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Strategic Budget


Overall Approach

1. The formulation of this Programme of Work and Budget (PWB) takes account in the first instance of the policy orientations set out in the Strategic Framework 2000-2015 and endorsed by the FAO Conference. The PWB, moreover, elaborates on the substance of the Medium Term Plan (MTP) 2004-09, which was considered by the Council in November 2002. This substance was fully defined in terms of constituent programme entities, with a rationale, objectives, major outputs and indicators, as well as an indication of the timeframe and of overall resources required. Thus, the formulation of proposals for the next biennium required inter alia the definition of more precise outputs and staffing requirements for the period, within set resource parameters.

2. Among external factors, the outcomes of major inter-governmental events and pronouncements, such as the World Food Summit: five years later (WFS:fyl) held in Rome in June 2002, the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg in August/September 2002, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations, have heavily influenced the formulation of proposals. The Plan of Implementation adopted by the WSSD includes commitments by the international community of keen interest to FAO, as regards for instance Oceans and Fisheries, Poverty Eradication, Biodiversity and many other areas.

3. The MDGs incorporate under Goal number 1: "Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger", the target adopted by the WFS and reiterated by the WFS:fyl. They also embody other basic common goals of humankind and related targets of direct relevance to FAO, such as those linked to health improvement, environmental sustainability and global partnerships for development.

Inter-governmental guidance

4. In line with the established two-stage discussion process in Governing Bodies, the Summary PWB (SPWB) was considered by the Programme and Finance Committees and the Council in the Spring of 2003, and “sectoral views” thereof by the pertinent Technical Committees at their 2003 sessions.

5. Therefore, this full PWB seeks to reflect to the extent possible the recommendations of the Technical Committees of the Council, in particular those of the Committees on Agriculture (COAG), Fisheries (COFI) and Forestry (COFO) and, to a lesser extent, the Committees on World Food Security (CFS) and on Commodity Problems (CCP). However, taken as a whole, these recommendations would translate into a substantial additional workload, as was intimated to the 124th Session of the Council in June 2003, through a specially-prepared information document1.

6. Further guidance was, of course, provided by the Programme and Finance Committees and the Council themselves, which also invited the strengthening of certain priority areas. Interventions from Members generally included expectations that individual preferred priorities should be “protected”, irrespective of the budget level. As mentioned in the Director-General’s Introduction, the Secretariat has sought to accommodate some of these expectations by shifting resources from Major Programme 2.5 Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts to other Major Programmes, such as MP 2.1 Agricultural Production and Support Systems to augment resources linked to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), MP 2.2 Food and Agriculture Policy and Development to strengthen work on Codex and food safety and MP 2.3 Fisheries and MP 2.4 Forestry, to increase the relative shares of these areas over those in the Zero Real Growth (ZRG) scenario in the SPWB.

Towards a strategic budget

7. The Organization has come a long way since the early days of budgets presented essentially in terms of objects of expenditure, allocations by organizational units and lists of posts. In line with similar efforts undertaken in national administrations, FAO has sought to incorporate into its programme and budget formulation practices, the advances made in the application of strategic planning and results-based budgeting principles. The Organization can now reap the full benefits from the new programme model aimed at improved design, better justifications and enhanced accountability for results, and a hierarchical set of forward-looking documents, which provide complementary perspectives on the overall achievements sought, with different time horizons.

8. The Strategic Framework was developed to elicit an agreed view of Members of FAO's role in helping them achieve the three global goals they endorsed in that document:

9. The expected responses from FAO were expressed in the same document, in terms of five major corporate strategies:

A. Contributing to the eradication of food insecurity and rural poverty;
B. Promoting, developing and reinforcing policy and regulatory frameworks for food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry;
C. Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors;
D. Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture; and
E. Improving decision making through the provision of information and assessments and fostering of knowledge management for food and agriculture.

10. These corporate strategies to address Members’ needs translate into twelve strategic objectives which require complementary sets of actions under the various technical programmes of the Organization.

11. Six Strategies to Address Cross-organizational Issues (SACOIs) were also highlighted in the Strategic Framework: Ensuring Excellence, Enhancing Inter-disciplinarity, Broadening Partnerships and Alliances, Continuing to Improve the Management Process, Leveraging Resources for FAO and its Members and Communicating FAO's Messages. The latter strategies affect, to varying degrees, both substantive and non-substantive areas.

12. The substantive content of the MTP 2004-09 was clearly driven by the need to implement the above Strategies and attendant objectives, as well as the SACOIs. Moreover, the two versions of the MTP developed after the Strategic Framework was adopted by FAO’s Governing Bodies, i.e. for the 2002-07 and 2004-09 periods, gave due prominence to inter-disciplinarity, by presenting sixteen Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Actions (PAIAs), which brought together needed contributions from all concerned FAO units to address important issues, transcending classical organizational boundaries, alike responding to the Strategic Objectives of the Organization.

13. While summarily described above as a matter of “fine-tuning” of biennial outputs and resource allocations for the next two-year period, the PWB formulation process did not, of course, lose sight of these more elaborate dimensions in the design of proposed programmes and activities. In effect, the need to relate future activities to approved corporate strategies and underlying objectives and to secure needed cooperation with other units, has become an entrenched practice. The supportive information system, PIRES, includes comprehensive features not only to support the design of individual entities but also to enable staff to track contributions of planned outputs both to the Strategic Objectives and the PAIAs, so that it is now easier to present views of planned activities according to more complex dimensions, as done in the following sections. However, as Members are accustomed to the established programme structure, the main section of the document – i.e. the Programme Budget – is still presented on that basis.

14. It is useful to recall below the principles of the programme model which underlie both the MTP and the PWB. The constituent entities of FAO's substantive work fall under three categories:

  1. Technical projects (TPs, which can be recognized by their numbers in the range 2XXA1 to 2XXO9 – under Chapter 2). TPs have a normal duration of up to six years; their design should entail precise, time-bound objectives compatible with the Organization's overall strategic objectives and clear benefits for target users; they should have well-defined major outputs and demonstrable effectiveness criteria and indicators;
  2. Continuing programme activities (CPs, numbered 2XXP1 to 2XXR9), which are not of the same time bound nature as TPs (e.g. collection of statistical time series), while still involving clear objectives, indicators and outputs; and
  3. Technical services agreements (TS, numbered 2XXS1 to 2XXZ9), which cover essentially demand-oriented services, such as advisory services to Members or technical support services to projects which cannot be specified in advance, and can include servicing of statutory meetings.

15. Important fields of information in the design of entities, such as the rationale and indicators, were specified in the MTP 2004-09 and the associated database available on FAO's Web site. Accordingly, for the sake of brevity, the narratives for individual entities in the Programme Budget, are limited to statements of objective(s), which are normally a replica of those in the MTP, and lists of outputs planned for the next biennium.

16. Therefore, the articulation of the proposals under substantive programmes, in terms of constituent entities, is virtually identical to that shown in the MTP 2004-09. The PWB presents the outputs and the staff and non-staff resource requirements, in line with the resource scenarios specified by senior management, i.e. Real Growth (RG), but at a lower level than that anticipated in the MTP for the biennium 2004-05, and ZRG.

17. For information purposes, the indicative resource levels for the 2004-05 biennium included in the MTP 2004- 09 for FAO's substantive programmes are provided in the following table, together with those in the present PWB proposals at the RG level.

Resources Programmed for Substantive Work for 2004-05 (All amounts in US$ 000)

Major Programme

MTP 2004-09

PWB 2004-05 (RG)







Agricultural Production and Support Systems






Food and Agriculture Policy and Development


















Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts






Policy Assistance










Contributions to Strategic Objectives

Distribution of Resources by Strategic Objectives

18. The MTP 2004-09 included information on the distribution of resources for substantive programmes (i.e. those under Chapter 2, Technical and Economic Programmes, and Major Programme 3.1, Policy Assistance) across the 12 objectives of the Strategic Framework (labelled A1 to E3).

19. The following table supplements the information provided in the MTP (adjusted to the first biennium 2004-05 for comparative purposes) with similar breakdowns for the present PWB proposals.

