0140-B4

Weed Species and Their Chemical Control in Hardwood Seedling Producer Forest Nurseries and The Source of Seeds

S. Gokdemir 1


ABSTRACT

The study has been carried out 1992-1997 in Devrek, Hendek and Ordu Forest Nurseries on Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl) seedbeds. In this study, the weed flora of the nurseries has been determined and several herbicides have been tested as randomized block design in three replications against weeds in seedling and transplants beds. Totally, 177 species have been determined belong to 34 family in survey studies. 46 % of the weed species was annual and 54 % of them was perennial, 33% of the species belongs to Compositae, 25 % Gramineae, 16 % Leguminosae, 13 % Labiatae, 11% Cruciferae families. Cynodon dactylon(L.) pers, Echinochloa crus-galli(L.), Poa annua L., Cirsium arvense(L.) Scop., Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv., Cyperus rotundus L.,Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers, Lolium perenne L., Agropyron repens L. and Lolium perenne L. are the most difficult species for weed control activities in forest nurseries. The most important weed species were found to be 25 broadleaves and 10 to be narrow leaves 15 families were seen to be the most common in the oak and beech nurseries. In seedling beds, Chorthal dimethyl (10.0 kg/ha, 11.0 kg/ha, 12.0 kg/ha) and Simazine (3.0 l/ha, 4.0 l/ha, 5.0l /ha), have been tested as pre-emergence; Simazine (1.0 L/ha, 2.0 l/ha, 3.0l /ha) and Atrazine (3.0 kg/ha, 4.0 kg/ha, 5.0 kg/ha) have been tested as post-emergence, Simazine (1.0 l/ha, 2.0 l/ha, 3.0l /ha) and Atrazine (3.0 kg/ha, 4.0 kg/ha, 5.0 kg/ha) have been tested on transplant-lines as herbicides. Either the herbicides or the dosages have not shown any adverse effect on the number of seedling emergence, seedling height and dry seedling weight. All dosages of the herbicides have given a weed control rate 90 % or over the lowest dosages have been found recommendable. In all three nurseries, it has been researched that the capacity of the weed seeds at 0-30 cm soil depth. The quantity of weed seeds at 0-30 cm soil depth has been founded 53400 number/m² in Ordu Nursery, 48630 number/m² in Hendek Nursery, 27227 number/m² in Devrek Nursery. The maximum quantity of weed seeds have been found at 5-10 cm soil depth, and 85-90% of the weed seeds have been determined between at 0-20 cm soil depth in all nurseries. Also it has been researched if the weed seeds are transported by the forest soil, manure and turf; and it is determined that the weed seeds are transported great many by the forest soil and manure, not by the turf. The quantity of weed seeds at 1ton forest soil weight has been found 130 000 number in Ordu Nursery, 76 000 number in Hendek Nursery, 58 500 number in Devrek Nursery. The quantity of weed seeds at 1 ton manure weight has been found 362 000 in Ordu Nursery, 310 000 number in Hendek Nursery, 118 500 number in Devrek Nursery. No any weed seeds has determined to have transported by turf.


INTRODUCTION

The total area of Turkey is 77.056.192 hectares. The forest area is 20.199.296 hectares. 8.9 million hectares of the forested area is productive. The remaining 11. 3 million hectares of forested area is unproductive. For this reason afforestation is very important in Turkish forestry and By Law, 99 percent of forest land is owned by the government (13). A total of 54.4% the forest in Turkey are needled (coniferous) trees and 45.6% are of broad-leaved trees (14). In comprasion with the approximately 11.000 species of plants that are distributed on the European Continent, there are 9.500 species of plants found in Turkey and 3.000 of these species are endemic plants (14).

According to the afforestration macro plan activities and the inventory data, the potential afforestration area in Turkey is 5 412 159 hectares. In order to afforestation this area, it has been targeted to undertake 300 000 hectares of afforestation annually and all activities undertaken are directed at reaching this target (12). When afforestration is considered from the aspect of type activities, some important development can be summarized in the form of brief heading as fallows: Green Belt projects , Activities in the provinces with development priorty and within South-Eastern Anatolia Project (GAP), Afforestration undertaken by contract, Private afforestration, Erosion control and range improvement activities, Improvement of pastures activities, Natural regeneration of forests and maintenance (silviculture), Energy forests, Activities to developed the commercial of Poplars, as given below table 1 (13).

