60. Forty-seven percent of interventions were found to have had moderate effect and 35 percent high outcomes and effects. There was more likely to be high effect in middle-income countries and this contributes to the relatively high scores in Latin America and to some extent the Near East. Many of the middle-income countries have a greater absorption capacity for policy advice and also greater independent capability to act upon it. In the case of Latin America, work was also often on the policy aspects of ongoing national programmes and the countries paid for the FAO input themselves. This facilitated national ownership. Such countries also had a relatively well-developed national capacity both for policy and implementation In the less developed countries and low-income transition countries, there was less national capacity to absorb policy. In such cases, follow-up was greater where work fed into a process also assisted by donors, especially the IFIs. In addition, in all countries the process used for development of policy was particularly important in assuring national ownership and thus policy implementation.
61. Missions found that although there was room for improvement in consultation in FAO policy interventions, FAO performance was comparatively good in this respect compared with others, including the IFIs. Indeed one of the primary roles World Bank staff see for FAO in national policy work is facilitating the national consultation process. Missions found that 38% of interventions had a high quality of process, 44% were adequate, and 18% were unsatisfactory (see Table 3).
62. The ideal is for policy work to be undertaken primarily by national teams, where FAO and other international agencies have a supporting role. Genuine national teams are not always practical due to very limited capacity and pressures for rapid progress, but it is always possible to involve nationals from the key government departments and this also furthers the aim of capacity building. In the countries visited, participatory democracy and civil society organizations were often weak, and obtaining a wide input was not therefore easy, but a national consultancy input from outside government as well as the clear substantial involvement of government counterparts as consultants facilitates this national process. By building workshops into projects, FAO has assisted in ensuring greater consultation with civil society. Good examples of this were found in all the regions visited by missions. The capacity of the civil service to encourage and support a more consultative approach can be instilled through example in the policy assistance interventions.
63. There is often some resistance by the civil service to discussions across departmental and ministerial boundaries, as well as with civil society. This resistance can be better countered if inter-ministerial and civil society processes are specified in the original project document. One of the best examples of success in this regard occurred in Estonia, where national conditions were relatively conducive but also where the project document specified work through a series of cross-institutional task forces which were supported by national consultants. The selection of a project team leader determined to further this process, rather than rapidly deliver policy papers, was also significant. As well as consultation across central ministries, there is often a need to involve local authorities, who may be responsible for activities such as extension 19. Where there was no national process, the validity of the policy was markedly reduced and there was negligible national ownership. Such interventions therefore had little or no impact 20.
64. There were only a very few examples in the projects reviewed of rapid appraisal techniques being applied to assist policy development 21. Application of structured rapid appraisal techniques to primary stakeholders can form a valuable input to policy processes at all levels. In the worst cases a lack of such processes and of consultation contributed to overt resistance to the policy proposals 22.
65. Individual policy interventions flow into a national policy process, which is very much influenced by IFIs and donors. The coordination of development assistance programming by the international community has become an important interface, lever and support for implementation in the policy processes 23. Particularly in the less developed countries, it is as a member of the UN country team and through work in association with the IFIs that FAO can mainstream its concerns with WFS follow-up, including food security and the importance of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in sustainable rural livelihoods. In the Near East and Africa, the missions received generally favourable comments on FAO as a supportive member of the UN country team with the potential to provide, or actually providing, a valuable lead coordinating role for food and agriculture 24. This was less the case in Asia. In Latin America, the UN system was less important generally and FAO's cooperation with IIACA had been sporadic. However, both UNDP and the World Bank staff commented that FAO had difficulty in seeing how its policy input would fit into the wider issues currently on the international agenda, such as governance and privatisation. They also felt that an important potential role for FAO could be as a facilitator of dialogue between agricultural line ministries, IFIs and central finance and planning ministries.