Substantive Programmes – Distribution of Resources by Strategic Objectives


Major Programme













Medium Term Plan 2004-2009


Agricultural Production and Support Systems


Food and Agriculture Policy and Development







Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts



Policy Assistance

Programme of Work and Budget Proposals


Agricultural Production and Support Systems


Food and Agriculture Policy and Development







Contributions to Sustainable Development and Special Programme Thrusts


Policy Assistance






Greater than zero, less than US$ 2 million

US$ 2 million to 4 million

US$ 4 million to 8 million

More than US$ 8 million

20. The resource breakdowns across strategic objectives are broadly similar, while differences may occur due to the fact that lower resource levels are used in the PWB proposals, compared to the tentative resource distribution pattern in MTP 2004-09.

21. Individual tables showing the distribution of resources in relation to the twelve Strategic Objectives are provided at the beginning of each major programme in Chapter 2 and for Major Programme 3.1.

Overview of relevant activities

22. An overview of main activities planned for the next biennium contributing to the achievement of the 12 Objectives is provided below.

A.1 Sustainable rural livelihoods and more equitable access to resources

23. Under Major Programme 2.1, entities 212A3, 213A3 and 214A1 are geared to improving opportunities and needed services to strengthen and diversify the livelihoods of rural poor, through: the promotion of management techniques for smallholder cropping systems; decision-support tools for sustainable resource use in smallholder, low-input livestock production systems; appraisal of opportunities for increasing farm income; and support to advisory and support services which meet the conditions of small farmers’ communities. The programme will address new income-generating and value-adding activities at farm and community level, including school gardens and milk processing and marketing. The development of tools and methods for farm planning, financial management, resource sharing, market analysis and profitability appraisal for farmer groups and farmer field schools, will also be relevant to this Strategic Objective. Entity 212A9 will seek to provide more equitable access to plant genetic resources through support to on-farm management, exchange and improvement of seeds and planting material.

24. The Major Programme on Fisheries will contribute through activities on increased production from under-utilized aquatic resources and low-value catches, reduction of discards and environmental impact from fisheries, and more generally through its emphasis on the sustainable development of small-scale fisheries, which permeates several entities.

25. One of the major contributions under Forestry is through entity 243P4 Participatory Forestry and Sustainable Livelihoods which focuses on enhancing the participation of forest stakeholders, including the people who live in or close to forests, in the decision-making processes that affect their livelihoods.

26. By essence, Major Programme 2.5 makes a sizeable contribution to this Strategic Objective. For instance, planned outputs under entities 252P1 Promotion of Gender and Population Issues in Policies, Legislation and Civil Institutions, and 252A4 Analysis and Mitigation of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security and Rural Development aim at a better understanding of linkages between gender and population factors, including mortality/morbidity caused by HIV/AIDS, and of various coping strategies and livelihood options for the rural poor. They address the corresponding enabling measures needed at policy, legislative and institutional level to support more equitable access to resources for sustainable rural livelihoods. Through entity 253A1, the Major Programme also covers the development of policies and working models, which improve access to land by the rural poor, including through agrarian reforms and appropriate land market transactions. It supports strengthening of tenure security, with special reference to indigenous and common property tenure systems. Entity 253A2 contributes to enhance the livelihoods of small farmers and their families, by promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD) policies and programmes and by strengthening the rural institutions, local civil society and voluntary producer organizations that serve them. Outputs under entity 253A4 promote the use of participatory approaches in rural development projects, so that they reflect the needs of the rural poor. The Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) (256P3) is also to give emphasis to participatory approaches in all field-level activities it supports.

A.2 Access of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food

27. The major contribution of Major Programme 2.2 is through nutrition-related work. Nutrition Improvement for Sustainable Development (221A2) is to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of national plans of action for food security and nutrition. Community Action for Improved Household Food Security and Nutrition (221A4) will assist national and international development institutions and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to engage effectively in community-based programmes in both urban and rural areas, including community-centred approaches and people living with HIV/AIDS. Food and Nutrition Education, Communications and Training (221A5) will build capacities of national and local institutions to implement effective nutrition education and communication programmes and activities. Priority is given to the promotion of food-based dietary guidelines, nutrition education in schools (Feeding Minds, Fighting Hunger), and school gardens. Entities in Programme 2.2.4 undertake policy analysis on a number of key aspects: the roles of agriculture and rural non-farm activities in hunger and poverty reduction, the sources of income and access to assets by poor rural households, the design and evaluation of safety nets and other programmes to enhance direct access to food, the relationship between poverty and natural resource depletion. Related policy proposals are developed.

28. Under Major Programme 2.4 Forestry, the new technical project 243A5 Forests, Poverty Alleviation and Food Security is to emphasize the key role played by forests in national poverty reduction strategies and access to food.

A.3 Preparedness for, and effective and sustainable response to, food and agricultural emergencies

29. The main contribution of Major Programme 2.1 is clearly through both components of the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) – 212A4 and 213A7. These entities, along with 212P2, 212P3 and related TS, will cover monthly bulletins on the desert locust situation, assistance to survey and early warning systems, support to early locust control capacity building, cooperation in desert locust control, new and improved technologies involving remote sensing and good survey practices, field testing of environmentally friendly locust control techniques and various related information activities.

30. Entities 213A6, 213A7, 215A2 and related TS will: support control of major zoonotic diseases and functional early warning systems for transboundary animal diseases (TADs); help establish early reaction capability for animal disease emergency management; apply biotechnology to diagnosis, vaccines and strategic epidemiological analyses of TADs; lead and coordinate the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP); and coordinate strategies for regional control of TADs. Of practical significance will be an operational global early warning system for TADs in collaboration with the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and a Global framework for the progressive control of food-and-mouth disease and for the GREP with the OIE.

31. Under Major Programme 2.2, Nutrition Programmes for Sustainable Development (221A2) and Household Food Security in Emergencies (221A6) will support capacity-building to take due account of nutrition aspects in emergency preparedness, response and rehabilitation through guidelines and training, including coping mechanisms to protect household food security. The main contribution is clearly through the Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (223P6), to facilitate the provision of relief assistance to people affected by natural and man-made disasters, including: Special Reports and Alerts on Food Shortages; crop and food supply assessment missions to disaster-affected countries; and analyses of emergency food aid requests from governments. Analytical studies linking emergency operations to rehabilitation and development are also undertaken.

32. The principal Forestry contribution to this Strategic Objective is the work carried out on preparedness against forest fires and combating forest insects and diseases (241A1). Member countries will be assisted in particular in the development of effective policies and planning processes for preventing and managing natural and man-caused disasters.

33. Finally, it is noteworthy that work on this strategic objective involves a significant component of technical support services to emergency projects.

B.1 International instruments concerning food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, and the production, safe use and fair exchange of agricultural, fishery and forestry goods

34. Through a number of entities, Major Programme 2.1 plays a key role in the international regulatory framework for agriculture. Several international instruments are supported: the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT-PGRFA) (210P1 and 212P4); IPPC, with a target of eight standards for the biennium and the launch of an International Phytosanitary Portal (212P1); the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (212P2), with strengthened regional harmonization of pesticide registration; and the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), with addition of chemicals and training on implementation. These instruments rely on several important fora or technical bodies serviced by Major Programme 2.1: COAG; the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) and its intergovernmental technical working groups on animal and plant genetic resources, which contribute to the development of agreed policy and regulatory measures; the International Rice Commission; the Codex Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues, which produces recommendations on Maximum Residue Levels; regional plant protection organizations and regional animal health commissions.

35. Major Programme 2.2 is also heavily involved with key normative instruments. The Codex Alimentarius Commission, serviced by the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme (221P2), will further develop internationally accepted, science-based food standards and related instruments for use by Governments or as a reference in bi-lateral, regional or international agreements, and to protect consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade. Standards are established in the areas of food labelling and nutrition, food safety, specific foodstuffs, and food inspection, testing and certification. The standard setting work of Codex is facilitated by entity: Food Safety Assessment and Rapid Alert System (221P6), which provides scientific assessments of food-related risks associated with additives and contaminants, veterinary drug residues, microbiological hazards in foods as well as methods and procedures for undertaking such assessments, including for foods derived from biotechnology. Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment for Food Safety and Quality (221P1) determines international accepted estimates for healthy diets and for estimating the number of under-nourished and designing nutrition programmes. In the areas of Support to Trade Negotiations (224A2) and Analysis and Consensus-Building on Emerging Commodity and Trade Issues (224P4), the programme aims at enabling countries, especially developing countries, to participate effectively in trade negotiations affecting the international regulatory framework for agriculture. This is to contribute to a rules-based international trading system, and improved capacity of developing countries to benefit from trade in processed and semi-processed food and agricultural commodities. Analytical studies and capacity-building activities are to cover trade policy issues relating to specific commodities, the environment, competition policy and food security.