Table 1: General View of Plantation and Regeneration Activities in Turkey

Activity

Year (in 2000) (Hectare)

Cumulative, Year (At last 2000)
(Hectare)

Afforestration

24.494

1.763.472

Energy Forests

12.267

552.352

Erosion Control

30.449

418.797

Private Forests

8.569

38.526

Memorial Forests

539

6.332

Artificial Regeneration

13.824

646.210

Natural Regeneration

16.788

618.826

Total

106.930

4.044.515

A large amount of seedling is needed to realize the annual forestation programs. The Forest nurseries were established with the objective of being able to meet the needs of the Ministry of Forestry Forestry General Directrate For raising the required forest trees and shrubs seedling (sapling) for afforestation, erosion control, artificial forest and energy forest activities and for the forest tree and shurb needs of other official and private organization, military units, schools and private individuals (12, 13).

For this purpose, 125 nurseries have been established to realize these wide-range programs of Ministry of Forestry as well as the other program (2,3). Turkey is one of the few countries in Europe with the forest nurseries with area of 3655.835 hectares. About 500-600 millions seedling are produced annually but remarkable changes in number of seedlings year by year. Just as in 1982, the seedling production capacity at 125 nurseries was 350 million, today at 125 nurseries on 3655.835 hectare area, it has reached 527 million. Of these nurseries, 46 are attached to the Directorate, 22 to the Head office, and the remaining 57 are continuing their activities in the status of a temporary nursery

Weeds are one of the most important problems on nursery land, and the control measures are essentially depending on mechanical applications. Weed control activities are essentially hand pulling or hoeing. These procedures are costly and labour intensive (1,2,3). According to the data of General Directorate of Afforestration and Erosion Control, 30-60 % of the Forest Nurseries expenses are spent for weed control activities.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The study has been carried out 1992-1997 in Devrek, Hendek and Ordu Forest Nurseries on Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl) seedbeds. In this study, the weed flora of the nurseries has been determined and several herbicides have been tested as randomized block design in three replications against weeds in seedling and transplants beds. In seedling beds, Dacthal (10.0 kg/ha, 11.0 kg/ha, 12.0 kg/ha) and Simazine (3.0 l/ha, 4.0 l/ha, 5.0l /ha), have been tested as pre-emergence; Simazine (1.0 L/ha, 2.0 l/ha, 3.0l /ha) and Atrazine (3.0 kg/ha, 4.0 kg/ha, 5.0 kg/ha) have been tested as post-emergence, Simazine (1.0 l/ha, 2.0 l/ha, 3.0l /ha) and Atrazine (3.0 kg/ha, 4.0 kg/ha, 5.0 kg/ha) have been tested on transplant-lines as herbicides (11,4). Size of the plot was 5 m². Knapsack spray was used for the applications of herbicides. Pre-emergence herbicides applications were done before the weed seeds emergence and in the following 1st. week of sowing. Post-emergence and on transplant-lines applications were done to the Oak and Beech seedlings (the seedlings that are one year old) at the dormancy period and the beginning of the vegetation period while the seedlings were at the dormancy, and the seedlings roots get compression (4,7). The effects of the chemicals on plant emergence were investigated. In the studies carried out to determine the effect of the herbicides on seedling emergences, seedling heights and seedling dry weights, relatively comparing with the check plots. 30 seedlings from each character were dug up and tested for the effect of the chemical on the seedling heights and seedling weights (2,6,8). In all three nurseries, the capacity of the weed seeds at 0-30 cm soil depth has been researched and also it has been researched if the weed seeds are transported by forest soil, manure and turf (9,10).