66. Importance of the FAOR: The FAO Representatives (FAORs) and their national professional staff were found to be central to FAO's work in policy support. Countries, in particular the former Soviet Bloc countries, where FAO was not present through an FAOR, were found to be seriously disadvantaged 25. FAORs filled three distinct roles which were very much dependent on their individual capacities:
67. Work in close association with IFIs: As already noted, many of the decisions taken for the agricultural sector are taken outside the line ministry, especially by Finance and Planning for whom the partner of choice is the IFIs. In working on the implications of more macro-policy for the agricultural sector, FAO can thus often be most effective if it works to develop the viability of policies developed in this process. FAO's input can serve to improve the understanding of micro-issues by the IFIs and Ministries of Finance, etc. (e.g. Egypt and Mozambique) and also to increase understanding in the Ministry of Agriculture of the wider policy agenda (e.g. Turkey). A major issue in ensuring participation and consultation remains the institutional location for the FAO part of the intervention, which may serve to reinforce the line ministry role in the dialogue or to have direct impact on the Finance/Planning team. FAO and the UN system may also be required to provide an alternative view from that of the IFIs to assist the government in making choices. FAO's role in each case should be clear.
68. Particular examples of work on policy in close association with IFIs were reviewed in:
69. Within the evaluation there was no basis for examining in absolute terms the cost-benefit of FAO contributions to national policy development. In comparison with other agencies, FAO had held down the cost of the international input and had also tended to follow a process at the national level, which was less expensive in proportion to outcomes than the reliance on expatriate teams which characterises some policy assistance work. On the other hand, as will be evident from the discussion above, it is considered that FAO could capitalise to a greater extent on the synergies between units at both Headquarters and decentralized units and on FAORs. Greater decentralisation and flexibility in operations would also reduce costs and this was a concern of both countries and international partners. FAO could also concentrate more in areas of country need and the Organization's relative strength. Recommendations address these issues.
70. Although these were not the subjects of review, the most striking examples of impact at policy level were not from policy-oriented projects but from projects which demonstrated an approach. Examples included IPM in Asia, smallholder agricultural reform in Brazil and work in uplands management in much of Latin America. It is probable that demonstration is not only the most effective influence for policy change but also the best way of assuring that the approach is viable when dealing with institutional matters. In Latin America, projects addressing land management policy included planning of pilot activity and exposing staff to experience in other countries 27. It may also be noted that country questionnaires found the integration of FAO's policy cooperation with other project work one of the less satisfactory aspects. However, pilot testing of policies is not generally a genuine option for policies that are not area-specific. What is needed is a flexible process of adaptation and demonstration. It is also clear that policy makers frequently do not have the possibility, and nor would it be desirable, to await the results of a pilot test.
71. The missions found that 68% of interventions had identifiable impact in terms of implemented policy changes and in 21% of cases the impact was high (see Table 3). FAO policy work at the national level generally fed into a broader policy dialogue and process. The number of interventions in which a specific government policy document resulted from FAO assistance were high, especially in the less developed countries with weaker national drafting capacities, and at least eleven clear instances of this occurring were documented. The fact that many of these agreed government policy papers did not result immediately in significant shifts in policy application illustrates that such papers often only document the status quo and where they do not, they are a necessary but not sufficient precursor to the actual implementation of policy change.
72. Impact is thus generally in a greater or lesser contribution to a process in which other development partners and of course the national authorities are active. When a policy support intervention takes place, there is likely to be a lapse of time before this is translated into a policy instrument which can deliver development impact. Capacity building is generally even more diffuse in its final results but absolutely essential to the future of policy making. Notwithstanding the process for attaining impacts, there were an impressive number of occasions on which it could be said that a clear policy impact in terms of a definitive decision or policy instrument were very evidently accelerated by FAO policy work. Examples included:
73. Capacity building was a by-product of significance in several projects, for example, that referred to for Estonia above. Further particular examples of capacity building impact include:
74. The evaluation was looking only at FAO's policy work and had no basis for proposing resource shifts between FAO's strategic priorities. This having been said, the evaluation found that policy development is an area of continued high priority for all member countries, while as development progresses, normative work purely on technology becomes something countries can increasingly readily access. FAO needs to increase its capacity to respond to this need. The External Peer Review emphasised that policy work should be expanded. The recommendations are thus not budget neutral and the summary table in Annex 3 provides a qualitative summary of the cost implication of recommendations 28, indicating where efficiency savings could be made and where it is considered that Regular Programme or extra-budgetary resources may be appropriate.
75. Also evident is that if FAO is to meet challenges, it must become a more closely networked learning organization and recommendations are designed to support this.
