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Annex 4

INVENTORY OF AGREEMENTS

I. International (bi- and multilateral) Agreements

A. Convenio de 14 de julio de 1959 de asistencia mutua entre servicios contra incendios y de socorro franceses y españoles (Agreement of July 14, 1959, about mutual assistance between French and Spanish firefighting services).

B. Convenio sobre resguardo de bosques fronterizos contra incendios, Santiago, 5 de abril de 1967 (Agreement about the prevention of border forests against fires, Santiago, April 5, 1967).

C. Convenio sobre cooperación técnica y asistencia mutua en materia de proteción civil entre el Reino de España y el Reino de Marruecos, firmado en Rabat el 21 de enero de 1987 (Agreement about technical cooperation and mutual assistance in the field of civil protection, between Spain and Morocco, signed in Rabat on January 21, 1987).

D. Protocolo entre el Reino de España y la República Portuguesa sobre cooperación técnica y asistencia mutua en materia de proteción civil, hecho en Evora el 9 de marzo de 1992 (Agreement between Spain and Portugal about technical cooperation and mutual assistance in the field of civil protection, Evora, March 9, 1992).

E. Acuerdo entre la República Argentina y la República de Chile sobre cooperación en materia de catástrofes, Santiago, Chile 8 de agosto de 1997 (Agreement between Argentina and Chile about cooperation in the field of catastrophes, Santiago, Chile, August 8, 1997).

F. The Northwest Wildland Fire Protection Agreement, (US-Canadian, States, Provinces, Territories) PUBLIC LAW 105-377, Nov. 12, 1998.

G. Wildfire Protection Agreement between the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the Secretariat of Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries of the United Mexican States for the Common Border, June 4, 1999.

H. International Agreement between USA and ANZ, August 2000, FS Agreement No. 0011130200-0148, BLM Agreement No. 1422RAA00-0001.

I. Agreement on Cooperation for Forest and Steppe Fire Protection between Russian Federation and Mongolia, 2001.

J. Wildfire Arrangement between the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the National Rural Fire Authority of New Zealand, 2001.

K. International Agreement for Technical Fire Cooperation between British Columbia, Canada, and Ghana, 1999.

L. Cooperation and Assistance on Natural Disaster Management between Malaysia and Indonesia, 2001.

M. International Agreement between Nicaragua and Costa Rica, date unknown.

N. The Agreement of Joint Control of Forest Fire Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Russian Federation, 1995.

II. Operating Plans/Operational Guidelines

A. Northwest Wildland Fire Protection Agreement (Northwest Compact), Cooperative Operating Plan 2000 (May 5, 2000).

B. Mexico/United States Wildfire Protection Agreement, Operational Guidelines for 2000.

C. Canada/United States Reciprocal Forest Fire Fighting Arrangement, Operational Guidelines for 2001 (January 15, 2001).

D. Northwest Wildland Fire Protection Agreement (Northwest Compact), Cooperative Operating Plan 2001 (May 5, 2001).

III. In-Country Agreements

A. Convenio de coordinación en la prevención y combate de incendios forestales, 23 de Febrero de 1998 (Chile).

B. Acuerdo de colaboración palena protección conjunta para la zona limítrofe de las regiones X - los lagos Y XI - Aysen, La Junta, Noviembre 1998 (Chile).

C. Convenio de colaboración para la protección contra incendios forestales entre la Corporación Nacional Forestal VII región y Forestal Celco S. A., 01 de Diciembre de 1999 (Chile).

IV. Negative Responses

A formal request was sent out to FAO Representatives located in many countries throughout the world asking them to identify those countries that had entered into International Fire Agreements with other countries. The FAO Representatives contacted the appropriate Ministries and reported back to FAO regarding the absence of such Agreements for emergency fire assistance in the following countries:

The Bahamas
Benin
Bolivia
Brazil (Technical Fire Management Agreement with the United States, but no agreements regarding emergency responses to wildfires)
Cambodia
Caribbean Islands
Cyprus
El Salvador
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Guatemala
Laos
Lebanon
Nigeria
Peru
Rwanda
Sierra Leone
Senegal has no Agreements with other countries, but has plans to develop Agreements with the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea Conakry
Syria
Thailand
Togo
Uruguay
Venezuela
Zambia

Annex 5

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS REGARDING INTERNATIONAL (BI- AND MULTILATERAL) FIRE AGREEMENTS

The frequently found provisions to the frequently asked questions presented below have to be considered as examples and propositions. They are mainly based on review of some already existing Agreements9 and on practical experience.