36. The principal contribution of Fisheries is through coordination and monitoring of the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, and support to other fisheries related instruments. Implementation of the Code is a key concern in many activities regarding consumption, safety and quality of fish and fishery products (233A4), promotion of international fish trade, and support and advice on fish utilization. In addition, advice will be provided on marine resources and environmental issues and regional fisheries bodies and arrangements will be strengthened.

37. The Forestry entity 244A1 International Forestry Processes is geared to supporting the United Nations Forum on Forests; ensuring an active FAO participation in the global conventions which have an impact on forests, and FAO’s leadership role in the Collaborative Partnership on Forests. Entity 241A8 Forests and Climate Change is to support specifically the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

B.2 National policies, legal instruments and supporting mechanisms that respond to domestic requirements and are consistent with the international policy and regulatory framework

38. Much of the effort to assist countries create the necessary national policy and regulatory framework is made through policy assistance and technical advice to Members.

39. As the natural extension of the key international instruments covered by Major Programme 2.1, the same Major Programme includes a number of entities geared to country-level implementation: e.g. for the development of national phytosanitary systems and the exchange of mandatory phytosanitary information (212P1); the dissemination of sound pesticide management and technologies for replacement of hazardous pesticides (212P2); the promotion of food safety measures and quality control along the food chain; and, improved procedures and capacities for risk assessment and management of major trade-related crop pests and transboundary animal diseases. Examples of other specific activities are: the promotion of alternatives to persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides in two regions; mainstreaming of good pesticide procurement practices in development programmes; risk analysis tools and mechanisms to ensure biosecurity with respect to animal and public health; and training and capacity building in managing transboundary livestock diseases, pesticide residues and food irradiation.

40. Many aspects of the normative work undertaken within MP 2.2 translate into policy analysis/advice and capacity building at the national level. These include: norms and standards for food quality and safety; roles of agriculture and the rural sector in the alleviation of hunger and poverty; and national commodity and trade development strategies in response to the evolving international regulatory framework for agriculture. Within the food safety and nutrition domain, extensive policy advice and capacity building is to be provided to members to strengthen food control systems and adopt Codex standards for domestic food safety and facilitate international trade. Entity Agricultural Adjustment and Policy Reforms (224P1) aims at informing policy makers of agricultural policy options, building capacity to design, adjust and evaluate these options and negotiate and implement enabling policy frameworks for agriculture development. In trade-related areas, besides substantial assistance in the context of follow-up to trade negotiations, complementary advice is provided through entity: Enhancing Diversification and Competitiveness of Agricultural Commodities (224P5).

41. An important group of activities of the Fisheries programme is directed towards B2, including advice on fish utilization and trade and strategic analysis of inland fisheries and aquaculture. Economic and social aspects are also to be addressed in policy formulation for aquaculture and fisheries.

42. Two Forestry entities contribute in their entirety to this strategic objective: 243A3 Strengthening National Institutional Capacities which is dedicated to strengthening national policies and promoting at national level effective legal instruments to achieve sustainable forest management; 243A4 Forest Policies and Governance which also aims at strengthening national policies and improving the efficiency of national forest administrations to enforce policies and laws. In addition, entity 241A8 supports national initiatives to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change.

43. Major Programme 2.5 is heavily involved in facilitating support to the implementation of international environmental agreements such as Conventions (251A6). The assistance provided to improve national capacities in the adoption and application of new technologies (biotechnology, information and communication technologies [ICTs]), including regulatory frameworks for technology transfer and biosafety of genetically modified organisms, is also relevant.

C.1 Policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers

44. Under Major Programme 2.1, the crops and livestock programmes in particular contribute to this Strategic Objective by covering key dimensions of diversification and adaptation of production systems. Pertinent activities in the next biennium will include: the assessment and promotion of high-value crops; the promotion of profitable and sustainable urban and peri-urban production systems; the International Year of Rice; support to national soil fertility/productivity improvement programmes; advisory services and capacity building to promote various horticulture and fruit crops with local comparative advantage, including formulation of national sector development plans; networks on livestock and poverty alleviation; guidelines for incorporating value-added milk and dairy products processing and distribution into food security strategies; methodologies for policy and technology options addressing the role of livestock in deforestation and degradation of common property resources. Moreover, all entities of Programme 214 are of direct relevance to this Strategic Objective by covering: supportive policies and programmes for small farmer competitiveness; strengthened rural and urban linkages and improved efficiency and sustainability of food supply and distribution systems in rural, urban and peri-urban areas; the provision of adequate commercial services to farmers as well as appropriate tools, equipment and mechanisation; financial and marketing services; environmentally sound and safe processing, packaging, storage, transport and distribution technologies; and, strengthened farm-agribusiness linkages.

45. Under Major Programme 2.2, capacity building on Food Quality Control and Consumer Protection (221P5) is to further enable countries to manage their food control systems, harmonise their food standards and regulations with the Codex Alimentarius and participate in the work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Likewise, Food Quality and Safety throughout the Food Chain (221P8) is to contribute to the formulation of a strategic framework to address key elements and actions required along the food chain for safe and nutritious food. Entity Market Assessments for Basic Food Commodities (223P3) aims at enhanced market efficiency and improving developing country participation in commodity markets through better informed policies and decision making. Periodic reports on Projections and Global Commodity Market Assessments (223P4) will play an indirect role through information to adjust policies, strategies and plans to seize trade-related opportunities.

46. Dominant fisheries activities under this Objective are related to the promotion of coastal fisheries management, the formulation of appropriate national/regional policies for sustainable aquaculture development, support to developing countries towards their increased participation in international fish trade, as well as global analysis of economic and social trends in fisheries and aquaculture.

47. Under Major Programme 2.4, the new technical programme entity 242A4 Economic Aspects of Forests will apply economic analysis to help develop and implement forest policies and practices that improve the efficiency and adaptability of the forest sector.

48. Under Major Programme 2.5, Programme 2.5.2 is to contribute towards this Strategic Objective through normative work covering gender and population issues relevant to land use and management, to indigenous knowledge and management of genetic resources (animal and plant), to water management at farm level, to rural energy, and to technologies for food production and processing. This work will be important to guide Members on policy options and institutional measures to improve efficiency and adaptability in production, processing and marketing systems, and meet the changing needs of producers and consumers (both women and men). The SPFS, particularly through built-in analysis of constraints to expanding food production in interested countries, is also worth mentioning.

C.2 Adoption of appropriate technology to sustainably intensify production systems and to ensure sufficient supplies of food and agricultural, fisheries and forestry goods and services

49. Given its prime focus on the assessment, development and dissemination of agricultural technologies to sustainably intensify crop and livestock production systems, Major Programme 2.1 will make a significant contribution to this Strategic Objective. It will cover key aspects such as integrated production systems, good agricultural practices, conservation agriculture, crop water, soil and nutrient management, irrigation technologies, land resources planning, greenhouse crop production and protection management, the Global Cassava Strategy, urban and peri-urban production systems, integrated pest management, rice development, low-input grassland systems and intensive forage production, low-input and smallholder livestock production systems, and strengthened veterinary services. Concrete activities in the next biennium are to monitor and analyse advances in technology and inform the international research agenda including: study of factors pertinent to conservation agriculture, such as nutrient and water dynamics, carbon sequestration and soil erosion; assessment of biotechnology-based applications to meet development needs; and an annotated road-map on biotechnology-related matters. Other activities will underpin adoption of improved techniques, such as: models to improve farmers’ knowledge on integrated crop management through Farmer Field Schools (FFS); case studies of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) implementation that reduces risk to farmers and consumers; regional farmer-participatory pilot sites to study and demonstrate horizontal and vertical integration of production and post-harvest systems; regional networks, workshops and pilot sites for conservation agriculture; methodologies and guidelines on crop water productivity and irrigation system modernization; norms and standards for cost-effective greenhouse technology; identification and demonstration of micro-garden systems adapted to urban and peri-urban environments; and guidelines and capacity building for safe animal feeding, milk and meat hygiene.

