e) Group feeding
366. The Conference approved the Organization's activities in the field of group feeding and feeding of workers in industry and agriculture, and welcomed the fact that many such projects were now supported by the UNDP or the World Food Program. In view of the need in many countries to increase agricultural productivity by increasing the working capacity of agricultural workers, the Conference especially commended feeding programs for agricultural labor. As it had done at previous sessions, the Conference stressed the food and nutritional problems related to rapid urbanization and approved the studies now being undertaken by the Organization.
f) Changing emphasis in the work on nutrition
367. The Conference recommended that the major emphasis in future programs should be in the following fields:
(a) The Development of food industries with special emphasis on the provision of protein foods for human use from conventional and unconventional sources.!/ This would include work related to quality control, food standards and food additives and also the prevention of food losses.
(b) Programs to further the role of women in general in social and economic Development through home economics activities, with special emphasis on making training available for women of developing countries.
(c) Studies of food consumption and food habits to provide bases for sound food production planning and the implementation of such planning through applied nutrition and home economics extension programs.
(d) Assistance to Governments in implementing the proposals made in the paper on "Nutrition in Agriculture" (C 67/13) and training personnel in nutrition, food technology and home economics.
(e) Studies of food problems related to urbanization and industrialization and assistance to governments in developing such programs in urban and pert-urban areas.
(f) Assistance to Governments and industries in programs to improve the feeding of industrial and agricultural workers.
(g) The preparation of handbooks, manuals and other documents; the preparation of aids to mass education in food and nutrition, including audio-visual and other approaches; and the Development of means whereby they can best be made available to developing counties.
368. In view of the importance and complexity of these subjects, the Conference urged the Director-General in formulating future programs of work to ensure a careful deployment of skills and resources to these tasks.
a) Regional forestry commission
b) Administrative and institutional problems
c) Forest resources
d) Forest management
e) Forest industries
f) Wildlife management
g) Seventh world forestry congress
h) Longer-term developments
a) Regional forestry commission
369. The Conference commended to the attention of Member Governments and the Director-General the recommendations made by Regional Forestry Commissions and by the new FAO Committee on Forest Development in the Tropics at their sessions held in 1966/67.
370. The Conference felt that it was desirable for Regional Forestry Commissions to meet every two years if they were properly to discharge their functions, at times that would make it possible for their recommendations to be taken into account in the formulation of the Organization's next biennial Program of Work. However, the Director-General must be left with flexibility in regard to the timing of sessions.
b) Administrative and institutional problems
371. The Conference recommended that FAO continue working towards a systematically phased Development of forestry education institutions throughout the world, including schools for advanced studies. It noted that the studies already undertaken in this direction for Africa and the Southwest Pacific were to be extended to the Far East and Latin America. The Conference endorsed the recommendation of the FAO Advisory Committee on Forestry Education that FAO stimulate university to university relationships as a means of contributing to the Development of new forestry faculties and schools, particularly in developing countries. The Conference hoped that the Director-General would find means outside the regular program budget to help these countries to obtain the forestry literature and textbooks which they badly needed, especially for use at technical level schools. It approved the Development of methodologies to assist member countries in planning forestry education at all levels, and suited to each country's economic, social and political environment.
372. The Conference emphasized the need for the Organization to continue studies on the effect of changing technical, economic and social conditions on forestry administrative structures, not confined to broad principles only but concerned also with problems of individual countries.
c) Forest resources
373. The Conference acknowledged the value of FAO's statistical and economics publications, in particular the study "Wood - World Trends and Prospects." It recommended that the Organization pay special attention to assisting member countries to improve national statistics so that the usefulness of economic analyses could be enhanced. Increased attention should also be given to cost analyses of forest production and harvesting.
374. Considering the basic importance of forest resources inventory work for planning of forest land-use and forest industries Development, the Conference welcomed the Organization's work toward the gradual standardization of methods, classification and presentation of results. It recommended that particular attention be paid to tropical forests where specialized techniques are required; training of personnel for the work involved should be promoted.
375. The Conference stressed the importance of forest products trade Development, drawing particular attention to the need for up-to-date forest products market intelligence and for regular dissemination to member countries of information on prices, transport costs and trade flows of forest products.
d) Forest management
376. Land in many countries is being subjected to a variety of increasing pressures; to Conference recommended, therefore, that the Organization and Member Government ensure that forestry is duly considered in land-use planning and in the formulation and implementation of land-use Development projects, particularly those assisted by UNDP funds. It emphasized the desirability of adopting the watershed as the unit for rational land-use Development, to the extent possible.
