0040-B3

Conservation of forest genetic resources in Vietnam

Nguyen Hoang Nghia 1


Abstract

For many reasons such as the long-lasted war, shifting cultivation and over-exploitation, the forest area reduced at alarming rate, which can lead to a decline of natural populations and a loss of genetic diversity, therefore many plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct. It is obvious that conservation of forest genetic resources plays a very important role in environmental protection, sustainable forest management and conservation of biodiversity. Conservation is not only strict protection but it should integrate means to protect and sustainably use forest genetic resources. However, conservation of forest genetic resources does not only aim at preventing the extinction of a species but also the depletion of genepool, loss of genes and genotypes. Conservation of forest genetic resources requires continuous funding and integrated management and conservation activities. In situ conservation and the establishment of ex situ conservation stands should be considered as high priority in future conservation programmes in Vietnam.


1. Introduction

In 1943 the forest area of Vietnam was estimated to be about 14.3 million hectares, or 43% of the total land area. Owing to long-lasting wars, shifting cultivation, land clearances and over-exploitation, forest coverage was reduced at a rate of about 100,000 ha each year to 27.1% in 1980 and 26.2% in 1985 (Ministry of Forestry 1991). At present, total forest land is about 16 million ha which occupies 48.3% o0f the country's total land area. By the end of 1999, statistical data relating to forest can be seen as follows,

Total forest area : 10,915,592 ha (forest coverage: 33.2%)

Natural forest : 9,444,198 ha (occupies 86.5% of forest area)

Plantation forest : 1,471,394 ha (occupies 13.5% of forest area)

Table 1. The targets of the forest development plan by 2010.

Parameter

Dec. 1999

2001-2005

2006-2010

Forest coverage

33.2%

39%

43%

Protection forest

5,350,668 ha

5.4 million ha

6.0 million ha

Special-use forest

1,524,868 ha

1.6 million ha

2.0 million ha

Production forest

4,040,056 ha

6.2 million ha

8.0 million ha

2. Biodiversity conservation in Vietnam

Vietnam has an abundant and diverse forest flora. According to the Flore Générale de L'Indochine, the country has more than 7,000 plant species in 1,850 genera and 290 families. Of these, 64 genera and 2,084 species are endemic. According to the Ecological and Plant Resources Institute (Tran Dinh Ly 1993), there are 11,000 species in the Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae. The National Biodiversity Action Plan, approved by the government in 1995, estimated that there are about 12,000 plant species in Vietnam (7,000 of which have been named), as well as 275 animal species, 800 bird species, 180 reptile species, 80 amphibian species, 2,470 fish species, and 5,500 insect species (Vietnam Government & GEF 1995). Of these, 40% are endemic.

Vu Van Chuyen et al. (1987) divided species into different groups as follows

Wood supply : 1,200 species of 100 genera,
Material for paper in dustry : 100 species
Essential oil supply : 500 species (160 valuable)
Fat oil supply : 260 species
Tannin supply : 600 species
Dye supply : 200 species
Medicine : 1,000 species (3,200 species)


Table 2. Composition of plant species in some National Parks.

National Park

Species

Genera

Family

Medicine

Wood

Ba Be

417

300

114

650*

 

Ba Vi

812

472

99

250

 

Bach Ma

1406

635

170

108

200

Ben En

870

412

134

177

 

Cat Ba

745

495

149

350

265

Cat Ba

1362

638

151

310

440

Con dao

882

562

161

165

371

Cuc Phuong

1983

915

229

   

Tam Dao

904

478

213

80

 

Yokdon

464

 

97

64

150

Vietnam

12,000

2,500

 

3,200

1,200 ??

* Data in 1999 only for medicinal plants

By the year 1986, the Vietnam Government approved 87 nature reserves with a total area of 1 million ha over the whole country. National Environment Agency (MOSTE) and IUCN published a map of nature reserves system in Vietnam in 2001 which includes 194 resreves and occupies an area of 2 million ha:

In 1991, the Government issued the laws for forest protection and in 1994, for environment protection. Many other decrees and decisions have also been issued that serve as a legal framework for establishment and management of the special-use forests. The system of nature reserves established in the country can serve as a base for conservation of biological diversity as well as forest genetic resources in Vietnam.