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A Totally of 177 species have been identified which belong to 34 family in the survey studies. 46 % of the weed species were annuals and 54% were perennials. 33% of the species belong to Compositae, 25 % Gramineae and the remaining species belong to the other families. The more important and much populated weed species exist in Hendek, Devrek and Ordu Province Beech and Oak Nurseries are given below: Avena fatua L., Cynodon dactylon(L.) pers, Digitaria sanguinalis L., Echinochloa crus-galli(L.),Holcus lonatus L., Poa annua L., Artemissia vulgaris L., Cirsium arvense(L.) Scop., Cichorium intybus L., Sonchus asper L., Senecio vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale Weber, Tussilago farfara L., Coronilla varia L., Trifolium repens L., Medicago sativa L., Lotus corniculatus L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik, Sinapsis arvensis L. Polygonum aviculare L., Rumex acetosella L., Plantago major L., Plantago lanceolata L. Euphorbia stricta L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Portulaca oleraceae L., Verbascum sp , Equisetum arvense L., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv., Trifolium repens L., Anagallis arvensis L., Cyperus rotundus L.,Solanum nigrum L. Echium plantagineum L., Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Centaurea calcitrapa L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers, Lolium perenne L., Agropyron repens L., Urtica urens L., Amaranthus albus L., Chenopodium album L,. The most important weed species were found to be 25 broadleaves and 10 to be narrow leaves 15 families were seen to be the most common in the oak and beech nurseries. The chemicals were also highly effective on weed species and all treatments gave good control over 90 %. It was determined that the effect of the herbicides on seedling emergences, seedling heights and seedling dry weights, relatively positive results were obtained comparing with the check plots. Weed regeneration were found to be 90% and 70 % less than comparing with the check plots in simazine, atrazine and dacthal treated seedbeds, respectively with the ABOTT calculation and the lowest dosages were found to be recommendable for weed control in Oak and Beech nurseries. The maximum quantity of weed seeds found at 5-10 cm soil depth in all nurseries. The quantity of weed seeds at 0-30 cm soil depth has been founded 53400 number/m² in Ordu Nursery, 48630 number/m² in Hendek Nursery, 27227 number/m² in Devrek Nursery. It is determined that the weed seeds are transported great many by the forest soil and manure, not by the turf. The quantity of weed seeds at 1 ton forest soil weight has been found 130 000 number in Ordu Nursery, 76 000 number in Hendek Nursery, 58 500 number in Devrek Nursery. The quantity of weed seeds at 1 ton manure weight has been found 362 000 number in Ordu Nursery, 310 000 number in Hendek Nursery, 118 500 number in Devrek Nursery. No any weed seeds has determined to have transported by turf.

REFERENCES

1-Tolay, U. et. al., 1984. Chemical Weed Control in Nurseries. Poplar and Fast Growing Exotic Species, Forest Trees Research Institute Annual Bulletin No: 20, Izmit., Turkey.

2- Ata, C. 1978. Chemical Weed Control in Nurseries.Black Sea Technical University, Faculty of Forestry Publication, No: 1, Cilt 1, Trabzon, Turkey.

3- Ata, C., 1984. Chemical Weed Control in the Forest. Black Sea Technical University, Faculty of Forestry Publication, No: 1, Cilt 5, Trabzon, Turkey.

4- Williamson, D.R., Mason, W.L., 1989. Forest Nursery Herbicides, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, Occasional Paper 22, pp. 6.

5- Klingman, G. C., Floyd, M., Asthon, 1975. Weed Science Principles And Practices. pp. 431, John Wiley and Sons, New York, London.

6- Anonymous, 1981. Manual for Field Trails in Plant Protection Second Edition, Ciba-Geigy, Crop, Basle, 57-58pp.

7-Williamson, D.R., Mason, W.L., 1990. Weed Control in Forest Nurseries and Forest Weed Control Handbook Principles, Edited by Hance, R.J., Holly, K., Oxford, UK; Blackwell Publications, 457-471 pp.

8- Shimth, A.E., 1995. Handbook of Weed Management Systems, Books in Soils, Plants and the Environment Series, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA.

9- Tastan, B., et. al., 1991. Researches on The Effect of Soil Depth on Germination of Some Weed Species in Wheat Fields, The Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, No: 6, 143-146 pp.

10- Tastan, B., et al., 1997. The Predictions of The Weed Flora From Seed Bank on Soil, II. Turkish Weed Science Congress, 9 pp., 1-4 September, Izmir, Turkey.

11- Davis. P.H., Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Islands (Volume: 1-9), University Press, Edinburg, 1965-1988.

12- General Directorate of Forestry, 1989. The Turkish Forestry in The 150 th Year of Its Establishment, Publication Number: 673, Serial Number: 30, 73-75pp, Ankara, Turkey.

13- Konukcu, M., 2001. Forests and Turkish Forestry `` Benefits, Statistical facts and Forestry in The Constitution, Development Plans, Government Programs and annual Programs'', State Planning Organization (SPO), SPO publication No: 2630, 100-102 pp, Ankara, Turkey.

14- Ministry of Forestry, 2000. Turkey's Forests, Ministry of Forestry Publications, Ankara, Turkey.


1 Forest Engineer, Central Anatolia Forest Research Institute, Gazi / Ankara TURKIYE
sukrangok@yahoo.com