377. The Conference recommended that the Organization encourage in member countries a more dynamic approach to forest management, especially in those countries where the average size of enterprises is small. New techniques, shifts in demand for forest products and rising costs made this necessary. The Conference recommended that new techniques applicable to decision-making be studied. Improved efficiency and reduced costs may in some instances result, for example, from grouping enterprises and shortening rotations. The Conference noted with approval that a training center on management statistics, operational analyses and related subjects was proposed for 1969.
378. The Conference laid importance on the potentialities of using fertilizers in forestry as an afforestation and yield promotion technique. It urged the Director-General to promote research and active programs in this field, bearing in mind that food production had the priority claim on fertilizers.
379. The Conference appreciated that farm forestry was important in many member countries. It noted that many activities of the Organization, for instance, in regard to land use planning, structural improvement of forest holdings, forest products marketing, public relations, mechanization, establishment of shelterbelts and wood lots, contributed towards solving some of the problems of small-scale forestry. The Conference requested the Director-General to pay more specific attention to farm forestry in his programs, within the available resources, and promote farm forestry in developing countries.
380. The Conference considered that the store of knowledge on logging and transport already accumulated within FAO should be disseminated more widely, in particular the information contained in the documents of the FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Working Techniques and Training of Forest Workers.
381. The Conference recommended that the Organization investigate, in collaboration with IUFRO, the possibilities of setting up research institutes, either on a regional or subregional basis, for the systematic testing of logging methods and equipment adapted to the needs of developing countries.
e) Forest industries
382. The Conference, endorsing the principle of the integrated approach to forest and forest industry Development, reaffirmed that the main responsibility at international level for work on forest industries in developing countries rested with FAO. It noted with satisfaction the already existing close collaboration between FAO and the Regional UN Economic Commissions in this context and recommended that similar close collaboration be established with other agencies concerned, particularly with UNIDO.
383. The Conference noted the establishment of the FAO Committee on Wood-Based Panel Products complementing the Organization's Advisory Committee on Pulp and Paper and requested the Director-General to explore the possibility of holding the next session of this Committee in a developing region.
384. The Conference concurred with the Organization's program in the use of wood in building and construction, recognizing the role which wood can play in the Development of low-cost housing and the direct impact that the latter can have on raising living standards.
f) Wildlife management
385. The Conference approved the establishment of a new unit to promote activities related to wildlife management, national parks and recreation, recognizing that the management of wildlife habitats is an integral part of forest land management and intimately connected with problems of rural Development planning, particularly in areas where wildlife utilization constitutes a main source of animal protein.
g) Seventh world forestry congress
386. The Conference recorded its deep gratitude to the Government of Spain for acting as host to the Sixth World Forestry Congress in 1966. It considered that World Forestry Congresses had played an important role in furthering the Development of forestry on a world-wide scale. It foresaw an even greater role for such congresses in the future.
387. The Conference considered that it would be desirable to hold the next Congress in 1972. It endorsed the recommendation of the Sixth World Forestry Congress that the Director-General of FAO make an enquiry of all governments, members of the UN, FAO or other specialized agencies, as to whether they would be prepared to host the next Congress. In the light of the replies received, the FAO Council should make the choice of host country for the Seventh Congress. An early decision was desirable.
388. The Conference hoped that the Director-General would follow up his original enquiry and seek the further views of Member Governments about the conduct and content of the next Congress. The Conference felt that it was not appropriate to define now the precise role that FAO should play in this Congress. It acknowledged the responsibilities that lay with FAO for ensuring that the views of governments were taken into account, but felt that the future host country should have flexibility in deciding on the arrangements and organization of the Congress and the extent to which it needed to call upon the expertise of FAO.
h) Longer-term developments
389. The Conference recognized that the scope of forestry continued to become more complex and that forestry problems were accentuated by contradictory trends and inconsistencies. It recommended that future programs should stress the lines of work listed below which are elaborated in the Annex to document C 67/FO/9:
- An expanded worldwide program for the Development of
- Forestry education and training;
- Forest fire prevention and control;
- Arid-zone forestry;
- Wildlife management, recreation and national parks;
- Land-use planning;
- Linking fundamental research to practice in the field;
- Tree seed services and germ plasm centers;
- Forest industry survey missions and Development planning services;
- Institutional and management problems;
- Economic and marketing problems;
- Watershed management and forest influences.