76. Many of the recommendations below indicate areas where, in the view of the evaluation, there could be improvement. In examining these recommendations, there are also types of reaction that should be avoided. These include the introduction of increased clearances, checks, procedures and committees, which can only further slow responses and reduce time available for other work.
77. FAO needs to develop clearer priorities for those areas in which it will be a centre of excellence for policy support to member countries in line with country needs, FAO's Strategic Objectives and the policy support available to countries from sources other than FAO. The Organization then needs to further enhance its capacity in these selected priority areas, including the normative underpinning and build strong links between the concerned policy and technical units (see also paras. 53-54).
78. While by no means excluding general sector policy work, where it is required, greater relative weight could usefully be given to the more specific issues which must be resolved if the aims of sector policy are to be achieved. For the fisheries and forestry sectors, the position is clearly different and FAO is the one agency with extensive capacity. Livestock policy is an area of comparative neglect. Resource shifts should be considered in line with these priorities.
79. There is a priority for the Organization to strengthen its capacity in what is perceived as an area of comparative advantage, i.e. sub-sector policy work and work at the technology-policy interface, integrating costs and benefits of choices. This requires adjustment of priorities not only in policy-oriented programmes, but also in technical programmes (see also paras. 22-27).
80. It is clear, that there needs to be differentiation in terms of country needs. Priorities should be defined overall and at regional levels (see also para. 28). It is recommended that:
81. Capacity-building to enable the agricultural ministries to better participate in the policy process is a clear priority. In almost all situations, this needs to concentrate on raising the capacity to identify and resolve policy issues, including their costs and benefits, rather than on sophisticated analytical techniques. Capacity building also needs to recognise that many of the least developed countries and some of the transition countries are not at the stage where they can develop separate policy units, especially in line ministries. The emphasis in these situations needs to be on developing the capacity of line managers and senior civil servants to provide sound input to the policy process and developing a consultative and networked culture for policy development. Even in many of the more developed countries, this aspect will be important, as well as enhancing the extent to which policy is made on the basis of in-depth analysis by both government units and groups like university think tanks.
82. It is also necessary to support the development of capabilities for agricultural ministries to analyse the cost-benefits of their own programmes. This is important both to make them more effective and to better defend them against cuts.
83. The Organization has developed clear normative positions in some policy areas. These should receive greater attention in policy assistance work. FAO should further develop positions in a few carefully selected areas, in which the Organization campaigns for policy change. Such campaigns need to be selectively targeted on countries and situations where there is a priority need. The Policy Task Force discussed below could have a major role in developing those areas in which FAO could be more active in advocacy and the Department of General Affairs and Information would be an important partner.
84. In addition to advocating policy positions, more systematic attention can be given to raising awareness of emerging policy issues and their implications.
85. Greater attention needs to be given to how the Organization communicates considerations on policy issues to a wider group of policy makers. This includes:
86. The Organization has a unique point of contact with the sector ministries for agriculture and it can usefully cooperate with other organizations such as the World Bank and IFPRI to utilise FAO fora for consultation on policy documents and for dissemination of current considerations in policy arising from research and experience (for example, the World Bank global rural development strategy document could be considered by COAG or the CFS and the regional documents by the FAO Regional Conferences. IFPRI could partner to present with FAO a joint half-day seminar on emerging policy issues in parallel with FAO meetings).
87. In training, FAO should regard itself as much as a training resource for others as an executor of training (see also paras. 46-48):
88. In designing policy development interventions it is often possible to integrate capacity building, even though the main purpose of the project (to develop a policy) remains paramount. A consultative approach to policy development facilitates capacity building drawing analysts and decision makers into the process.
89. FAO can often be most effective in impacting on the overall policy agenda and capacities in countries when it works as part of the UN country team and in working in association with the IFIs and other development partners (see paras. 65-66). It may take a leadership role, where appropriate, in sector panels and round tables, and:
90. These latter two roles should be enhanced particularly when policy development is underway with the IFIs and other development partners.