General legal considerations

1. What is the procedure of entering into Agreements concerning forest firefighting?

2. What is considered to be the main purpose of such an Agreement?

3. Once in effect, does the Agreement bind one party to help the other in an emergency or is it optional?

4. Which criteria can be used when competition for resources between the Parties arises?

5. Do new Agreements have any impact on already existing Agreements?

6. What happens if a dispute arises between the Parties?

7. How long will the Agreement remain in force?

Generally, but not always, the Parties will make a provision indicating an explicit

8. Can the Agreement be terminated before the established termination date?

9. What is an Annual Operating Plan? And what is the difference between an Agreement and an Annual Operating Plan?

10. Is it imperative to develop Annual Operating Plans?

11. Which aspects need to be covered by the Annual Operating Plan?

12. Is it necessary to develop Regional/Local Operating Plans in addition to the general Annual Operating Plan?

13. Do any general standards exist, serving as a common base of understanding, concerning vocabulary, standards of equipment and personnel?

14. Is it possible to withdraw the resources once sent to the Receiving Party?

15. Who has to provide for safety equipment?

16. Who has to bear the costs of the Sending Party's firefighting resources?

17. Who will have the responsibility for overall coordination?

18. Which will be the authorised organisation to request assistance?

19. What is the best way to deal efficiently with customs' regulations?

20. Which logistical matters should be covered by the Agreement or by the Annual Operating Plan?

21. Who will provide medical assistance?

22. Can the Sending Parties personnel be sued for any action taken while performing duties under the Agreement?

23. Is one Party liable towards the other for loss, damage, personal injury, or death?

24. Is the Receiving Party liable for damages or destruction of the firefighting equipment?

25. Can Agreements be used to facilitate other than emergency responses?

26. How can international assistance be requested when no formal Agreement exists?

Annex 6

IFMN E-Mail Mailing List

This mailing list can be copied and pasted into the heading of an e-mail message:

pbalatso@yahoo.com ; vocedeno@semarnap.gob.mx ; itto@itto.or.jp ; jggold@uni-freiburg.de ; johan@ffa.co.za ; apk@ogm.gov.tr ; pmoore@cgiar.org ; shams@frim.gov.my ; bobmutch@montana.com ; div12@corpoforestale.it ; psanhuez@conaf.cl ; ricks@calm.wa.gov.au ; rvsoares@floresta.ufpr.br ; bstocks@NRCan.gc.ca ; jantro@mobilixnet.dk ; ricardo.velez@dgcn.mma.es ; gxnrtc@panafonet.gr ; ElHadji.Sene@fao.org ; Gillian.Allard@fao.org ; Jim.Carle@fao.org; Christel.Palmberg@fao.org ; Michel.Malagnoux@fao.org ; Manuel.Paveri@fao.org ; Ali.Mekouar@fao.org ; sakharov@un.org; charlebois@un.org; Christopher.Prins@fao.org; Jorge.Najera@unece.org

Annex 7

UNITED NATIONS RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES

To improve the international response to Environmental Emergencies the Environmental Emergencies Section (formerly the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit) of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) was established in 1994, following extensive consultations with Governments. The Section, which is organizationally located within OCHA's Emergency Services Branch, is a partnership between UNEP and OCHA that serves as the integrated United Nations emergency response capacity to activate and provide international assistance to countries facing environmental emergencies. The Section is available for urgent assistance on a 24-hour a day, 7 day-a-week basis through OCHA's established emergency response system to assist those in need.

The Section provides practical assistance to countries affected by environmental disasters such as chemical and oil spills, industrial and technological accidents, forest fires and other sudden-onset emergencies that cause or threaten environmental damage leading to potentially serious health and environmental implications. The Geneva-based Environmental Emergencies Section is able to intervene anywhere in the world through a global network of National Focal Points consisting of governmental organizations responsible for environmental emergencies at the national level. Of special interest to the FAO/ITTO Fire Management Network is the fact that the Section has responded to four forest fire incidents in recent years: twice in Indonesia, once in Russia, and once in the State of Roraima in Brazil in April 1998.