3. Endangered Plant Species in Vietnam.

Deforestation and shifting cultivation are the main causes of forest fragmentation, which can lead to a decline of natural populations and a loss of genetic diversity. There are some examples of endangered tree species in Vietnam:

a. Loss of important populations.

b. Loss of species.

Table 3. Endangered tree species in Vietnam and their levels of endangerment. (Nguyen Hoang Nghia 2000). Degree of endangerment is based on IUCN (1994); Oldfield et al. (1998) and MOSTE (1996).

Species

Family

Degree of endangerment

Cephalotaxus hainanensis

Cephalotaxaceae

EN C2a

Calocedrus macrolepis

Cupressaceae

EN D

Cupressus torulosa

Cupressaceae

CR A1cd

Fokienia hodginsii

Cupressaceae

VU A1cd

Keteleeria evelyniana

Pinaceae

VU A1

Pinus dalatensis

Pinaceae

LR/cd

Pinus krempfii

Pinaceae

VU A1cd

Pinus kwangtungensis

Pinaceae

EN D

Dacrydium pierrei

Podocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Podocarpus fleuryi

Podocarpaceae

EN B1

Podocarpus imbricatus

Podocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Podocarpus neriifolius

Podocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Podocarpus pilgeri

Podocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Podocarpus wallichianus

Podocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Taxus chinensis

Taxaceae

CR D

Taxus wallichiana

Taxaceae

CR C2a

Glyptostrobus pensilis

Taxodiaceae

CR A1cd

Melanorrhoea usitata

Anacardiaceae

EN C1

Melanorrhoea laccifera

Anacardiaceae

EN C1

Markhamia stipulata

Bignoniaceae

VU A1cd

Anisoptera costata

Dipterocarpaceae

EN A1cd

Dipterocarpus alatus

Dipterocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Dipterocarpus chartaceus

Dipterocarpaceae

EN A1cd

Dipterocarpus dyeri

Dipterocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus

Dipterocarpaceae

VU D1

Dipterocarpus tonkinensis

Dipterocarpaceae

EN A1cd

Hopea cordata

Dipterocarpaceae

CR D

Hopea helferi

Dipterocarpaceae

EN C2a

Hopea odorata

Dipterocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Parashorea chinensis

Dipterocarpaceae

VU A1cd

Parashorea stellata

Dipterocarpaceae

EN A1cd

Shorea falcata

Dipterocarpaceae

CR D

Shorea roxburghii

Dipterocarpaceae

LR/cd

Diospyros mun

Ebenaceae

CR A1cd

Endospermum chinense

Euphorbiaceae

VU A1cd

Annamocarya sinensis

Juglandaceae

CR D

Carya tonkinensis

Juglandaceae

CR C2a

Cinnamomum balansae

Lauraceae

CR A1cd

Cinnamomum panthenoxylon

Lauraceae

CR A1cd

Afzelia xylocarpa

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Caesalpinia sappan

Leguminosae

CR A1cd

Dalbergia annamensis

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Dalbergia bariensis

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Dalbergia cochinchinensis

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Dalbergia mammosa

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Dalbergia tonkinensis

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Dialium cochinchinensis

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Erythrophloeum fordii

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Ormosia balansae

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Pterocarpus macrocarpus

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Sindora siamensis

Leguminosae

EN A1cd

Xylia xylocarpa

Leguminosae

VU A1cd

Fagraea fragrans

Loganiaceae

EN D

Manglietia fordiana

Magnoliaceae

CR C2a

Chukrasia tabularis

Meliaceae

CR A1cd

Rhodoleia championii

Rhodoleiaceae

VU A1cd

Madhuca pasquieri

Sapotaceae

VU A1cd

Aquilaria crassna

Thymeleaceae

CR A1cd

Wikstroemia balansae

Thymeleaceae

VU D2

Burretiodendron tonkinense

Tiliaceae

EN A1cd

CR = Critically endangered (criteria A-E); EN = Endangered (criteria A-E); VU = Vulnerable (criteria A-D); LR = Lower risk; cd = conservation dependent.

4. Conservation of forest genetic resources

The research project on conservation of forest plant genetic resources, managed by the Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV), has received continuous funding from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) since 1988. Strategic orientation and the selection of conservation methods and priority species have received special attention. Priority species have been divided into the following groups:

In-situ conservation is the main method used by the project, applied in combination with the establishment of ex-situ conservation stands. The following steps are taken to conserve forest genetic resources:

Table 4. Threatened species with high economic value

Species

Scientific name

Family

Go do

Afzelia xylocarpa Craib

Leguminosae

Tram huong

Aquilaria crassna Pierre

Thymeleaceae

Nghien

Burretiodendron tonkinense Kost

Tiliaceae

To moc

Caesalpinia sappan L.