91. In this context the Organization needs to examine how its policy input fits into the wider issues current on the international agenda, such as governance and privatisation. It is also necessary that, without delaying the process, the Organization support the development of the poverty reduction strategies for the highly-indebted low-income countries to ensure that not only the priorities of health and education are addressed, but also food security and the development of income-earning opportunities in rural areas. In some countries, the ACC Task Force on Rural Development may provide a framework for this and in other countries FAO chairs donor round-table groups. However, in many countries the Organization will need to make increased efforts in providing policy inputs to the consultation process to ensure that food security and the interests of the rural sector are given adequate attention. It is very evident that in many situations the representatives of the UN system and the IFIs are not seeking partnership and the initiative for overcoming barriers will have to be taken by FAO, without seeking to assume a leadership role. At the same time, FAO can sometimes be most useful in providing an alternative point of view.
92. Collaboration at country level can be reinforced on an ongoing basis by the FAOR, who should also identify with the IFI resident missions the needs for FAO technical inputs on policy as well as investment. In addition, discussions with IFI Headquarters need to be widened from the current discussion of Investment Centre inputs. Priority for such a widened discussion would be with the World Bank and IFAD. In working with IFIs, FAO's role should be clear. The Organization's purpose is to assist in reinforcing national development of sound policy, not the pursuit of a particular reform agenda (see also paras. 67-68).
93. In cooperation with other agencies such as the World Bank, IFPRI and IFAD, FAO should seek extra-budgetary funding to develop a networked resource for policy which could grow in an incremental way, flexibly involving other partners and where there would be a degree of quality control. The intention would be to provide such products as:
94. Such a resource would not only directly benefit developing countries but would increase capacities in FAO and the development agencies, providing a resource to their staff.
95. Arrangements for technical assistance: Within the very limited resources available, FAO has to determine ways of improving its flexible input to the ongoing process of policy development and reform at country level. (This process shifts in emphasis and areas of concern and sometimes accelerates for a period in response to changes of government, programmes such as debt relief, or accession to WTO or regional groupings.)
96. Improved availability of flexible resources: In addition to efforts to develop local funding for policy assistance work from UNDP-SPPD, the World Bank, etc., more funds need to be flexibly available for policy support of all types to countries. It is proposed that:
97. Strengthening the responsiveness of FAO-TCP: TCP has been the instrument through which FAO has carried out the majority of its recent policy support work; however, it could be made a more effective modality for this purpose as suggested below.
98. Interdisciplinary policy work and assurance of flexible resources to support activities: A common entry point is needed for FAORs and for countries in approaching the Organization for policy support. This means that Policy Assistance Branches need to be a window on the total policy assistance resources of the Regional Office and well connected into the various policy resources at Headquarters, including those in the technical divisions. Policy assistance, especially at the sub-sectoral level, can be most effective if it integrates inputs from the Regional Office Technical Department Groups (TDGs) and the Policy Assistance Branches (PABs) (see also paras. 55-56).
99. Clearer definition of regional priorities and joint activities for policy work: An increased emphasis on joint undertakings between the PABs and TDGs could offer the prospect of enhancing work on concrete policy options, thus providing more specific content to policy work while making technical work more effective in promoting policy reform. An element in a possible solution could include creation of a common inter-divisional MTP Programme Entity in the Regional Office for policy work. Such a programme entity would draw all technical officers together to define the most important policy issues for the countries of the region, and then explore the issues identified in greater depth with partners and publicise them through training, meetings and at the Regional Conferences and Commissions.
100. Clarification of the Field Programme development function performed by the Policy Assistance Branches: There is no necessity for a uniform approach between Regional Offices but mechanisms need to be explored to strengthen the Field Programme development function while ensuring that this does not affect the integrity of policy work. Working closely with FAORs, the strengthened function of Field Programme development would include: mobilising the technical resources of the Regional Office as a whole, drawing on technical resources from Headquarters as necessary and liaising with donors especially at the regional level (see also para. 58).
101. Clarification of first lines of responsibility between decentralised offices in policy work: Although there have been de facto demarcation of lines of responsibility for policy work, efficiency can be enhanced if the current pragmatic arrangements are demarcated, always bearing in mind the need for flexible use of resources, while avoiding duplication and bureaucracy:
102. Importance of the FAOR: Inadequate attention has been given to the importance of the FAOR as a source of ongoing policy advice and as an interface with policy resources available from FAO. If FAORs are to more adequately fill this role (see also para. 66):
103. To improve services to the CIS and similar countries, rather than diluting staff impact by placing individual policy advisory officers in different countries, one FAO office could be established in a location where the host government is prepared to offer a substantial contribution in host facilities and where there are communication facilities with most of the countries concerned in Europe, the Near East and Asia. It could be staffed with two suitably-qualified policy officers and could also usefully include one officer for Field Programme development. If the size of the Field Programme eventually justified it, a project operations officer could also be added. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the mandate for all these countries be assigned to one Sub-regional Office and possibly a number of outposted policy officers each dealing with several countries.
