Collaboration with the united nations international year for human rights
197. The Conference took note of document C 67/21 outlining steps being taken by the Director-General in connection with the International Year for Human Rights. It expressed its approval of these steps, noted in particular the importance of FAO's participation in the United Nations International Conference on Human Rights scheduled for April 1968, and expressed the hope that the Director-General would vigorously pursue actions to ensure both that FAO would emphasize man's right to freedom from hunger as well as the larger concerns embodied in the Universal Declaration.
198. Conference unanimously adopted the following Declaration:
International Year for Human Rights
We the Representatives of Member Nations assembled in Rome at the Fourteenth Session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;
CONSCIOUS of our responsibilities in accepting the mandate laid down in the Preamble of FAO's Constitution;
CONCERNED that, twenty years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed the right of everyone to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, hunger and malnutrition continue to take a heavy toll in human suffering and degradation in large areas of the world;
WELCOMING the designation of 1968 by the General Assembly of the United Nations as the International Year for Human Rights, thus providing a timely opportunity for reemphasizing the fundamental right of all mankind to freedom from hunger and want;
INVITING ATTENTION to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1966 which provides that the States Parties to the Covenant recognize the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger and specifies the measures to be taken by them, individually and through international co-operation, to give effect to this right;
RECOGNIZING that the primary task of this generation is to take up the challenge of eliminating hunger and want through an integrated Development of the resources of the land and the seas, and to this end, to make available much greater financial and material resources to the constructive goals of economic and social Development;
HEREBY DECLARE that the future of mankind and the peace of the world cannot be secure unless man's fundamental right to be free from hunger is universally realized; and further that the granting of this basic right will further the achievement of all other human rights defined in the Universal Declaration;
EMPHASIZE the urgent need for developing nations to intensify their efforts to mobilize their internal resources, to proceed to the necessary structural changes required to establish a stable balance between food production and population growth; for developed nations to share more generously their productive capacities and skills, and opportunities for trade; and for international organizations, voluntary agencies and humanitarian foundations to effectively concert their efforts to these ends;
REAFFIRM that, in planning to provide adequate food, clothing and shelter for the population, special attention should be given to the role of rural communities, particularly of rural youth, of women in the promotion of these plans, and to the food needs of children;
RECOGNIZE the contribution which the Second World Food Congress, now scheduled for 1969, can make to this cause by providing an opportunity to an important cross section of the world public to highlight the priorities for ensuring a more rapid rate of economic and social growth within an international framework, and
REQUEST all Member Nations of FAO to study the possibility of ratifying the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and to undertake all necessary measures to achieve man's right to freedom from hunger and want.
Plans for the second world food congress
199. The Conference discussed the plans for the Second World Food Congress in the light of the statement contained in Chapter II D of the Director-General's Program of Work and Budget for 1968-69 (C 67/3), and the proposal of the Director-General to the Forty-Ninth Session of the Council that the Congress be postponed until the early part of 1969. This postponement would permit the appropriate organs of FAO to examine the Indicative World Plan before it was presented to the Congress. The question was raised whether the Congress should not be further postponed, but it was generally agreed that, subject to review of the matter by the Director-General and the Council, it should be held during 1969 in order that the findings of the Congress could be presented to the Fifteenth Session of the FAO Conference.
200. The Conference underlined that the Indicative World Plan would be but one element of the program of the Second World Food Congress, and also that it would not be for the Congress to pass judgment on the Plan. This would be the responsibility of the Fifteenth Session of the FAO Conference. The Congress should rather concentrate on the implications of the Plan and the action which would need to be taken by governments, by industry and other groups, by individuals and by national and international organizations both in the developed and developing countries.
201. The Conference recommended that it be left to the Director-General, in consultation with the Council, to decide the time and place of the Congress. It underlined that provision should be made to ensure adequate participation from all Member Nations.
H. Skim milk powder in the world dairy economy
202. The Conference considered document 67/23 which concerned the utilization of skim milk powder in internationally assisted milk plants against the background of the world skim powder market. Delegates were satisfied with the study on the "Economic Impact of Dairy Development in Developing Countries" which gave an appraisal of the utility of milk plants, with regard to indigenous milk production and the improvement of nutritional standards.
203. Some delegates considered that the response to the questionnaires sent out by the Secretariat was inadequate for a sufficiently detailed examination of the relevant problems highlighted by the study.
204. Several delegates emphasized the importance of skim milk powder supplies to developing countries especially in stretching milk supplies for the improvement of protein intake of low income groups, and for improved utilization of plant capacity in milk schemes. Delegates stressed the necessity of promoting local milk production through improved cattle breeding, better production facilities, new milk plants and other appropriate measures. Skim milk powder would play not only an important role for improved utilization but also provide a stimulus to local milk production, until domestic milk supplies were sufficiently available.