50. The Fisheries programme includes various activities related to increased contribution of aquaculture and inland fisheries to food security and for monitoring and strategic analysis of inland fisheries and aquaculture. Increased production is to be obtained from under-utilized aquatic resources and low-value-species and technology enhancements for small-scale fisheries.

51. The contribution of the Forestry programme includes entity 242P2 Appropriate Utilisation of Forest Products which is dedicated to the development and implementation of sound wood and non-wood product utilisation practices to ensure a sustainable supply of goods and services in member countries.

52. The contribution from Major Programme 2.5 is mainly directed to the improvement of the efficiency of national institutions involved in education, research, extension and technology transfer (Programme 2.5.1). In turn, these institutions can support the adoption of appropriate technologies for sustainable national production systems in all agricultural sectors. Both the Global Forum for Agricultural Research and the Science Council Secretariats, i.e. entities 251A5 and 251P4, also focus on this Strategic Objective.

53. The SPFS will also be a very important contributor to this objective, demonstrating with a fully participatory approach the potential of well-tested and simple technologies in an expanding range of projects and countries.

D.1 Integrated management of land, water, fisheries, forest and genetic resources

54. Principally through its programme on natural resources (2.1.1) and also several entities under other programmes, Major Programme 2.1 will make a substantial contribution to this Strategic Objective. It will address, in particular: land, water and fertilizer use policies and management practices incorporating environmental elements; integrated pest management policies; application of the ecosystem approach in management practices of crop and crop-associated biodiversity; national implementation of the Global Plan of Action on PGRFA and the Global Strategy for Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources; good agricultural practices contributing to environmentally safe production; and, environmental animal health management practices for insect borne diseases. It will provide support to tsetse and trypanosomiasis management in PAAT-PATTEC agreed areas.

55. A conceptual contribution of Major Programme 2.2 is through entity Economics of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability (224P3) which will provide information and methods for the economic valuation of environmental degradation which, in turn, contributes to better agricultural policies by taking environmental costs into account.

56. Pertinent Fisheries activities are mainly in terms of promotion of responsible inland fisheries and aquaculture, provision of advice on marine resources and environmental issues as well as advice on small-scale fisheries development.

57. As regards Forestry, under the Forest Resources programme, entity 241A1 Sustainable Management of Natural Forests and Woodlands is to support national efforts to incorporate all pertinent dimensions and externalities in the design of forest policies and practices. Entity 241A5 Forest Plantations and Trees Outside Forests will aim at ensuring that forests and trees are properly taken into account in the integrated management of land and natural resources.

58. Under Major Programme 2.5, entity 251A6 is to assist with policy studies and tools related to integrated environmental planning and management, as well as with FAO’s interface with international conventions.

D.2 Conservation, rehabilitation and development of environments at the greatest risk

59. Major Programme 2.1 will contribute through: technologies and methodologies for wetland development and conservation; waterlogging and salinity control and rehabilitation; and, strategies and technologies for natural, low-input grassland systems.

60. Activities under Major Programme 2.3 are aimed at reducing discards and environmental impacts from fisheries, as well as promoting effective coastal fisheries management

61. Regarding Major Programme 2.4, entity 241A4 Conservation in Forests and Fragile Ecosystems will contribute to this objective, by emphasizing the importance of ecosystem approaches to protecting fragile ecosystems, including mountains and drylands. Entity 241A7 Forests and Water also contributes to this strategic objective, by focusing on improving the management of watersheds that provide a large share of the fresh water in the world.

62. Under Major Programme 2.5, entity 251A1 will further support impact assessment for development projects (including in areas at risk), while the SPFS (256P3) is also active through some of its projects in fragile environments.

E.1 An integrated information resource base, with current, relevant and reliable statistics, information and knowledge made accessible to all FAO clients

63. A very large number of entities and outputs are linked to this Strategic Objective, reflecting the pervasive nature of the information collection and dissemination function of FAO.

64. Major Programme 2.1 contributes through global information portals on Good Agricultural Practices, veterinary public health and education, and food and feed safety; databases on land resources and land use, and capacity building for national land and water information systems; the crop and grassland database; a global livestock information system with Geographic Information System (GIS) layers and decision support, modelling and information dissemination tools; the Information Network on Post-harvest Operations (INPhO) with planned coverage of new products and new modules on food quality and safety; and, the agricultural and rural finance database (AgriBank-Stat).

65. Major Programme 2.2 is clearly the motive force behind the generation of large amounts of statistics and information, much of which are accessible by, and intended to be of direct benefit to Members and other users, including serving the internal needs of FAO’s programmes. Core statistical work is covered by Agricultural Resources and Income Statistics (222P1) and Agricultural Production, Trade Statistics and Food Balance Sheets (222P2). The principal means of dissemination are Statistical Yearbooks and the Corporate Database for Substantive Statistical Data (FAOSTAT). Electronic collection and dissemination systems are also maintained for Basic Food Commodities and Tropical, Horticultural and Raw Material Commodities on Global Food Security (223P3 and 223P5). This will be buttressed by further efforts to provide more reliable, methodologically-sound and new data aggregations through Systematic Evaluation and Improvement of Statistical Data Quality (222A4), including the modernisation of FAOSTAT. Capacity building is provided through Agricultural Statistics Development (222P3) to improve the availability, reliability, timeliness and usefulness of statistics at the national level. A special effort, supported by extra-budgetary resources, is the FAO/World Bank/United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Initiative for Agricultural Statistics in Africa (222A2). Major Programme 2.2 is also host to key activities in support of the World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT). The World Agriculture Information Resource System (222A5) is to provide access to research and development information, including networking of national agricultural and research information systems. WAICENT Corporate Information Management and Dissemination Systems (222P6) provide access to multilingual information on food, agriculture and rural development, while Facilitation of WAICENT Outreach (222P8) is to strengthen capacity of users at country level to access and exchange information. Standards, Norms and Procedures for Improved Access to Agricultural Information (222P7) will facilitate the adoption of international standards and methodologies for the collection, storage and dissemination of electronic information pertaining to food and agriculture, thereby enabling better management of national information systems. The consultation on Agricultural Information Management (COAIM) is the forum for Members to discuss information management strategies and national needs and priorities in agricultural information. The Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) (220A1, 222A3) is another important contribution to E1, as it provides Members and the international community with the means for generating accurate and timely information on the incidence, nature and causes of food insecurity and vulnerability at national and sub-national levels. In addition, Food Safety Assessment and Rapid Alert System (221P6) maintains databases on specifications for the identity and purity of food additives and maximum residue limits for veterinary drugs and for the assessment of food-related risks. Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Assessment for Food Safety and Quality (221P1) compiles and makes available information on internationally accepted estimates of the minimum, optimal and maximum safe intakes of various nutrients required for healthy diets.

66. Under Major Programme 2.3, a broad range of activities are to contribute: collection and dissemination of fisheries information and statistics, advice and technical support to member nations and regional fisheries bodies, support to partnerships for the Fisheries Resources Monitoring System (FIRMS), marine fisheries resources identification and biodata, and information systems on safety and quality of fish products and trade.

67. Major Programme 2.4 has two entities devoted to information collection and dissemination, i.e. 242P1, Forest Products Information, and 244P1, Forestry Information, which combine in making an integrated information base and reliable statistics accessible to all FAO constituents.

68. Under Major Programme 2.5, many outputs of entities 251A1, 251A4 and 251P1 relate to data and information, including work on GeoNetwork and Geographical information systems, and remote sensing.

E.2 Regular assessments, analyses and outlook studies for food and agriculture

69. The main contribution of Major Programme 2.1 is through the analysis of country and regional reports of the State of the World Animal Genetic Resources.

70. Major Programme 2.2 hosts several key activities relevant to E2. Short-term market assessments and forecasts for Basic Food Commodities (223P3) and of Tropical, Horticultural and Raw Material Commodities (223P5) are to keep key actors informed of emerging commodity market conditions and opportunities. A major recurrent publication is The State of World Commodity Markets. Commodity outlook conferences (224P4) and the Committee on Commodity Problems and its subsidiary inter-governmental commodity groups (223S1) will continue to review emerging commodity market issues including the impact of new and bio-technologies on trade, eco-labelling and fair trade, organic agriculture development and competitiveness of agricultural commodities. The State of Food and Agriculture (223P2) will further enhance awareness and understanding of global or major trends, constraints and opportunities in agricultural development. Global Food and Agricultural Perspective Studies (223A2) will inform key decision makers of long-term developments, constraints and opportunities in world food, nutrition and agriculture.

