the efficient utilization of by-products of industrial and food crops of agricultural industries where they are produced. Small scale poultry units to meet home consumption needs in appropriate rural areas should be encouraged.

    (c) Goat and milk sheep management should be further investigated owing to the ability of these animals to utilize marginal land for meat and milk production.

    (d) In view of the possibility for exotic breeds to improve indigenous stock, FAO should provide assistance to countries where satisfactory conditions exist in finding sources of appropriate animals and financial support for their introduction.

    (e) Many countries would benefit from the integration of animal and forage production and health protection with land and water development projects, and long-term feasibility studies should be inaugurated.

    (f) Production and marketing of livestock should be linked more closely to encourage the proper preparation of animals to meet consumer demand and the better use of slaughter by-products for both livestock and human consumption.

    (g) Problems of nomadic peoples, and means for improvement of their livestock should be studied.

    (h) Countries should be encouraged to carry out more comparative studies on animal nutrition, with particular reference to protein balances and the use of nonprotein nitrogenous material as substitutes for protein, and to exchange information among themselves and with FAO on the results obtained.

    (i) More attention should be given by FAO to the design of livestock buildings,

    (j) A worldwide list of veterinary research institutions should be prepared by FAO.

  • 179. The Conference noted the success of the Code of Principles for Milk and Milk Products, but recognized that the standards were designed for Items entering International trade, and not necessarily for those Intended for national consumption. It was suggested that the erroneous interpretations of the Code encountered by the Organization be drawn to the attention of Member Countries.

    Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966-67

    180. The Conference recommended that assignments of field experts be of sufficient duration to ensure adequate Impact on livestock development programs and training of national personnel. The
    Conference requested the Director-General to study the possibility of establishing an additional post for a regional animal production officer in the eastern zone of Latin America.

    Forestry and forests products

    181. The Conference decided that the titles of two existing working parties of the Near East Forestry Commission should become (a) Working Party on Forest Education and Research and, (b) Working Party on Watershed and Forest Range Management.

    182. In order that FAO should have advice on action necessary to Increase productivity and usefulness of the tropical forests of the world, the Conference decided to establish, within the level of the 1966-67 budget, under Article VI of the Constitution, a Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics. The Conference accordingly adopted the following resolution:

    Resolution No. 7/65

    Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics


    Recognizing the Impact which the development of forestry could have on the economic and social development of many nations in tropical areas,

    Noting that, due to numerous and complex obstacles, development has so far been only a fraction of the existing potential,

    Considering that development could be encouraged by concerted efforts of the countries interested in promoting the productivity and usefulness of tropical forests-,

    Authorizes the Director-General to:

    (a) establish under Article VI para. 2, of the Constitution, a Committee of selected Member Nations and Associate Members to be known as the FAO Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics, whose terms of reference shall be to study technical economic and social problems relating to the development of tropical forests, particularly in developing countries, having regard to production utilization and conversion aspects as well as to the marketing of forest products, and to report thereon to the Director General;

    (b) select Member Nations and Associate Members, Inviting them to appoint representatives for this Committee on the basis of their technical competence, such selection by the Director-General of Member Nations and Associate Members being effected in the light of the desirability that the Committee membership should be not less than 15 and not more than 30 members, and that Its composition should be representative of the different regions of the world, and reflect both the interests of foresters and forest industries in relation to the major types of tropical forest and forest products;

    (c) make appropriate arrangements for co-operation with interested Member Nations and Associate Members that are not members of the Committee and with other governmental and nongovernmental. agencies and organizations whose activities and programs are concerned wholly or in part with tropical forest development;

    (d) convene sessions of the Committee and of any subsidiary bodies that may be established by the Committee, on the understanding that:

    (i) expenses arising out of the participation of representatives on the Committee in the activities of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies, including attendance at sessions, shall be borne by the Member Nations and Associate Members having appointed them;

    (ii) the Director-General shall make the necessary secretariat services and facilities available to the Committee and Its subsidiary bodies.

    (Adopted 6.12.65)

    183. The Conference suggested to the Director-General that, before deciding on the selection of countries which should be invited to be represented on this Committee in accordance with the terms of the above resolution, he should consult with Member Nations and Associate Members.

    184. In this connection, the Conference recommended that the Director-General should review existing committees and working parties in this field with a view to reducing their number and avoid duplication.

    Recommendations and Suggestions on Points Affecting the program of Work within the Approved Budget for the Biennium 1966-67

    185. While great efforts would be required if the developing countries were to expand their forest industries to match their rising needs of forest products, the Conference drew the attention of Governments to the fact that care would be needed to ensure that any expert-oriented industries established corresponded to the evolving market possibilities.