5. Economic and social affairs
a) Special commodity studies
b) Joint divisions
d) Economic analysis
e) Rural institutions and services
a) Special commodity studies
390. The Conference was informed that a joint ICO/IBRD/FAO Coffee Study had occupied much time in the 1966-67 biennium. The two major aspects of the study, undertaken at the request of ICO, were the analysis of demand and analysis of supply conditions with special reference to the problems and possibilities of diversification of agricultural production in coffee-exporting countries. Preparations had also started on a paper based on some of the lessons drawn from the study for the Second Session of UNCTAD.
391. The Conference appreciated the importance of the joint Coffee Study and other studies concerning international commodity agreements and arrangements. Some delegations asked that the Organization undertake a study on cotton in the near future if circumstances permitted. In the view of the Conference, the program of special studies should be kept as flexible as possible.
b) Joint divisions
392. The Conference expressed the wish that it be provided at future sessions with a more comprehensive report on the activities of the Joint UN Economic Commission/FAO Agriculture Divisions. It also felt that the work of these joint divisions should be discussed at FAO Regional Conferences.
393. Processed agricultural commodities. The Conference expressed support for the Organization's proposed program on processed agricultural commodities. There was some concern about the possibility of duplication of work on processing. The Conference was assured, however, that there would be a co-ordinated approach with other UN agencies as well as within the two sectors concerned, commodities and economic analysis.
394. The Conference requested the Organization to collaborate fully in the intergovernmental work on stabilization of rubber markets. Some delegations felt that FAO's work should be concentrated on commodities for which international agreements, or the removal of impediments to trade liberalization, could be envisaged.
395. The Conference considered that the Organization should continue to rely as far as possible on the independent commodity councils and study groups for basic information on commodities covered by them. At the same time, the Conference recognized that the Organization was required to undertake analysis on all commodities and had to be in a position to make its own informed judgment.
396. The Conference considered that the emphasis in the Organization's future work should lie on processed products, and on means of diversifying economies through the establishment of secondary or tertiary processing industries, rather than on the traditional raw materials. Some delegations also suggested study of the variations in comparative prices of raw materials and manufactured products as this was a major factor governing the terms of trade of developing countries. Others proposed that attention be given to the methods of determining desirable levels of national buffer stocks of commercial (non-food) crops.
397. The Conference endorsed the proposed program of work on synthetics. Competition from synthetics is increasingly affecting the agricultural sector, and continuing review and study of its impact constituted an essential element in the analysis of trends and outlook for agricultural commodities.
398. Future Commodity Work. The Conference considered that the Organization's principal function would continue to lie in providing analyses of the economic issues underlying commodity problems including those of processed products and in critical examinations of the alternative commodity policy choices. To maintain its competence and authority in commodity analysis, the Organization's basic studies should be maintained and further developed.
399. The Conference recognized that IWP work would fully occupy the sectors concerned during 1968/69, but considered that it should be possible in 1970 to undertake another trend-oriented commodity projections study reaching forward to 1980 and perhaps 1990. This would be in line with the request of the Committee on Commodity Problems for the periodic revision and updating of projections. The Conference appreciated that the substantive and administrative servicing of the Committee and its subsidiary bodies would remain a major function of the Organization.
400. The Conference considered that the Organization's staff specialized in commodity work would be increasingly absorbed in "back-stopping" functions which were already important in relation to the commodity work of UNCTAD, GATT, and autonomous councils. While at present this had to be met by adjusting the current program and re-assigning priorities, the Conference recognized that in the longer term it would necessarily encroach on the basic research activities of the Organization unless larger resources were made available, either additional or by adjustments in the programs in other parts of the Organization.
d) Economic analysis
401. The Conference considered that the 1967 issue of the State of Food and Agriculture had again proved useful, especially to developing countries. It suggested that, in order to make the data contained in it available more rapidly, a summary should be stencilled and distributed at least two months before the publication of the document itself.