71. Fisheries activities contributing to this Objective are those dealing with resources assessment, monitoring and reporting on global marine resources and on environmental and ecological changes, as well as strategic analysis of developments regarding inland fisheries and aquaculture. Much of the output is reflected in the State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA).

72. The major forestry contributions are through entities 242A3: Forest Sector Outlook Studies, which includes the State of the World’s Forests (SOFO), and 241P1: Assessment and Monitoring of Forests and Woodland Resources.

E.3 A central place for food security on the international agenda

73. The major contributor is Major Programme 2.2 through servicing and support to the Committee on World Food Security (220S1) as the main forum in which Members and development partners can review implementation of the WFS Plan of Action. Major Programme 2.2 also provides the secretariat to the Inter-Agency Working Group (IAWG) on food insecurity and vulnerability, facilitating documentation and dissemination of lessons learned internationally and at country and regional levels. The State of Food Insecurity in the World is the major flagship advocacy document. Agricultural Adjustment and Policy Reforms (224P1) is to raise awareness amongst policy makers and international organizations to adjust and evaluate policies of relevance to agriculture and rural development. Through entity 220P1 WFS and MDGs Monitoring and Action, FAO is to support the work of the Hunger Task Force of the Millennium Project, participate in monitoring of MDGs in UN system, and provide annual progress reports on implementation of the WFS Plan of Action.

Strategies to Address Cross-organizational Issues

74. The MTP 2004-09 articulated comprehensive responses to the six SACOIs outlined in the Strategic Framework 2000-2015:

75. It is worth reiterating that these Strategies cannot be seen as "compartmentalised" domains. They are clearly mutually supportive, and necessarily involve overlapping concerns (a clear example being human resources development which permeates many of the required actions). Their nature also implies that the proposed responses are not linear processes, neatly extending over six years (as in the case of a typical technical project). They may need to be constantly adjusted, depending on the immediate progress made in introducing the required administrative actions, making system enhancements, and similar measures.

76. It is also not possible to assign precise “price tags” to each of these Strategies, i.e. the estimated resources required. On the one hand, their implementation is embedded to a large part in the normal range of responsibilities of the units which are the natural leaders (e.g. the Technical Cooperation Department [TC] for partnerships, the Administration and Finance Department [AF] for the management process or the General Affairs and Information Department [GI] for communicating FAO’s messages). On the other hand, they call on quite diffuse and not easily traceable contributions from the other units which need to be involved (e.g. every unit in FAO has some sort of involvement with partnerships).

77. In this light, an indication of how the proposals in this Programme of Work and Budget (PWB) will contribute to progress in the next biennium in connection with these SACOIs is given in summary form below.

Ensuring Excellence

78. The initial focus for this Strategy is on two aspects: staff and other human resources, and organizational learning and innovation. As regards staff, the development of policies, action programmes and related procedures is led by the Human Resources Management Division (AFH). As indicated under Programme 5.2.3, due emphasis is placed on measures to enhance career development, improve job profiles, and staff development through a broader range of training opportunities. All these can be expected to lead to a more stimulating work environment and, therefore, contribute to excellence.

79. As regards organizational learning, AFH is to further refine staff performance appraisal systems and procedures so as to reflect agreed objectives and better reward efforts made to achieve them, while the Office of Programme, Budget and Evaluation (PBE) will pursue cooperation with individual units in the implementation of the auto-evaluation system, and in reinforcing evaluation feedback and learning.

Enhancing Inter-Disciplinarity

80. PAIAs will continue to embody the most evident expression of "inter-disciplinarity". From the planned achievements in 2004-05 listed in the following section, it can be inferred that many PAIAs are to ensure that related work has a higher profile in the information disseminated by the Organization, especially through the FAO’s website and publications, as envisaged in the MTP. Enhancements of supporting systems, such as PIRES, to facilitate their implementation and monitoring will continue to be developed. Although it has been consistently stressed that it should not be a substitute for the concerned units to commit sufficient resources from their own budgetary allotments, the special provision in the PWB for central catalytic funds to support the corporate outputs of PAIAs has been pursued under entity 210S5.

81. Inter-disciplinarity is to remain a major concern in FAO’s work of investment project formulation, carried out by the Investment Centre Division (TCI), and in the policy assistance provided under the aegis of the Policy Assistance Division (TCA). This is especially relevant, given the increasing dual focus of the latter division on helping countries to adjust their national strategic frameworks relating to the food and agriculture sector and on cooperating with regional economic organizations to formulate comprehensive regional programmes for food security (cf. Programme 3.1). For this purpose, both TCI and TCA will continue to rely on teams of staff members and consultants reflecting the necessary mix of technical expertise, to address the complex range of problems involved.

82. Due emphasis is also to be given to inter-disciplinarity in staff training programmes in project design, implementation and evaluation, and also in auto-evaluations to be carried out by the concerned managers themselves, and more generally in the evaluations planned in the next biennium and beyond. The Programme Committee has recently underlined the desirability of subjecting PAIAs and the sets of activities responding to specific corporate Strategic Objectives to the discipline of evaluation, so as to adjust their scope as required.

Broadening Partnerships And Alliances

83. In the MTP, the Strategy recognizes major groups of partners, as follows:

84. FAO's active participation in inter-agency mechanisms is to be pursued, including as a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG). FAO also participates in the machinery set up to shape coherent UN system action for the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. This concerns in particular the ESA division and SADN, the unit in charge of UN system coordination, which is being strengthened (Major Programme 1.3, External Coordination and Liaison). Increased cooperation in field security matters has also been taken into account in the PWB, affecting primarily the Office for Coordination of Normative, Operational and Decentralized Activities (OCD) and the FAO Representatives.

85. At country level, a concrete form of inter-agency cooperation is the provision of adequate inputs to the Common Country Assessment (CCA) and United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) exercises in order to fully reflect agriculture and food security issues, which will continue to be done under the leadership of TCA (permeating the work of various entities under Major Programme 3.1).

86. Relatively new areas of inter-agency cooperation include HIV/AIDS (new entity 252A4, Analysis and Mitigation of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Food Security and Rural Development), while the ongoing close links with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP), as well as a range of other partners, will get further impetus in the context of support to the International Alliance Against Hunger (IAAH). Another example of expanded cooperation with regional inter-governmental Organizations is the support provided to the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). It is also expected that international financial institution partners will confirm their growing interest in the Programme 2.5.6, Food Production in Support of Food Security in Low Income Food Deficit Countries (LIFDCs) through substantial contributions. Cooperation with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) is also likely to expand, in priority areas related to organic pollutants, biodiversity, sustainable land and water management and international waters.

87. As regards NGOs and CSOs, under Programme 3.5.2 in particular, TC will pursue the combination of activities foreseen in the MTP, i.e. of information exchange, facilitation of policy dialogue and cooperation in the context of both normative and operational work. This is also based on the internal FAO Policy and Strategy for Cooperation with Non-governmental and Other Civil Society Organizations. The expected impact is to be mostly at the national, sub-regional, and regional levels. Major instruments to that end include: an interactive and regularly updated NGO and CSO Web site; databases and information networks; and further regional NGO and CSO consultations, building on the positive experience with the International NGO and CSO Planning Committee for the WFS:fyl and the parallel NGO Forum. Besides this central coordination role of TC, relations with this important group of partners will permeate a number of substantive entities, including the growing involvement of farmer organizations and NGOs in the implementation of the SPFS at national level.

88. Under the same programme 3.5.2, TC will also foster increased collaboration with partners in the private sector, based on the approved Principles and Guidelines for FAO's Cooperation with the Private Sector. A supportive information system on private sector partners, the maintenance of a Web site and technical consultations and seminars are also included. Again, contacts with this group of partners are inherent in the work of many entities, depending on the interest and role of the private sector in specific areas or disciplines.

89. The PWB gives special attention to cooperation with sub-national and local entities, in order to be able to build on recent successful initiatives in this area (also under 3.5.2). This will require: establishing a viable policy framework for cooperation with such entities, incorporating information and experience on such cooperation in the pertinent FAO's information systems and enhancing information exchange with and between these entities from both developed and developing countries; and special promotional efforts to mobilise financial resources from these decentralized entities for FAO's programmes and projects in developing countries.