    186. Hitherto, sufficient attention could not be paid by FAO to the need for market research, market intelligence and the development of suitable marketing institutions. The Conference approved the proposal to establish a new Trade and Development Section to fill this gap. It was of little use for countries to increase forest production unless outlets at fair prices were available for the produce.

    187. The Conference, having approve the establishment of a new technical Branch for Logging andTransport, further recommended the extension to other regions of the kind of successful work conducted by the European Committee on Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers (the joint body of FAO, ILO and ECE). It felt in this connection that attention should be specially given to problems of small forest holdings and small-sized timber and, in co-operation with ILO, to the training of forest workers. Due consideration should be given to the possibilities of using co-operatives as a means of service to small forestry units both in management, logging, transportation and marketing, and when measures of reforestation were required.

    188. The Conference emphasize that the possibilities of man-made forests must not blind foresters to the need for improved silviculture and management of natural forests. Each country had to decide for Itself the appropriate balance between natural forests and plantations.

    189. The Conference, having endorsed the proposed expansion of effort toward the establishment of an International forest tree Introduction program, considered that Its long-term aim should be to strengthen or create regional seed units to Identify, preserve, and make readily available superior germ plasm of forest trees of economic importance.

    190. The Conference agreed that the Third World Eucalyptus Conference planned for 1967 should be replaced by a Symposium on Man-made Forests and a Eucalyptus Study Tour which It was hoped would be held in Australia. Member Governments were urged to send representatives to these sessions.

    191. The Conference invited the Director-General to continue his efforts to interest the fertilizer Industry in forestry potentialities.

    192. The Conference careful attention to phytosanitary control measures in handling the distribution of seed and other propagating material (see also para. 232(f)).

    193. The Conference recommended to the attention of the Inter-American Committee for Agricultural Development (CIDA) that its current investigation on agricultural training facilities and needs in Latin America Include intermediate -level forestry schools. The Conference invited the Director - General to arrange, through EPTA, a study tour on shelter -belts and windbreaks for the Near East region, and to continue to assist the Forest Rangers School, Lattakia, through EPTA.

    Recommendations and on Future Trends beyond the Biennium 1966--67

    194. The Conference suggested that continued attention be given to the special problems of small forest holdings, and to the role which co-operatives could play in solving them.

    195. The Conference noted the, it had not been possible within the 1966-67 Program of Work andBudget to provide for an expansion of Headquarters staff and new status for the divisional segments concerned with work on forestry education and training, and on wildlife management and outdoor recreation. It regretted also the failure to provide outposed forestry officers for the Caribbean and Eastern Latin America subregions respectively. staff for a regional advisory group on forest industries for the Asia -Pacific region with ECAFE, and substantially larger funds for the travel of outposted regional forestry officers. The Conference hoped these matters could be corrected in future programs of work.

    196. The Conference considered that the early attention of the Director-General and of Member Governments was required for an adequate framing of FAO's Regular Program activities in forestry and forest industries. It recommended that within this program, and taking into account the considerations recorded in para. 23 of document C 65/FO/5 (Report of the Technical Committee on Forestry and Forest Products), priority should be accorded to the following (not listed by order of priority):

    (a) An expanded worldwide program for the development of tropical forests, which should encompass not only production but also extraction, utilization and marketing; the program should also emphasize the services other than timber production performed by forests in the tropics.

    (b) Forestry education and training, including the training of forest workers.

    (c) Forest fire control, the combating of pernicious forest Insects and diseases; and control of the now widespread man-caused destruction of wood resources, forest soil, and sources of water.

    (d) Wildlife management, recreation and national parks.

    (e) A substantial further expansion of work on tree seed service and germ plasm centers, on which a modest beginning was already planned for 1966-67.

    (f) A substantial strengthening of FAO's capacity to assist developing countries through forest industry survey missions and forest industry development planning services.

    (g) The place of forestry in long-term land-use planning.

    (h) Low -cost housing.

    (i) Arresting desert encroachment; systematically collecting and disseminating information on this subject.

    197. The Conference considered that all these elements were essential if FAO were to give effective help to Member Countries in adapting their national policies and programs to the rapidly changing world forest and forest products economy. The Conference further considered that this would require not only the allocation of substantial additional funds to the Organization's activities in forestry and forest industries, but also a review of the organizational structure within which these activities were conducted.

    198. The Conference invited the Director-General to take into account the foregoing considerations in preparing his Program of Work and Budget proposals for the biennium 1968-69 and biennia beyond.

    Land and water development

    Recommendations and Suggestions on Points Affecting the program of Work within the Approved Budget for the Biennium 1966-67

    199. The Conference recommended that:

    (a) High priority be accorded to education and training at all levels in all aspects of land and water development, with greater emphasis on the operational farm level and middle level technicians, Including pilot schemes for training and demonstration.