Leguminoasae

Bach xanh

Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz

Cupressaceae

Vu huong

Cinnamomum balansae H.Lec

Lauraceae

Re huong

Cinnamomum panthenoxylon Meissn

Lauraceae

Lat hoa

Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss

Meliaceae

Hoang dan

Cupressus torulosa Don

Cupressaceae

Hong tung

Dacrydium pierrei Hickel

Podocarpaceae

Trac day

Dalbergia annamensis Chev.

Leguminosae

Cam lai BR

Dalbergia bariensis Pierre

Leguminosae

Trac

Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre

Leguminosae

Cam lai vu

Dalbergia mammosa Pierre

Leguminosae

Sua

Dalbergia tonkinensis Prain

Leguminosae

Xoay

Dialium cochinchinensis Pierre

Leguminosae

Mun

Diospyros mun Lecomte

Ebenaceae

Dau cat

Dipterocarpus chartaceus Seem

Dipterocarpaceae

Dau dot tim

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Blco

Dipterocarpaceae

Vang trung

Endospermum chinense Benth

Euphorbiaceae

Lim xanh

Erythrophloeum fordii Oliv.

Leguminosae

Trai Nam Bo

Fagraea fragrans Roxb.

Loganiaceae

Po mu

Fokienia hodginsii Henry et Thomas

Cupressaceae

Sang dao

Hopea ferrea Pierre

Dipterocarpaceae

Sao xanh

Hopea helferi (Dyer) Brandis

Dipterocarpaceae

Kien kien

Hopea pierrei Hance

Dipterocarpaceae

Du sam

Keteleeria evelyniana Mast

Pinaceae

Sen mat

Madhuca pasquieri Lam

Sapotaceae

Vang tam

Manglietia fordiana Oliv.

Magnoliaceae

Dinh

Markhamia stipulata Seem

Bignoliaceae

Son huyet

Melanorrhoea laccifera Pierre

Anacardiaceae

Son dao

Melanorrhoea usitata Wall

Anacardiaceae

Rang rang mit

Ormosia balansae Drake

Leguminosae

Cho chi

Parashorea chinensis Hsie

Dipterocarpaceae

Cho den

Parashorea stellata Kurz

Dipterocarpaceae

Kim giao

Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel

Podocarpaceae

Bach tung

Podocarpus imbricatus Blume

Podocarpaceae

Thong tre

Podocarpus neriifolius Don

Podocarpaceae

Kim giao nam

Podocarpus wallichianus Presel

Podocarpaceae

Giang huong

Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz

Leguminosae

Hong quang

Rhodoleia championii Hook f.

Rhodoleiaceae

Gu mat

Sindora siamensis var.siamensis Teysm ex Miq

Leguminosae

Do giay

Wikstroemia balansae Drake

Thymeleaceae

Cam xe

Xylia xylocarpa Taub

Leguminosae



Table 5. Threatened species with high scientific value

Species

Scientific name

Family

Sam lanh

Abies nukiangensis Cheng

Pinaceae

To hap

Altingia chinensis Oliv.

Altingiaceae

De tung

Amentotaxus argotenia Pilg

Taxaceae

Co dai

Annamocarya sinensis Leroy

Juglandaceae

Truc dui ga

Bambusa ventricosa Mclure

Poaceae

May chau

Carya tonkinensis Lecomte

Juglandaceae

Dinh tung

Cephalotaxus hainanensis Hook

Cephalotaxaceae

Truc vuong

Chimonobambusa quadrangularis Maki

Poaceae

Sa mu dau

Cunninghamia konishii Hyata

Taxodiaceae

Thong hai la det

Ducampopinus krempfii A.Chev.

Pinaceae

Cu Sa Pa

Fagus longipetiolata Seem

Fagaceae

Tan

Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.

Oleaceae

Trai ly

Garcinia fagraeoides A.Chev.