Continuing To Improve The Management Process

90. Under this Strategy, the MTP gives prominence to several key aspects: one is self-evidently the further expansion of administrative, information and communication systems; the second relates to the enhancement of a results-based culture, including adequate arrangements for delegated authority; the third concerns the broad sweep of actions to ensure effective human resources management (the latter are listed under Programme 5.2.3 and do not warrant repeating here).

91. In great part thanks to the availability of resources from payment of arrears, but with accompanying efforts and resources as necessary factored in the Regular Budget, the 2004-05 biennium will witness a significant expansion of FAO information systems with direct incidence on the management of resources. As mentioned in the pertinent narratives, these will include a new Human Resources Management System (HRMS – programme 5.2.3) to support management, servicing and administration of staff human resources; the completion of the Programme Planning, Implementation Reporting and Evaluation Support System (PIRES – programme 1.2.2) as well as of the Field Programme Management Information System (FPMIS – programme 3.3.2).

92. In relation to the Wide Area Network (WAN) linking FAO offices world-wide, proposals are made under Major Programme 3.4 to reap maximum benefits from such links with the FAO Representations, by providing opportunities of enhanced dissemination of information at local level, building on their on-line access to centrally maintained databases and tools.

93. Also of relevance to the FAO Representations, are planned initiatives to facilitate their budget holder responsibilities. It is recalled that the budget holder is accountable for the efficient use of allocated funds and has the authority to approve transactions against those funds, subject to administrative rules that apply to particular transactions.

94. Additional training activities will be carried out in connection with the new programming model endorsed by FAO Governing Bodies, as the move away from traditional emphasis on controlling inputs to a prime focus on outputs and outcomes, needs to be buttressed by common understanding of the implications throughout FAO. This model will also be extended to “non-technical” areas.

95. In line with internal directives issued on the subject, the various components of FAO’s comprehensive evaluation regime will be put firmly in place, also benefiting from extra-budgetary support.

Leveraging Resources For FAO And Its Members

96. The Strategy foresees a number of complementary actions, basically designed to enhance interest of funding sources with a view to mobilizing increased resources both for the Field Programme, and more generally for agricultural and rural development.

97. While resource mobilization is a shared preoccupation of all units which have a link with the field programme from various perspectives, including technical departments and decentralized offices, clearly the major role in this effort is played by Programme 3.5.1: Multilateral and Bilateral Agencies. A series of planned activities and tools will combine to support this role: e.g. periodic reviews of areas of interest to donors in consultation with technical departments; periodic multi-donor meetings, coupled with consultations with major donors and ad hoc meetings with selected donors; further use of the Project Identification Facility and other tools (under Programme 3.3.2) for the development of an attractive project pipeline and the satisfaction of donor requirements; promotion of further long-term partnership agreements with major trust fund donors and adapted modalities and procedures related to growing Unilateral Trust Fund arrangements. As relates to emergencies, a Revolving Emergency Response Fund is scheduled to assist in bridging operations before donor support can materialize (Programme 3.3.3).

98. Continued active monitoring of developments by the Field Programme Committee and a supportive Web site on Trust Funds and Technical Cooperation are also worth stressing. It may also be noted that several units, principally TCI in relation to investment project formulation but also the Economic and Social Department (ES), the Sustainable Development Department (SD) and other technical departments, will seek to address alternative capital flows which are not debt or dependency-inducing (e.g. Clean Development Mechanism, GEF, Debt for Nature Swaps and Debt for Food Security Swaps).

Communicating FAO’s Messages

99. The Strategy outlined in the MTP is itself largely derived from the Corporate Communication Policy and Strategy which has guided the GI department and all other units concerned with this key dimension of FAO work in recent years. The cardinal principles are: participatory planning, corporate focus, decentralized implementation, systematic monitoring and evaluation. An overall evaluation of this Strategy is foreseen to be carried out in the next biennium, in the light of great interest shown by Governing Bodies. The Information Division (GII) will spearhead organization-wide implementation of the Strategy, while the activities of the division both in terms of publishing policy and support and in terms of news and multimedia, are described under Programme 5.1.1.

100. In the next biennium, it will also be important to further develop skills and competencies in communication through additional training opportunities for staff in all locations, e.g. in presentation skills, media relations, audience targeting and appropriate use of information technology. Detailed communication planning is now an entrenched practice, synchronized with the overall programme of work and budget formulation process, under the guidance of the Corporate Communication Committee and with the assistance of Departmental Communication and Publishing Committees. The PWB 2004-05 includes a substantial provision for the improvement of language coverage in the official languages of the Organization (entity 222P5).

101. The FAO's Web site will continue to provide the key interface with the general public, as well as with technical specialists in the Organization's areas of competence. Virtually, all facets of FAO activities are now covered in the Web site through dedicated sections.

102. Finally, the decentralized offices will need to play their due part, as well as the FAORs. Increased resources are foreseen in the PWB both under Programme 5.2.1 (for annual seminars of Regional Information Officers and enhanced support to the regional communication planning process) and Major Programme 3.4 (extension of virtual libraries) for this purpose, e.g. to expand local communications networks and orientate public opinion more fully towards food security, food safety and natural resource issues.

Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action (PAIAs)

103. Priority Areas for Inter-disciplinary Action (PAIAs) have been identified for the first time in the MTP 2002-07, and further refined in the MTP 2004-09.

104. The corporate strategies on which these PAIAs are largely focused – although several may contribute to other strategies - are recalled below:

A - Contributing to the eradication of food insecurity and rural poverty
B - Promoting, developing and reinforcing policy and regulatory frameworks for food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry
C - Creating sustainable increases in the supply and availability of food and other products from the crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors
D - Supporting the conservation, improvement and sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture
E - Improving decision-making through the provision of information and assessments and fostering of knowledge management for food and agriculture
Thematic PAIAs

105. Two further PAIAs are of a rather different nature, while addressing all five Corporate Strategies in the context of a specific theme:

106. The narratives below focus essentially on planned activities and achievements in the 2004-05 biennium, based on more detailed information entered in the PIRES system. They recall the expected range of contributions from the concerned substantive units and the objectives sought under the PAIAs, in summarized form.

107. Given the pervasive nature of the Plan of Action on Gender and Development (PoA), a different presentation technique is used for highlighting all biennial outputs with links to the implementation of the PoA. The latter are identified with the symbol in the Programme Budget Section.

Local Institution Building to Improve Capacity for Achieving Sustainable Rural Livelihoods (LHOO)

108. Main Contributors

The work under this PAIA is led by the Rural Development Division (SDA), and is strongly supported by the other divisions in SD. The major contributors from other departments include: Agricultural Support Systems Division (AGS), Food and Nutrition Division (ESN) (community action for improved household food security) and the Forestry Department (FO) (participatory forestry).

109. Objectives

  1. to improve the effectiveness of national policies and programmes aimed at strengthening the contribution of local institutions to rural livelihoods and assisting vulnerable populations;
  2. to foster local institutions and attendant organizational capacity for improving rural livelihoods and ensuring equitable access to resources; and
  3. to strengthen links of local institutions where appropriate to regional, national and international institutions.

110. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. improved information bases at both national and local level for cross-sectoral planning and monitoring with a livelihoods focus;
  2. cross-sectoral strategies covering, inter alia, (i) management of natural disasters and disease epidemics, (ii) household food security and community nutrition, (iii) regulations for sustainable management of their natural resource base, (iv) improved rural service provision, (v) programmes for income diversification, (vi) gender mainstreaming;
  3. facilitation of the transfer of additional responsibilities from public to private sector and from national to decentralized institutions, with attention to multi-stakeholder participation in decision-making processes;
  4. capacity-building for providing marketing, financial and enterprise development services and advice to small-scale farmers through farmers’ organizations, cooperatives, other civil society organizations, local extension workers, and modern communications media;
  5. informational materials about technological innovations and other technical subjects that could enhance the sustainability of rural livelihood systems in poverty-stricken regions;
  6. support to participatory approaches for natural resource management and conflict resolution, with special emphasis on disaster and disease-prone regions.

Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness and Post-Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation (REHA)

111. Main Contributors

This PAIA is guided by the Emergency Coordination Group under the chair of TC. Key contributions come from the new Emergency Operations and Rehabilitation Division (TCE) covering emergency operations and rehabilitation, while involving other substantial contributions from the Agriculture Department (AG) (e.g. emergencies linked to plant pests and migratory pests), ES (nutrition in emergencies) and FO (work on forest fires).