402. The Conference endorsed the emphasis being given to increased agricultural inputs and gave specific support to carrying out a detailed study of problems in the marketing of fertilizers to small farmers in the developing countries and of the distributive factors effecting their use of fertilizer, and to the publication of a practical guide on fertilizer marketing.
403. The Conference endorsed the increased emphasis to be given to the economics of agricultural processing in respect to the role of these industries in agricultural and general economic Development and in respect to the marketing and planning aspects of the industry at the enterprise level. Possibilities of duplication within the Organization are already touched on in paragraph 396. The Conference was informed that the work would be effected through collaboration between several departments and divisions of the Organization. Certain projects in this field would serve a useful social purpose since they could provide protein which would otherwise because of price aspects not be easily available to those social and age groups most badly in need of it.
404. The Conference noted that another area of work to receive added attention was project formulation and appraisal, where the FAO/IBRD Co-operative Program would be collaborating. As the number of FAO Special Fund projects increased, there would need to be a considerable expansion of the Organization's continuing economic appraisal work intended to lead to greater investment in irrigation, livestock, food production resources, and other intensive agricultural programs. It was most important to participate in projects at an early stage in order to help ensure the most useful and efficient formulation of the projects, taking economic considerations into account and making possible an effective contribution to appraisal at a later stage. The Conference noted that a mimeographed text on project formulation and appraisal would soon be ready for use.
405. The Organization's training activities would be strengthened in 1968/69 by organizing intensive national courses. The inadequacy of training impeded progress not only in agriculture but in the vital related processing industries. The provision of experts and effective training in this field was essential for the formulation and appraisal of projects, especially those capable of attracting external finance.
406. The Conference requested that the implementation of the recommendation of its Thirteenth Session to the effect that the international course in agricultural planning should be placed on an annual basis. It noted that this might be possible if courses were made monolingual. The recently concluded agreement between FAO and the African Development Bank, if ratified, and similar arrangements with other regional banks, also might provide a supplementary source of funds for training courses.
407. The Conference noted that the agricultural marketing program would continue to place the main emphasis on advisory work and training and would also lead to the establishment of the two marketing commissions endorsed by its Thirteenth Session. The Conference emphasized the need for an intensification and expansion of the program on marketing organization and enterprises adapted to conditions in the developing countries.
408. Longer-Term Developments. The Conference considered that much more emphasis would have to be placed on the agricultural input sector and on agricultural planning; that the economic and planning aspects of agricultural Development projects should continue to expand; and that the Organization's responsibilities as regards project formulation and appraisal would almost certainly grow with the demand for investment in agricultural Development. Marketing and training should make an increasingly important contribution to the expansion and improvement of agricultural production.
409. The Conference urged the Organization to carry out studies on prices of agricultural machinery particularly tractors, associated and ancillary equipment, including spare parts, with a view to making arrangements with industry to stabilize and reduce their prices in the interests of agricultural production.
410. The Conference suggested that the necessary expansion of training could best be handled by the establishment of a permanent center for courses in planning, economics, statistics and marketing This institute could be financed either by FAO, or by FAO jointly with participating countries.
411. Some delegates felt that there was room for improvement in the presentation and interdivisional co-ordination of the various price statistics series issued by the Organization, and in the estimates of food production and consumption which were now presented only on a national average basis. There was need for fuller information on the effect of price policies on production and demand, in particular on the diet of the lower-income groups in developing countries. Several delegates emphasized the need to attach greater importance to local surveys and to planning and accounting at the farm, area and country level in which the farmer's various activities would be viewed as a whole.
e) Rural institutions and services
412. Education and Training The Conference expressed satisfaction with the increasing cooperation between FAO and Unesco in the literacy campaign which it hoped to see further extended.
413. The Conference drew attention to the great need for agricultural education and training of farm women who should play a vital role in rural Development in many developing countries. Group action among rural women and the sociological implications of their work to the rural community should also receive increased attention. The need for collaboration with nutritionists in this field was stressed.
414. The Conference noted the proposals for the Development of a program for rural youth, and stressed the need to provide not only technical instruction for employment opportunities but also social and cultural opportunities for the amenities of better living, if young people were to be induced to remain in rural areas. Extension services in member countries would have an increasingly important role to play in the future.