205. The delegates considered the present situation on world markets for skim milk powder and noted that donations had declined, because of reduced production in the United States, while increased production in Europe has been matched by increased usage for livestock feeding in western Europe. The growing demand for skim milk powder in developing countries could not be met through commercial imports owing to their shortage of foreign currency. Some delegates claimed that the establishment of new milk plants in developing countries should be based on local milk production or alternatively that foreign exchange allocations for imports of skim milk powder should be assured.
206. Delegates considered various remedies to solve the present difficulties. Some delegates raised doubts as to the practical feasibility of substituting other foodstuff for skim milk powder in animal feeding, while others suggested that a study on this subject should be undertaken in collaboration with the countries concerned. Delegates suggested an expansion of World Food Program allocations of skim milk powder to milk plants associated with cattle Development projects within dairy Development schemes. Reference was also made to the desirability of channelling skim milk powder donations for welfare purposes through milk plants in order to produce low-priced toned milk. Improved organization and efficiency in the distribution of skim milk powder in developing countries would ensure more effective benefits from its provision as aid.
207. The Conference stressed that the problems of skim milk powder supplies to developing countries could not be treated separately from other dairy products. Problems of skim milk powder should be considered in the context of the critical situation on world dairy markets where inadequate supplies of skim milk powder for developing countries on special terms coincided with increased stocks of butter. The Conference noted the proposals being made in GATT for the resumption of negotiations on dairy products, and recognized that an agreement on dairy products might provide for food aid, along the lines of the International Grains Arrangement. The Conference considered that FAO should keep in close touch with GATT on this matter and that it should undertake a study of the possibilities of further utilizing all dairy products as food aid as a background to future negotiations. This study together with a report of developments in the field should be presented to the CCP at its Forty-Third Session.
I. Article XI reports
208. The Conference recalled that at its Thirteenth Session it requested the Council to: investigate the value and utility of these national reports to the work of FAO and to other Member Nations; consider the most appropriate subject matter and format of these reports as well as the most useful method of preparing, circulating and using them; and to make recommendations to the Fourteenth Session of the Conference.
209. The Conference noted that the Forty-Sixth Session of the Council referred the matter to the Program Committee, which Committee discussed at length these reports with particular reference to the above points. The detailed comments and suggestions of the Program Committee regarding the format, the timing and the distribution of these reports for the future biennia, as endorsed by the Council at its Forty-Seventh Session, were presented in document C 67/24. While the Conference noted that there were arguments for and against the submission of such reports, it agreed that they could still be useful to FAO as well as to Member Nations if they contained analytical information on the food and agricultural situation in the countries, with an appraisal of both achievements and major problems faced by each country and the manner in which attempts were being made to solve such problems.
210. Regarding the contents of these reports the Conference agreed that the reports should consist of three parts: (i) a general section reviewing the main food and agricultural developments in the countries, which should be common to all such reports; (ii) specific sections like those of the special chapters of State of Food and Agriculture, providing analytical information on one or more important subjects suggested by FAO which might be included in the next issues of SOFA or could form the subject of discussions at the next session of the Conference; (iii) finally; there should be another part containing information to be provided at the discretion of the Governments on particular problems faced by them. These might include, for example, the plan, policies and programs, priorities in planning, any change in the food/population relation, and the measures taken concerning this trend and the results or failures of these efforts, etc.
211. The Conference agreed that in future these reports should be on a two-year, instead of the present three-year, basis. The Conference also endorsed the suggestion, that each country should submit at least a first provisional report, if necessary in mimeographed or typewritten form, to FAO by 31 March of each Conference year, so as to give the Secretariat time to consider it and use any information which it might contain as a basis for writing or supplementing any of the documents which might be presented to the Conference; and also that the copies in final version should necessarily have to be distributed among Member Nations by governments themselves. Additional copies might be made available during the Conference for reference use as required by delegations.
212. The Conference noted that the Council had agreed that this procedure be followed as an experimental measure for two biennia, after which the matter should again be considered by the Conference. The Conference approved the Guideline attached to document C 67/24 subject to the following two amendments:
(a) At the end of Section I (General Review of Food and Agricultural Developments), a new sub-section E. should be inserted reading as follows:
"E. The progress and problems of foreign trade in agricultural commodities and inputs.
i. analysis of problems and changes in the volume and value of exports and imports of agricultural commodities;
ii. analysis of changes in the volume and value of exports and imports of agricultural inputs - fertilizers, pesticides, machineries, etc.
iii. summary of progress and problems."
(b) Section m should be redrafted to include in full (iii) of the Council's recommendations regarding the contents as referred to in pare. 210 above.
213. The Conference recommended that this experimental measure be followed with regard to 1967/68 biennium and that the results be reported further to its Fifteenth Session in 1969. m.