104. The Organization should develop a leaflet/guidance note on how to effectively relate to and facilitate the policy process for all policy work at the country level to be used by the Policy Assistance Branches, technical divisions and as guidance for FAORs and TCP. A note will be prepared by the Evaluation Service as an output from this evaluation. This may form a useful input for a guidance note to be developed by the task force referred to below. Technical units and IDWGs concerned with policy should also be required to develop very short notes on policy considerations in their areas of work. Such notes should be made widely available, including on the FAO Intranet.
105. Recognition of the longer-term nature of the policy process and the stages within it, means that individual interventions may not be able to address all stages of the process. The emphasis on communication and process also has major implications for the design of policy assistance, away from a short intervention by an expert team, towards smaller teams making recurrent visits in the country. A larger proportion of budgets will need to be available for national participation and for translation, printing, meetings, etc. In addition to current requirements in project design for policy work (including in FAO-TCP), the design should incorporate a logical framework chart, and state (see also paras. 32-34):
106. Project designs should also recognise that the nature of the consultative process will generally call for a relatively high proportion of funds to be committed to national consultancy, translation, meetings and civil society processes.
107. Both in the design and execution of policy support it is essential to examine with realism the potential for follow-up, both in terms of the extent to which any further necessary collaboration will be available for the remainder of the policy to implementation continuum and to avoid unrealistic policy initiatives which will call for human or financial resources which are unlikely to be available.
108. The Technical Cooperation Department could usefully take the lead in developing a web-based system of country intelligence which will integrate inputs from throughout the Organization, especially the FAORs and steadily improve quality and analytical content.
109. An inter-departmental task force of limited duration to examine all aspects of policy work could be helpful, fed into by similar working groups in the Regional Offices and with sub-groups as required. If experience and a concrete work programme then justified it, the work of the task force could be extended to become an inter-departmental working group and/or policy network in FAO. The chairperson of the task force would provide the focal point for coordination of policy. The External Peer Reviewers stated that in their view the focal point should be allocated resources for this purpose.
110. Primary initial work for the task force could include:
- subject matter and regional priorities for policy work; and
- an agenda for policy outreach including awareness raising and advocacy;
- general guidelines on the approach and process for cooperation with countries in policy development;
- information resources, including the networked resource and the country intelligence system referred to above; and
- training for staff, in particular FAORs and technical staff.
Table 1 Total Number of FAO-TCP Policy Projects by Region and Sector 1994-99
Table 2 FAO-TCP Policy Projects Reviewed by Missions by Region and Sector
Table 3 Missions' Assessment of Individual FAO-TCP Projects by Region
Table 4 Missions' Assessment of Individual FAO-TCP Projects by Sector
Table 5 FAO-TCP Projects Reviewed by Missions
|Annex 1 Table 1 Total Number of FAO-TCP Policy Projects by Region and Sector 1994-99|
|Sector||Africa||Asia & Pacific||Europe||Latin America & Caribbean||Near East||Total|
|Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries (combined)||4||2||-||3||4||13|
|Including two inter-regional TCP for Trade and WFS Follow-up|
|Annex 1 - Table 2 FAO-TCP Policy Projects Reviewed by Missions by Region and Sector|