415. The Conference approved the encouragement of national and regional research programs expressly adapted to particular environments and the Organization was urged to provide leadership in research organization and co-ordination and to continue its work towards the organization of research on an ecological basis.
416. Agrarian Reform, Land Tenure and Settlement. The Conference noted with satisfaction the broad exchange of views which took place at the World Land Conference held at Rome in June 1966, and recommended that the Organization actively foster training and an increased exchange of information on agrarian reform. The Conference proposed that FAO substantially increase its efforts to assist Member Governments which wished to implement the recommendations of that meeting.
417. The Conference laid great stress on the importance of work on land tenure and settlement. It emphasized the value of land tenure improvement as an incentive to technological advance. Integrated institutional services and not merely redistribution of land were essential for the successful implementation of land reform programs. Some delegations expressed concern that land reform measures were too frequently given second place to technical improvements, the benefits of which would not become apparent in the absence of a proper agrarian structure. Examples were cited by delegates of the excellent improvement of agricultural productivity by proper agrarian structure and land settlement measures.
418. The Conference recommended that the work in this field should be further strengthened when funds permitted.
419. The Conference endorsed the recommendation of the 8th FAO Regional Conference for the Near East held in Khartoum in 1967 that a Near East Seminar on Land Settlement and Reform should be convened and urged the Director-General to give priority to this matter.
420. Co-operatives. The Conference attached considerable importance to the promotion of popular participation in self-help organizations including co-operatives and farmers' organizations among rural populations, and recommended collaboration in this area with organizations such as the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) and the Afro-Asian Rural Reconstruction Organization (AARRO). It urged the Director-General to stimulate the interchange of information between member countries, and also undertake a comparative study on the subject.
421. The Conference urged the Director-General to investigate the possibilities of joint action involving FAO, ICA, IFAP and, possibly, ILO with the objective of co-ordinating and improving the availability of technical assistance and financial aid to agricultural co-operatives and co-operative processing in developing countries. It further asked the Director-General to undertake a study on guarantee funds for agricultural credit.
422. The Conference asked the Director-General to investigate the possibility of UNDP financing of regional or interregional training centres or seminars on co-operatives, credit and agrarian structure.
423. Administrative Organization. Stressing the importance of improving the organization and administration of agricultural ministries and Development agencies, the Conference recommenced the Organization to increase its efforts to assist Member Governments in arranging for national and international seminars and training courses on Development administration.
424. Future Lines of Activity. The Conference emphasized the pre-eminent importance of work on the Development of human resources in the general orientation of the programs of FAO. This aspect had particular relevance to the successful planning and implementation of rural Development projects. The Conference endorsed the continuation of a comprehensive and integrated approach to the broad institutional field as a necessary pre-requisite to agricultural Development. Given the inadequacy of national resources for a nation-wide approach, the Conference suggested that comprehensive and integrated projects should be implemented in selected, promising areas with proper manning, timing and financing and with consideration for the local environment. It recommended that all or most Development projects should be organized on a comprehensive and integrated basis. The Conference emphasized the importance of rural sociology in this context and urged that as circumstances permitted further strengthening should be accorded this sector so that a proper understanding might be attained of the traditional and cultural factors and human attitudes and approaches contributing to rural Development problems. The Conference emphasized that technical improvements would make little impact unless they were supported by concurrent improvements in institutions and human resources, man being in fact the prime mover of progress.
425. The Conference therefore requested the Director-General to place increased emphasis in future programs on activities which contributed directly to improved wellbeing of rural people, including particularly education and training, co-operatives, agrarian reform, farm organization and rural leadership and the creation of opportunities for productive employment.
426. The Conference noted the workload placed on the Organization in meeting the statistical requirements of the Indicative World Plan. This included compilation of data on production, trade and utilization of all primary agricultural products and products derived from them, up to the first stage of processing, in the form of production-utilization accounts, together with all the relevant technical conversion factors for each country.
427. The Conference recommended that the quarterly commodity international trade statistics should continue to be published in the Monthly Bulletin for Agricultural Economics and Statistics as no other Organization was publishing this information in the present form and detail. The Conference noted that future issues of the Trade Yearbook would give separate totals for the value of trade in agricultural commodities and agricultural requisites.