    (b) The Director-General should consider the possibility of arranging under EPTA for the establishment of a post for a regional soil fertility specialist in the East African subregion.

    (c) Rural household water supplies and livestock watering, including the importance of small surface water storages, should be given high priority.

    (d) In addition to the emphasis being placed on the engineering aspects of losses of food crops between harvesting and consumption, priority should be given to the development of rural industries for the processing of agricultural products and by-products (See also para 218(b)).

    200. The Conference invited the Director-General to consider the establishment of a Near East Land and Water Use Commission, as proposed by the Seventh FAO Regional Conference for the Near East. As an interim measure, It recommended that there be established a Near East Working Party on Land and Water Use. The Conference also recommended that an attempt be made to arrange for a regional session financed from EPTA funds or other sources.

    201. The Conference requested that:

    (a) Increased attention should be given to the study of reclamation of saline and sodic soils, drainage, and irrigated land preparation; and to rice irrigation through the International Rice Commission,

    (b) The Director-General should consider ways of expanding technical assistance to Member Countries in the fields of land-use planning and farm management.

    (c) Immediate consideration should be given to expansion of the work on problems of fertilization and reconstitution of the soil fertility potential, particularly in connection with the FFHC Fertilizer Program, especially in regions where fertilizer use was in Its infancy or nonexistent. It suggested that emphasis should be placed on the need to combine the use of fertilizers with other improvements to be made in farming techniques. In addition, it suggested that further support should be sought from the fertilizer industry.

    202. The Conference noted the plans for the Organization's participation in the International Hydrological Decade, and requested that FAO should provide the technical secretariat for the lines of action falling within its competence.

    203. The Conference considered that the proposed inventory of world water resources and their degree of development for agricultural purposes should be given special emphasis since the results would constitute a positive contribution both to the International Hydrological Decade and the Indicative World Plan.

    204. The Conference considered that in the field of use of water resources high priority should be given to simple and inexpensive techniques, giving due consideration to the many problems posed by the use of modern hydraulic equipment.

    205. The Conference noted the problems encountered in many countries in the production, procurement and distribution of fertilizers because of high prices and lack of credit, raw materials and plant equipment, and in this connection the Conference recommended that the Director-General further consider establishing a fertilizer fund or otherwise assisting in the problem. (See also para. 53.)

    Recommendations and Suggestions on Future Trends 1966-67

    206. The Conference recommended that the Director-General, in developing future programs, should consider placing more emphasis on water pollution and use of sewage effluent for irrigation, taking Into account WHO's interest in these fields.

    207. The Conference noted a proposal for establishing regional centers for research on hand equipment and on small equipment, both power and animal activated, suitable for tropical and sub tropical areas, possibly with United Nations Special Fund or other support, and recommended that when established these centers should take due account of existing structures.

    208. The Conference, recognizing the problems of harvesting, handling and processing of olives, recommended that the Director-General should consider the possibility of arranging for the establishment of an additional post for a specialist in these fields (See also para.234 (d)).

    209. The Conference requested the Director-General to consider the possibility of expanding activities in the field of fuller utilization of plant and animal by-products for stock feed.

    210. The Conference recognized the problems of tillage in irrigated land use and dry-land farming, and requested the Director-General to consider collating and disseminating information in this field.Some delegates requested that consideration be given to establishing an agricultural engineering post in the Near East region.

    211. The Conference noted the special difficulties of operating power machinery in developing countries, and requested that further study be made of problems of spare parts, adequate servicing facilities, training of skilled technicians and standardization of equipment. The Conference further requested the Director-General to see what could be done to encourage industry to develop and supply machinery adapted to conditions in arid and tropical zones. The Conference invited the Director-General to assist developing countries to obtain advice on production and procurement problems.

    212. The Conference recognized the basic value of soil surveys in agricultural development, and requested the Director-General to consider ways and means of assisting Member Governments of developing countries to establish such surveys.

    213. The Conference emphasized the importance of further work on the standardization of soil terminology and the correlation of soil classification of the world.

    214. The Conference stressed the importance of the co-ordinated development of large hydrographic catchments and international river basins, and suggested that river training and flood control should be integral parts of such projects, whenever necessary, taking into account the responsibilities of the United Nations and other organizations.

    215. The Conference considered that, in addition to activities currently planned, increased attention should be given to problems of land tenure and its influence on land management and use, and to problems connected with changes of agrarian to nonagrarian land use (See also paras. 46, 294, 333, and 383,)

    216. The Conference suggested that increased attention be given to economic aspects of soil conservation and watershed management in pilot projects, taking into account that input-output relations and feasibility studies in such projects were important preliminaries to obtaining maximum results from development investment.

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