The Environmental Emergencies Section ensures a prompt international response to environmental disasters in the following ways:

OCHA has expressed an interest in coming to Rome to meet with FAO to discuss a variety of mutual interests. At that time OCHA would be prepared to brief FAO on their Mission and to suggest ways that FAO (Forestry) and OCHA might cooperate more actively in the future through "Interface" procedures. Mr. Sakharov provided copies of the "Interface Procedures" that presently exist between Environmental Emergencies Section and the following organizations:

The role of the United Nations' Disaster Assessment and Coordination Team (UNDAC) was described. The team is composed of experienced disaster management professionals funded by member governments and fielded in support of the disaster response role of UN/OCHA. After the UNDAC team arrives at the disaster site, they transmit information to OCHA's Emergency Services and Response Coordination Branches. The Response Coordination Branch's Regional Desk Officers mobilize assistance by immediately advising governments and international humanitarian organizations about casualties, damage and priority relief needs through situation reports. More can be learned about the operations of OCHA and UNDAC at the following website: www.reliefweb.int

Copies of the four UNDAC reports produced as a result of responses to recent forest fires are available through OCHA:

1. Indonesia Forest Fires, September-November 1997

2. Brazil, Fires in the State of Roraima, August 1997-April 1998

3. Indonesia, Land, Bush, and Forest Fires, March-April 1998

4. Russian Federation, Forest Fires on the Island of Sakhalin and the Khabarovsk Krai, September-October 1998

Annex 8

OPERATIONS OF THE GLOBAL FIRE MONITORING CENTER

The Fire Management Consultant visited the Global Fire Monitoring Center at Freiburg University, Freiburg, Germany, on 12-13 July 2001. Center staff, including Director Johann Goldammer, Ms. Mirjam Blasel, Mr. Alex Held, and Mr. Florian Resch, provided an in-depth briefing regarding the Mission of GFMC.

The GFMC was established in 1998 at the Fire Ecology and Biomass Burning Research Group of the Max Planck Institute of Chemistry, Germany. The GFMC was initially sponsored by the Government of Germany, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance, as a German contribution to the UN International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). With the end of the IDNDR (1990-2000) the GFMC intends to support the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), and the work of the UN Interagency Task Force for Disaster Reduction and its Early Warning Programme.

The GFMC was designed as an information and monitoring facility which national and international land managers, fire managers, disaster managers, scientists, and policy makers can use for planning and decision making. The fire documentation, information, and monitoring system is accessible through the Internet at http://www.uni-freiburg.de/fireglobe

During discussions in Geneva with UNECE and UN/OCHA, it became obvious that these two organizations benefit substantially from cooperative arrangements with GFMC. Thus, a draft Agreement between FAO and GFMC was developed by the Fire Management Consultant before departing Freiburg, so that FAO Forestry and GFMC could realize similar benefits. This draft Agreement was presented at the close-out briefing in Rome and later modified by FAO. The revised draft Agreement is presented in Annex 9.

Annex 9

FIRST DRAFT OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN FAO AND THE GLOBAL FIRE MONITORING CENTER

In line with the recommendations of the FAO/ITTO International Expert Meeting on Forest Fire Mangement in March 2001, which encouraged international cooperation, and subsequent discussion between the Consultant for Forest Fire Management and the Head of the Global Fire Monitoring Center, Germany, discussions should be pursued to enter into a formal agreement between FAO and GFMC.

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING REGARDING
COLLABORATION IN THE FORESTS SECTOR

between

THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)

and

GLOBAL FIRE MONITORING CENTER

(GFMC)

Background

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has a mandate to monitor and assess forest resources and uses, to analyse the data, to make information about forests and forestry widely available to member countries, and to provide a neutral forum for discussions on technical and policy issues.

The Expert Consultation on Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 held in Kotka, Finland, in June 1996, recommended that FAO provide annual estimates in the Forest Resources Assessment 2000 on the number and extent of forest fires.

The above priorities have been confirmed in sessions of the Committee on Forestry (13th, 14th, 15th Sessions), and have been included in the work programme of the Forestry Department.

Subsequently FAO, within the framework of the FRA 2000 programme, was able to institute a system for collecting country-based forest fire data for developing countries. This work was supported by the Global Fire Monitoring Center.

The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), which cooperates closely with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), monitors, forecasts and archives information on vegetation fires (forest fires, land-use fires, smoke pollution) at global level.