428. The Conference noted further that the preliminary estimates of the index numbers of agricultural production published in the annual issues of the State of Food and Agriculture had often been underestimated and had to be substantially revised when more data became available from the countries. The Conference recommended that the Organization explore ways and means of obtaining speedier information from countries, thus placing the index number calculations on a more up-to-date basis particularly now that computer facilities would be available.
429. The Conference noted that the Organization had not been yet in a position to undertake systematic work on national accounts in agriculture and related price statistics, beyond initiating work on standardization of concepts and methods through regional meetings. It recommended that this necessary part of Development work should be intensified.
6. Information and publications
a) Legislation branch
b) Documentation center
430. The Conference recommended the issue of a brochure indicating to all potential users the information and documentation facilities and other services including film library available in the various segments of the Organization.
a) Legislation branch
431. The Conference recommended that the work of the Legislation Branch should be more orientated towards giving technical advice, assisting member countries in the harmonization of legislation as appropriate, and generally making comparative analyses in pursuit of practical results. The typical aspects of this service and its activities which the Conference would like to see further developed, should be given special consideration.
b) Documentation center
432. The Conference noted with satisfaction that the Documentation Center, now attached for reasons of convenience to the Publications Division, had soon after it had been approved by the Thirteenth Session started to function effectively. The work included the indexing of current FAO documents and all earlier documents produced by the Organization. This involved the listing of thousands of FAO documents relating to the different aspects of the Organization's work.
433. While agreeing with the 1968/69 program of work proposed for the Documentation Center, the Conference emphasized that speed was of the essence, given the growing needs for the potential users. It recommended that efforts already undertaken with UNDP assistance towards promoting the creation of a network of specialized and national documentation centers should be pursued, in order to achieve completeness of information to users. For the future, the Documentation Center should expand and diversify its activities.
434. The Conference noted that in 1968/69 it was proposed to augment the budget for Library Acquisition by about 30 percent. The Conference agreed that the Library must continue to grow and develop and adjust to the changing conditions in the world of information. Automation was to be studied carefully, in co-operation with other international organizations, for future implementation to the extent to which resources became available.
435. The Conference noted that in recent months there had been a substantial increase in the number of press clippings from newspapers using FAO information issuances. It stressed the need to analyze the impact of FAO's information activities, and to assess their contribution to creating awareness of the world food problem and stimulating agricultural production. The Conference recommended that the interest for and use of FAO feature material be kept under constant review.
436. The Conference noted that a substantial expansion planned in the agricultural information sector was going to be achieved with help from UNDP and other sources outside the Regular Program. The Conference, therefore, requested that a full account of all activities in this field, irrespective of the sources of funds, be made available to its Fifteenth Session.
437. The Conference recommended that in planning future programs of work, the highest priority should be given to assisting developing countries in strengthening their agricultural information services. It stressed that these countries required such assistance to develop their mass communication media through the introduction of modern techniques for the benefit of their populations engaged in agriculture. For this purpose they also needed cheap transistorized radios, audio-visual and printing equipment as well as newsprint. The Conference hoped that the Director-General might obtain funds for these purposes from FFHC, from UNDP, industries associated with the Organization's work and other sources.
438. The Conference also recommended an improved output of factual information about the results of the work of FAO, WFP, FFHC, etc. Such information would be useful to governments in evaluating foreign aid. The significance of special FAO programs needed to be explained to the general public.
439. The Conference recommended that efforts be made to achieve a better balance in the language abilities of the Organization's information staff, for the production and distribution of information material in French and Spanish.
440. The Conference recommended that special consideration be given to developing inexpensive information devices which could be conveyed to farmers of developing countries and in particular to the possibilities of producing cheap projection equipment and relatively inexpensive agricultural training films. The Conference considered that films of this nature should best be produced in the environment where they were to be used. Private industry might be induced to prepare films serving the requirements of FAO and developing countries.
441. Although there was insufficient data in FAO to make an accurate and detailed comparison between the roles of radio and other media in reaching agricultural producer and processor groups in developing countries, the Conference agreed that for some time to come radio would remain the most effective mass medium for informing those groups about modern practices and techniques.
442. At the same time the Conference stressed the need to develop and apply all available media according to local conditions in each developing country. These media included the press, radio, television, films and filmstrips, slide sets and posters.
443. The Conference recommended that the potential of television should be studied and applied where practical, since it could eventually become the most suitable mass medium for training farmers and for the dissemination of agricultural information.