Clusiaceae

Thuy tung

Glyptostrobus pensilis Koch

Taxodiaceae

Sao la hinh tim

Hopea cordata Vidal

Dipterocarpaceae

Sao la to

Hopea hainanensis Merr et Chun

Dipterocarpaceae

Sao mang Ca Na

Hopea reticulata Tard

Dipterocarpaceae

Du sam da voi

Keteleeria davidiana Beissn

Pinaceae

Ma qua

Liriodendron chinense Hemsl

Magnoliaceae

Truc den

Phyllostachys nigra Munro

Poaceae

Thong nam la DaLat

Pinus dalatensis de Ferre

Pinaceae

Thong Pa Co

Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex Tsiang

Pinaceae

Cho nuoc

Plantanus kerrii Gagnep

Plantanaceae

Thong tre la ngan

Podocarpus pilgeri Foxw

Podocarpaceae

Duoi ngua

Rhoiptelea chiliantha Diel et Hand

Rhoiteleaceae

Chai la cong

Shorea falcata Vidal

Dipterocarpaceae

Thong do Pa Co

Taxus chinensis Rehn

Taxaceae

Thong do Lam Dong

Taxus wallichiana Zucc

Taxaceae

Thiet sam

Tsuga dumosa Eichler

Pinaceae

Bach vang

Xanthocyparis vietnamensis

Cupressaceae



Table 6. Precious native species for reforestation

Species

Scientific name

Family

Ven ven

Anisoptera costata Korth

Dipterocarpaceae

Tram trang

Canarium album Raeusch

Burseraceae

Tram den

Canarium tramdenum Dai et Jacovl

Burseraceae

Que

Cinnamomum cassia Blume

Lauraceae

Manh tong

Dendrocalamus flagellifer Munro

Poaceae

Luong

Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro

Poaceae

Dau rai

Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb

Dipterocarpaceae

Dau song nang

Dipterocarpus dyeri Pierre

Dipterocarpaceae

Sao den

Hopea odorata Roxb

Dipterocarpaceae

Hoi

Illicium verum Hook

Illiciaceae

Gioi xanh

Michelia mediocris Dandy

Magnoliaceae

Truc sao

Phyllostachys pubescens Hourz

Poaceae

Thong ba la

Pinus kesyia Royle

Pinaceae

Thong nhua

Pinus merkusii Jung et Vries

Pinaceae

Sen cat

Shorea roxburghii G.D

Dipterocarpaceae

Priority conservation areas and species are selected according to the following criteria:

Many threatened tree species of Vietnam require both in situ and ex situ conservation measures. Beside nature reserve system established over the whole country for in situ conservation, establishment of ex situ conservation stands in safe areas should be very important. Efforts have been made in three main measures as follows,

1) Seed bank: only for orthodox seeds such as seeds of leguminous tree species,

2) Collection of living trees in field: in form of arboretum, bambusetum with many species but less individuals (about 20 individuals for each species),

3) Ex situ conservation stands: established only for some important species (with very high economic value or very rare) on bigger area (from 1 to 10 ha per species or provenance) and about 400 trees/ha.

In conclusion, it can be said that conservation of forest genetic resources requires continuous funding and integrated management and conservation activities. In situ conservation and the establishment of ex situ conservation stands should be considered as high priority in future conservation programmes for many above-mentioned tree species in Vietnam.

REFERENCE

IUCN (1994) IUCN Red List Categories. The World Conservation Union, Gland, 21pp.

Ministry of Forestry (1991) Thirty Years Construction and Development of Forestry Sector, 1961-1990. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi. 250pp.

MOSTE, 1996. Red Data Book of Vietnam, Part II: Plants. Science and Technique Publishing House, Hanoi, 484pp.

Nguyen Hoang Nghia (2000) Some Threatened Tree Species of Vietnam. Agriculture Publishing House, Hanoi, 148 pp.

Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. and MacKinven, A. 1998. The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK, 650pp.

Tran Dinh Ly (1993) 1900 Useful Plant Species of Vietnam. World Publishing House, Hanoi, 544pp.

Vietnam Government & GEF (1995) National Biodiversity Action Plan. Hanoi, 208 pp.

Vu Van Chuyen, Le Tran Chan, Tran Hop, 1987. Geography of Vietnam's Plant Families. Science and Technique Publishing House, Hanoi.


1 Forest Science Institute of Vietnam
Dong Ngac - Tu Liem - Hanoi
Fax: 84.4.8389722
E-mail: nhnghia@netnam.vn