|Sector||Africa||Asia & Pacific||Europe||Latin America & Caribbean||Near East||Total|
|Expenditure for policy (US$000) and number||No.||$ 000||No.||$ 000||No.||$ 000||No.||$ 000||No.||$ 000||No.||$ 000|
|Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries (combined)||2||648||-||-||-||-||-||-||1||272||3||920|
|Annex 1 - Table 3 - Missions' Assessment of Individual FAO-TCP Projects by Region|
|Africa||Asia||Europe||Latin America||Near East||Total|
|Number of cases assessed||10||4||13||7||8||42|
|Relevance/Priority to National Needs||High||80%||25%||38%||57%||63%||55%|
|Conformity to FAO's Priorities||High||50%||50%||38%||86%||38%||50%|
|Quality of Project Formulation||Good||30%||25%||23%||14%||25%||24%|
|Quality of Project Implementation by FAO||Good||50%||25%||54%||29%||25%||40%|
|Quality and Quantity of Output||High||50%||0%||38%||71%||25%||40%|
|Quality of the Process||Good||70%||0%||31%||57%||13%||38%|
|Effects (application of outputs)||High||30%||0%||15%||71%||38%||31%|
|Sustainable impact on policy||High||10%||0%||15%||57%||0%||17%|
|Annex 1 - Table 4 - Missions' Assessment of Individual FAO-TCP Projects by Sector|
|Number of cases assessed||3||29||1||7||2||42|
|Relevance/Priority to National Needs||High||100%||45%||100%||86%||0%||55%|
|Conformity to FAO's Priorities||High||100%||34%||100%||100%||0%||50%|
|Quality of Project Formulation||Good||67%||24%||-||14%||0%||24%|
|Quality of Project Implementation by FAO||Good||0%||38%||-||57%||100%||40%|
|Quality and Quantity of Output||High||67%||28%||100%||71%||50%||40%|
|Quality of the Process||Good||67%||34%||-||57%||0%||38%|
|Effects (application of outputs)||High||67%||24%||-||43%||50%||31%|
|Sustainable impact on policy||High||0%||10%||-||43%||50%||17%|
|Annex 1 - Table 5 - FAO-TCP Projects Reviewed by Missions|
|Malawi||TCP/MLW/6714||Assistance to the Presidential Commission of Inquiry on Land Policy Reform|
|Mali||TCP/MLI/5614-7821||Révision du Plan de la Recherche Agronomique et Préparation du Plan d'Action pour sa Mise en Oeuvre (Phases I et II)|
|Mali||TCP/MLI/6615||Appui à la Formulation du "Plan National d'Action Environnementale" et des Programmes d'Action Nationaux de Lutte contre la Désertification|
|Mozambique||TCP/MOZ/2355-661||Support to the Consolidation of the Land Commission|
|Mozambique||TCP/MOZ/4558||Formulation of a Strategy for the Foodgrain Post-Harvest Sector|
|Senegal||TCP/SEN/6713||Renforcement des Capacités Techniques et d'Analyse des Organisations Paysannes|
|Senegal||TCP/SEN/8925||Préparation d'un Document d'Orientations Stratégiques et d'un Plan d'Action Détaillé du Secteur Agricole|
|Tanzania||TCP/URT/4452||Forest Policy Formulation and Legislation Review for Zanzibar|
|Tanzania||TCP/URT/6716||Assistance in the Formulation of an Agricultural Sector Policy in Zanzibar|
|Bangladesh||TCP/BGD/4553||Support to Master Plan for the Forestry Sector of Bangladesh (TCP/BGD/8821)|
|Cambodia||TCP/CMB/4558||Appui à la Préparation de la Restructuration des Institutions de Développement Agricole|
|Laos||TCP/LAO/4453||Environment Policy and Planning for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development - Phases I and II (TCP/LAO/8822)|
|Thailand||TCP/THA/4451||Training in Agriculture Policy Analysis|
|Estonia||TCP/EST/5611||Long-term Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Agricultural Sector|
|Estonia||TCP/EST/5612||Sustainable Water Management Strategies for the Land Drainage and Irrigation Sector|
|Lithuania||TCP/LIT/4553||Preparation of a National Seeds Master Plan|
|Lithuania||TCP/LIT/821-0065||Development of the Private Forestry Sector in Lithuania|
|Moldova||TCP/MOL/6712||Grain Policy and Programme Strategies|
|Slovak Rep.||TCP/SLO/4551||Training in Agricultural Project Planning and Policy Analysis|
|Slovak Rep.||TCP/SLO/4552||Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Adjustment|
|Slovak Rep.||TCP/SLO/6711||Planning of the Strategy for Animal Breeding Development|
|Slovak Rep.||TCP/SLO/6712||Harmonization of Legislation and Strategy for Development of the Forestry Sector|
|Slovak Rep.||TCP/SLO/8922||Strategy for Agricultural and Rural Adjustment|
|Turkey||TCP/TUR/2253||Livestock Development Strategy|