This information provides support to decision makers at national and international levels in the evaluation of fire situations or precursors of fire, which potentially endanger human life or which may negatively affect the environment. The GFMC was inaugurated at the time of the FAO Consultation on "Public Policies Affecting Forest Fires", held in Rome, 28 to 30 October 1998. The GFMC has its headquarters in the Fire Ecology and Biomass Burning Research Group of the Max Planck Institute of Chemistry, located at Freiburg University, Germany. The GFMC products, up-dated on a daily basis, are public domain, and are accessible through the Internet.

Purpose

The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding is to draw upon common interests in order to improve collaboration between the organizations/institutions and thus jointly to play a more effective role in working together to address the underlying causes of forest fires, to improve the coordination of efforts to manage, prevent and combat forest fires and to disseminate reliable data and information on forest fires.

Areas of Mutual Interest

Topics of mutual interest include, but are not necessarily limited to:

1. Improved dissemination of information about forest fires

2. Development of fire management information systems.

3. Initiation and maintenance of wildland fire databases.

4. The development and display of Country Fire Profiles.

5. Joint organization of regional and international fire management workshops.

Potential Modalities of Cooperation

Plan of Work

On a periodic basis, and not less than once every two years, the organizations will develop a plan of work outlining specific areas of cooperation during the next one to two years. This plan of work to be determined.

Points of Contact

FAO

GFMC
Mr Johann G. Goldammer
Global Fire Monitoring Center
E-mail: jggold@uni-freiburg.de

Approvals
M. Hosny El-Lakany
Assistant Director-General
Forestry Department
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GFMC
Mr Johann G. Goldammer
Head
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
c/o Freiburg University
P.O. Box
D-79085 Freiburg
Germany

Annex 10

MAJOR ELEMENTS OF INTERNATIONAL FIRE AGREEMENTS

Agreement

Purpose

Parties to Agreement/

Involved Organizations

Defini-tions

Main

Obligations

Reimburse-ment

of costs

Liabilities

Operating Plan/

Guidelines

Customs Provisions

Other Provisions

Duration/

Termination

France-Spain,1959

X

X

o

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Chile-Argentina, 1967

X

X

X

X

o

o

X

X

X

X

Spain-Morocco, 1987

X

X

o

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Spain-Portugal, 1992

X

X

o

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Chile-Argentina, 1997

X

X

X

X

X

X

o

X

X

X

US-Canada, 1998

X

X

o

X

X

X

X

o

X

X

US-Mexico, 1999

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

US-Australia, New-Zealand, 2000

X

X

o

X

X

X

o

X

X

X

Russian Fed.-Mongolia, 2001

X

o

o

X

X

o

o

X

X

X

US-New Zealand,

2001

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Annex 11

MAJOR ELEMENTS OF ANNUAL OPERATING PLANS

Annual Operating Plan/

Operational Guidelines

Authority

(Authorizing Agreement)

Purpose

Terminology & Command Systems

Request

Personnel

Equipment & Supplies

Aircraft

Recall

Billing & Payment

Situation Reporting

Administrative/ Organizational Matters

US-Canadian, States, Provinces, Territories, 2000

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

o

X

US-Canadian, States, Provinces, Territories, 2001

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

o

X

Mexico-US, 2000

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

o

X

o

X

Canada-U.S., 2001

X

X

o

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X


9 In the following, reference will be made to the listed Agreements and Operating Plans/Guidelines:
(A) Wildfire Protection Agreement between the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the Secretariat of Environment, Natural Resources, and Fisheries of the United Mexican States for the Common Border; June 4, 1999
(B) The Northwest Wildland Fire Protection Agreement, PUBLIC LAW 105-377, Nov. 12, 1998
(C) Wildfire Arrangement between the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the National Rural Fire Authority of New Zealand
(D) International Agreement Between USA and ANZ, August 2000, FS Agreement No. 0011130200-0148, BLM Agreement No. 1422RAA00-0001
(E) Canada/United States Reciprocal Forest Fire Fighting Arrangement, Operational Guidelines for 2001, January 15, 2001-06-26
(F) Northwest Wildland fire Protection Agreement (Northwest Compact), Cooperative Operating Plan 2000
(G) Mexico/United States Wildfire Protection Agreement, Operational Guidelines, 2000.
10 See: the "Wildfire Suppression Assistance Act"; PUBLIC LAW 101-11, Apr. 7, 1989 in connection with the "Temporary Emergency Wildfire Suppression Act"; PUBLIC LAW 100-428, Sept. 9, 1988.

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