|Turkey||TCP/TUR/2354||Preparation of a Horticulture Subsector Review|
|Turkey||TCP/TUR/4552||Assistance for Agricultural Policy Reforms in Turkey relating to GATT and EU Agreements|
|Brazil||TCP/BRA/4456||Support to the Formulation of National Agricultural Extension System and Programme of Implementation|
|Brazil||TCP/BRA/6712||Support to Brazil's Forestry Agenda|
|Mexico||TCP/MEX/5611||Support to the Alliance for the Countryside Programme|
|Mexico||TCP/MEX/6713||Definition of Strategies and Policies for Sustainable Development of Mountain Zones|
|Mexico||TCP/MEX/7821||Support to the Promotion of Soils (Phase II of MEX/4554)|
|Peru||TCP/PER/4451||Management of Fisheries|
|Peru||TCP/PER/8821||Support to the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Uruguay Round Agreements and the Agricultural Trade Negotiations|
|Egypt||TCP/EGY/4559||Re-use of Waste Water in Agriculture|
|Morocco||TCP/MOR/4453-6714||Impacts des Programmes d'Ajustement Structurel sur le Développement du Secteur Agricole (Phases I et II)|
|Morocco||TCP/MOR/6611||Appui à la Réorganisation et au Renforcement des Chambres de l'Agriculture|
|Tunisia||TCP/TUN/4555 et 7821||Définition d'une Politique et Elaboration d'une Stratégie et d'un Plan d'Action en faveur des Femmes Rurales (Phases I et II)|
|Tunisia||TCP/TUN/8926||Assistance à l'ONAGRI - L'Observatoire National de l'Agriculture|
|Tunisia||TCP/TUN/4553||Plan Directeur du Froid|
|Yemen||TCP/YEM/4558||Assistance in the Preparation of a Sustainable Agricultural Development Strategy and Policies|
|Yemen||TCP/YEM/7821||Implications of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations for Agriculture Policies of Yemen|
(in addition to the FAO-TCP projects listed in Annex 1)
|Malawi||MLW/92/006||Smallholder Agricultural Productivity Programme: Policy and Coordination|
|Malawi||MLW/97/010||Food Security Sub-programme of the Sustainable Livelihoods Programmes|
|Mali||MLI/91/005||Appui à la Mise en Oeuvre du Schéma Directeur du Développement Rural|
|Mali||MLI/98/005||Appui à l'Actualisation du Schéma Directeur du Développement Rural|
|Mozambique||GCP/MOZ/047/NET||Institutional Support to the Food Security Department (Phase IV) and MOZ/062/EC Support to Food Security Policy|
|Mozambique||MOZ/93/002||Support to Fisheries Development Programme and Aid Coordination and MOZ/051 and 052/EC - Planning and Coordination of Projects included in the Fisheries Master Plan|
|Tanzania||UTF/URT/102/URT||Technical Assistance to Agricultural Sector Planning|
|Tanzania||UTF/URT/107/UTF||Agricultural Sector Management Project|
|Bangladesh||BGD/94/01T||Support for National Plan of Action Strengthening Food and Agriculture Strategies to Improve Nutrition|
|Bangladesh||BGD/96/02T||Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh|
|Bangladesh||BGD/98/008||Consequences of the Uruguay Round Agreements for Bangladesh Agriculture|
|Bangladesh||SPPD/FAO-RP||National Agricultural Policy|
|Cambodia||CMB/97/022||Agricultural Strategies and Policy Framework for Sustainable Food Security and Poverty Alleviation|
|Cambodia||CMB/98/007||Forestry Policy and Programme Formulation|
|Laos||FAO-WB||Promoting Sustainable Rural Development|
|Laos||RP||National Nutrition Action Plan|
|Thailand||UNDP/TSS1||Review of Agricultural Diversification Policy and Adoption by Farmers|
|Brazil||UTF/BRA/036/BRA||Agrarian Policy and Sustainable Development Guidelines for Small Family Farming|
|Brazil||UTF/BRA/047/BRA||Positive Agenda for the Forestry Sector|
|Brazil||UTF/BRA/053/BRA||Preparatory Assistance in Support to Fisheries and Agriculture in Brazil|
|Egypt||SPPD/FAO-RP||Agricultural Development Strategy for Egypt to 2017|
|Morocco||MOR/89/007||Système Pilote de Suivi et d'Evaluation du Développement Agricole (SSEDA)|
|Tunisia||GCP/INT/591/FRA||Programme de Renforcement des Capacités d'Analyse de l'Impact d'Accords Commerciaux - Formation sur le Cycle de l'Uruguay et les Futures Négociations Multi-latérales sur l'Agriculture|
|Para.||Recommendation||Potential for economies and efficiency gains||Requirement for additional resources||Potential for Complementary Extra-budgetary funding|
|77||Unity of concept and purpose in policy work||Greater coherence will deliver increased impact from resources deployed||None||Not applicable|
|83-86||Advocacy and awareness raising on policy issues||Use of existing FAO frameworks can reap economies.||Requires both staff-time and funding||Limited but some work can be done in cooperation with other agencies|
|89-91||The UN and donor group country processes||None but electronic information and guidance systems can be of help||Additional support in staff time and finance is needed for FAORs but some reduction is envisaged in stand alone work by FAO||Partners will sometimes be prepared to support FAO's role|
|92||Collaboration with the IFIs||Possibly some reduction in duplication of effort between agencies||Additional support in staff time and finance is needed for FAORs but some reduction is envisaged in stand alone work by FAO||IFIs may continue to contribute to FAO's costs|
|93||Development of a networked, electronic, paper and personal policy resource for the rural sector||Reduction in duplication of systems and more value from existing information systems||Staff and financial resources required||Good potential, especially for a fully collaborative effort between organizations|
|95-96||Arrangements for technical assistance and Improved availability of flexible resources||Economies and efficiency gains through adjustment in ratio of staff to non staff resources||Resources required to increase technical cooperation||Possibility should be considered of regional and global policy assistance funds|
|97||Strengthening the responsiveness of FAO - TCP||Recommendation addresses this issue||None||Not applicable|
|98||Inter-disciplinary policy work||Recommendation addresses this issue||None||Not applicable|
|100||Clarification of Field Programme development function performed by the Policy assistance Branches||Recommendation addresses this issue||None||Not applicable|
|101||Clarification of first lines of responsibility between decentralised offices in policy work||Recommendation addresses this issue||None||Not applicable|
|102||Importance of the FAOR||Recommendation addresses this issue||Resource requirement for staff support and training||Limited|
|103||Better serving the CIS and similar countries||Limited possibilities||Requires additional posts and offices||Limited|
|104||Guidelines||None||Requires limited resources of staff time||Limited|
|105-7||Project design||None||Requires more attention to project design (staff time)||Limited|
|108||Country intelligence||Will deliver efficiency gains||Requires staff time and eventually computer equipment||Limited|
|109-10||Task Force||Will deliver efficiency gains||Staff-time||Limited|
19 e.g. TCP/BRA/4456 Support to the formulation of the national agricultural extension system and programme of implementation.
20 e.g. TCP/EGY/4459 Re-use of wastewater in agriculture; Laos FAO-WB Cooperative Programme - Promoting sustainable rural development.
21 e.g. BGD/94/01T Support for national plan of action strengthening food and agriculture strategies; TCP/MEX/4554/7821 Soil conservation; TCP/MEX/6713 Definition of strategies and policies for the sustainable development of mountain zones.
22 e.g. TCP/PER/4451 Management of fisheries.
23 UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)/Common Country Assessment (CCA), World Bank Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF)/Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). The ACC Task Force on Rural Development which is decentralized in its action to country level is also potentially important.
24 e.g. Agriculture - Mozambique and Yemen; Forestry - Cambodia; Rural Development - Senegal; Natural Resource Development - Mali.
25 It may be noted that in November 2000 the FAO Council approved a scheme to extend FAO's presence at country level by outposting senior technical officers.
26 This was often due to delays in clearance of candidates by the countries themselves and FAO is seeking to improve the situation by interim postings.
27 e.g. TCP/MEX/4554/7821 Support to the promotion of soil conservation.
28 The cost will naturally be directly proportional to the extent of additional effort devoted in any one area.