112. Objectives

  1. to develop FAO's capability as a diversified source of information relevant to the theme of this PAIA;
  2. to increase synergies between the concerned FAO technical and operational units; and
  3. to increase FAO's effectiveness in relation to emergency preparedness and response at the field level.

113. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. dedicated Web site, including the different phases of the emergency cycle and different types of disasters;
  2. Emergency Information System to buttress FAO's work on emergency preparedness and response by providing easy access to tailored information for the concerned country(ies)/ sub-national unit(s);
  3. akin to a "fire drill" exercise in case of emergencies, preparation of a series of coordinated actions at all levels aimed at facilitating quick and efficient responses to requests for FAO's intervention;
  4. guide, training materials and interactive tools on drought mitigation, taking advantage of accumulated knowledge in FAO, linking to initiatives such as LADA (Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands) and in collaboration with regional and international organizations concerned;
  5. mechanisms and tools to improve the design of emergency and rehabilitation projects, taking into account lessons learnt from previous experiences and needs' assessment mission results; and
  6. implementation of the cooperative arrangements signed in May 2003 between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and FAO on information exchange and technical support in relation to food and agriculture in the case of a nuclear or radiological emergency.

Biosecurity for Agriculture and Food Production (BIOS)

114. Main Contributors

The two key contributors are the Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP) and ESN, due to the IPPC and food safety issues and Codex standards. The Fisheries Department (FI) is also involved (quality control of fish products), as well as FO for aspects pertinent to forest management and conservation.

115. Objectives

  1. to provide policy advice to governments on biosecurity issues;
  2. to support effective information exchange among Members; and
  3. to assist countries in terms of effective biosecurity programmes and their participation in related standard-setting activities.

116. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. support to cooperation among standard setting bodies (IPPC, Codex, OIE);
  2. development of an international information exchange mechanism. (International Portal for Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health) in the field of Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health;
  3. FAO's website on biosecurity, with links to other relevant sites within and outside FAO;
  4. manuals and guidelines for the application of risk analysis principles; and
  5. development of common approach to capacity building among the various sectors involved in biosecurity at national level to ensure synergies among sectors, with due flexibility for the infrastructural arrangements governments may wish to make.

WTO Multi-lateral Trade Negotiations on Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (AWTO)

117. Main Contributors

The bulk of the work rests with the ES Department, in particular the Commodities and Trade Division (ESC) (agricultural trade matters and follow-up to multilateral trade negotiations). It involves other units with trade-related activities: ESN (Codex), FI (due to the growing importance of trade in fisheries products) and FO.

118. Objective

To support Members, particularly developing countries and countries in transition, for their effective participation in multilateral trade negotiations on agricultural, fishery and forestry products, as well as their integration into global trade for such products.

119. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. facilitation of information flows regarding trade issues under negotiation and the implications of alternative negotiating proposals;
  2. assistance to countries through analytical studies, databases and training so that they:
    1. have the knowledge and skills to evaluate their interests and formulate their positions in the negotiations;
    2. satisfy the technical requirements of the negotiations, such as the completion of country schedules of commitments and evaluation of other WTO members’ schedules;
    3. comply with the commitments undertaken in the final agreements;
  1. analyses of the relationship between trade and food security;
  2. support to countries including training and institutional capacity building for implementing WTO requirements on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT);
  3. assistance in fish-related trade negotiations;
  4. strategies for dealing with supply side issues in trade, including vertical and horizontal diversification; and
  5. support intergovernmental discussion of forest trade policy and forest certification issues.

Climate Change Issues in Agriculture (CLIM)

120. Main Contributors

The IDWG on Climate Change is currently chaired by FO and involves significant contributions from ES and SD which oversees FAO's support to the post-United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) conventions and protocols.

121. Objective

To strengthen FAO’s contribution to national and international efforts related to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

122. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. support to the reflection of agricultural issues in meetings of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (including meeting of the Conference of Parties, Scientific and Technical bodies and the Secretariat), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as other high-level technical meetings where agriculture, forestry and fisheries are or should be a significant component;
  2. technical support to countries for implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the agriculture, forestry an fisheries sectors, including the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration;
  3. capacity building on climate change issues as relate to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and food security, with special attention to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM);
  4. collection, analysis and dissemination of agricultural and forestry data relevant to the UNFCCC process;
  5. assistance to countries in the formulation and implementation of projects, as well as information and analysis related to national reporting;
  6. assessment of the interactions between forestry and climate change; and
  7. promotion of best practices and techniques that assist in mitigation of, and adaptation to potential climate change impacts including carbon management in biomass and soils, e.g. conservation agriculture, and substitution of fossil fuels through bio fuels and other renewable sources of energy.

Organic Agriculture (ORGA)

123. Main Contributors

The two main players are AG (covering the production side) and ES (addressing nutrition, information, trade and policy dimensions).

124. Objective

To assist countries in the development of the production, marketing and trade of organic agricultural, forest and fishery products through the collection and dissemination of information, policy and institutional advice, and technical assistance.

125. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. support information exchanges and organic agriculture networks to improve access of producers, operators and governments to reliable technical and economic information on organic agriculture for better-informed decision-making;
  2. collection and dissemination of knowledge and tools to support organic plant protection, soil and nutrient management, animal husbandry, and post-harvest operations in developing countries;
  3. collection and dissemination of statistical information on organic production and trade;
  4. analyses of the economics of production, trade and marketing of organic tropical and horticultural products;
  5. comparative studies of technical and economic performance of organic, traditional and conventional farming systems;
  6. assistance to governments in designing legal and policy frameworks to facilitate the marketing and trade of certified organic products that meet international inspection and certification standards;
  7. collection and dissemination of information on production standards, inspection, certification and accreditation in the context of small-holders sectors;
  8. studies on the contribution of organic agriculture to environmental protection, rural livelihoods and food security in developing countries; and
  9. publications, conferences and seminars on key issues of importance to organic agriculture, including the role of organic agriculture in developing countries and markets for organic products.

Food for the Cities (FCIT)

126. Main Contributors

The main onus is on the AG Department (Land and Water Development Division [AGL] for water quality management, AGP for intensification of production systems, Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) for safe animal husbandry, AGS for policy formulation and processing and marketing aspects). There is also a strong contribution from ESN (e.g. for food quality control aspects).

127. Objective

To address the whole range of issues related to food and agriculture in urban and peri-urban areas.

128. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. advocacy materials and workshops to sensitise policy makers as well as national, city and local authorities on critical issues related to natural resource management and food security, and strategies to promote integrated action by relevant institutions (including civil society and the private sector) to ensure sustainable livelihoods and adequate nutrition in rapidly expanding urban areas;
  2. publications, meetings and training to ensure (and monitor) policy and regulatory frameworks, with particular attention to urban food supply systems, appropriate water management, environment matters, rural-urban linkages, land tenure issues and governance; and
  3. dissemination (via publications, audio-visual materials and website) of technologies and best practices for use in urban and peri-urban areas, including production, processing and marketing (formal and informal) of safe, varied and affordable foods (including fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products and fish), appropriate water and tree management, and support to multi-channel communication activities in countries.

Integrated Production Systems (SARD/SPFS) (PROD)

129. Main Contributors

This PAIA is clearly of major interest to AG given the strong emphasis on intensification of production systems and improved technologies. Other departments need to contribute, e.g. ES for analytical work and SD for institutional and gender issues.

130. Objectives

  1. to assist with smallholder crop and livestock intensification strategies and integrated production technologies;
  2. to provide viable crop and livestock diversification options to Members;
  3. to enhance integration of production, processing, packaging, transport and storage of marketable commodities and value-added products from the farm through to the consumer;
  4. to support entrepreneurs in rural and peri-urban agribusiness development; and
  5. to facilitate adoption of novel approaches to crop and livestock intensification and product processing.

131. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. further development of regional pilot sites, in cooperation with SPFS, as learning centres in support of countries and organizations working on sustainable integration of crop and livestock systems (including aquaculture and agro-forestry wherever appropriate);
  2. evaluation of good agricultural practices and a database of case studies for specific production systems in selected agro-ecozones;
  3. dissemination of conservation agriculture concepts and technologies through policy guidance, appraisal and pilot projects, as well as related training;
  4. dissemination of technologies for intensive crop and forage production, including agroforestry, aquaculture and conservation measures within integrated systems;
  5. publication of economic analysis of farming systems dynamics and the farm-level impacts of integrated and intensive production;
  6. training materials and capacity building to reinforce linkages between producers and processors; and
  7. country-based farm data and information systems, including design, pilot development and promotion of field guides, software and training materials, particularly in support of SPFS.

Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (BTEC)

132. Main Contributors

The more substantial involvement of AG is due to genetic resources for food and agriculture (plant and animal) and seed development, as well as both the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture’s (AGE) and AGS' work on biotechnology applications. FO contributes from the perspective of forest genetic resources and SD from the research and dissemination angles.

133. Objective

To assist Members, particularly developing countries, in the safe and responsible application of biotechnology to enhance food security.

134. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. publication of an Agricultural Biotechnology Policy Compendium covering strategies to address specific needs within the crop, livestock, forestry and fisheries sectors and promoting sectoral coordination;
  2. regional workshops on strategy options;
  3. expert consultation and publication on applications of molecular markers;
  4. a country-driven database/inventory of biotechnology applications in developing countries and countries in transition, progressively covering all sectors;
  5. a regularly updated Web site on biotechnology applications and related policy and regulatory issues and four to six e-mail conferences covering current and emerging cross-sectoral technical and policy issues;
  6. a revised and updated Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture; and
  7. inter-disciplinary advice to Members in the development of national agro-biotechnology strategies and in the planning and implementation of specific projects.

Integrated Management of Biological Diversity for Food and Agriculture (BIOD)

135. Main Contributors

This PAIA also relies on substantial contributions from AGA and AGP (management and conservation of animal and plant genetic resources), as well as pertinent inputs from other departments. SD ensures links with related post-UNCED international instruments.

136. Objectives

  1. to improve understanding of: the ecological functions of agricultural biodiversity; the interactions among its components, the physical environment and socio-economic factors at all scales; and the impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity and ecosystems;
  2. to promote improved and adaptive ecosystem management practices, including resource allocation and conflict resolution leading to increased benefits for local, national and global stakeholders;
  3. to assist in capacity building of local communities and organizations to manage agricultural biodiversity; and
  4. to support national and international policies and instruments related to the conservation, sustainable use, and adaptive management of agricultural biodiversity.

137. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. case studies on informed understanding and management of agro-biodiversity using ecosystem approaches with special reference to plants, domestic animals, soils, rangelands, forests, inland aquatic fisheries, organic agriculture, water and pollination;
  2. documented applications in pilot sites in countries of community-level participatory approaches, such as Farmers Field Schools and participatory technology development; these cover: in-situ conservation, access and exchange of genetic resources; soil biodiversity management; and strengthened indigenous-knowledge systems;
  3. guidance for practitioners of sustainable management of agro-biodiversity in the field and for policy makers, through print and web-based publications, workshops and training curricula based on field experience in several countries;
  4. support to national Biodiversity Action Plans for the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to other global initiatives on agro-biodiversity.

Strengthening Capacity for Integrated Ecosystem Management (ECOM)

138. Main Contributors

The current focus of this PAIA is on Desertification and Sustainable Mountain Development and hence it is lead by FO with substantial contributions from AG as well as from SD which ensures links with UNCED conventions.

139. Objective

To promote the ecosystem management approach (ECOM) for use by Members and other partners.

140. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. mainstreaming ecosystem approach within FAO programmes:
    1. refinement of related concepts and methodological issues, through technical consultations and review of scientific documents;
    2. monitoring and analysis of initiatives and programmes supporting and/or applying integrated ecosystem management;
    3. improved in-house capacity to put integrated ecosystem management in action, coupled with capacity-building in countries and information exchange, using in particular Internet tools;
    4. ensuring synergies between FAO’s work on ecosystem approach and on pertinent conventions (Biodiversity, Desertification);
  2. special action for fragile ecosystems:
    1. support to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), including:
        1. preparation of integrated guidelines coupled with Web site and CD ROMs on desertification issues,
        2. participation in relevant Committees and key meetings of the UNCCD,
        3. support to the preparation and implementation of action programmes at international, regional, sub-regional and national levels; and
    2. support to the follow-up to the International Year of the Mountains, by using the ecosystem approach: i) in integrated watershed management programmes, ii) within pilot projects on sustainable mountain development, and iii) in understanding of highlands- lowlands linkages.

Spatial Information Management and Decision Support Tools (SPAT)

141. Main Contributors

This PAIA reflects the wide range of use of spatial information and related tools in FAO's substantive work. SD is the focal point for GIS development with AG being a leading source of data.

142. Objective

To facilitate access to harmonised spatial information produced within and outside FAO; e.g. for use in global and regional perspective studies, and for national application by Members.

143. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. in-house dissemination of guidelines on standards and norms for GIS work;
  2. completion of a common UN database/maps on “disputed areas”, international boundaries and hydrographic base layer and the first phase of sub national boundaries map;
  3. maintenance and further expansion of the GeoNetwork;
  4. publication of a Beta version of a global sub-national land use database;
  5. national pilot land use inventories in selected countries, covering all aspects of agriculture (livestock and forestry); and
  6. integrated web site.

Definitions, Norms, Methodologies and Quality of Information (QINF)

144. Main Contributors

All technical departments maintaining production and trade statistics (i.e. Statistics Division [ESS], FI and FO) are actively involved, as well as the Library and Documentation Systems Division (GIL) with its responsibility for WAICENT. In addition, there are specific contributions from AG (land, water, livestock), ESD and ESN (FIVIMS, food safety and nutrients), and SD (land tenure).

145. Objective

To promote the use of agreed standards, norms and common methodologies so as to ensure high quality of the information disseminated, its relevance and interpretation.

146. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. updated procedures to document and ensure the quality and consistency of statistical data regarding agricultural production, trade, food balance sheets, inputs, forestry and fisheries products, farm data and land and water indicators;
  2. further standardisation of terms, definitions and categorisation schemes regarding land use, plant production and protection, livestock, forestry and fisheries information as well as human nutrition aspects, establishing appropriate linkages among them;
  3. standards and norms regarding country-specific information to facilitate data dissemination and integration on a country basis;
  4. standard data models to describe information resources such as experts, institutions, species and maps to assist in data exchange within and outside the Organization; and
  5. improved methods of collection of national statistical information and guidelines on electronic publishing standards and best practices for Members.

Global Perspective Studies (GLOP)

147. Main Contributors

This PAIA brings together all departments involved with forward-looking studies in respective sectors (AG, FI, FO and ES in particular).

148. Objectives

  1. to harmonize, to the maximum extent possible, major assumptions and time horizons used in FAO's perspective analyses, and policy statements on key issues of international interest;
  2. to identify and analyse issues of a long-term and inter-disciplinary nature on which FAO needs to express a position; and
  3. to identify (additional) analytical tools and enhance FAO's capacity to undertake long-term perspective analysis.

149. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. perspective studies for the livestock sector in selected regions;
  2. perspective studies for the forestry sector in selected regions;
  3. perspective analysis of fish consumption, supply and trade by major geographical region, including supplies from both aquaculture and capture fisheries;
  4. new and improved estimates of the prevalence of undernourishment;
  5. new analytical framework for undertaking food and agriculture projections and scenario analysis for the crop and livestock sectors, including the fisheries sector;
  6. improved land and water (irrigation) databases;
  7. analysis of the efficiency of water and fertilizer use;
  8. new and improved estimates of the environmental aspects of food and agriculture production for use in perspective studies; and
  9. analysis of success and failure in the reduction of food insecurity for use in perspective studies.

Ethics in Food and Agriculture (ETHI)

150. Main Contributors

AG and the Legal Office (LEG) are involved in servicing the Panel of Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture. Contributions depend on the topics being addressed during a given biennium.

151. Objectives

  1. to mainstream activities relevant to ethics in food and agriculture within FAO, in order to incorporate ethical considerations, where pertinent, in the ongoing normative and technical work of the Organization; and
  2. to assist with raising public awareness on ethical issues in food and agriculture and facilitate exchanges with other inter-governmental organizations.

152. Achievements planned for 2004-05

  1. two publications in the FAO Ethics Series;
  2. one meeting of the Panel of Eminent Experts on Ethics in Food and Agriculture;
  3. Ethics section of FAO’s website and related information management tools; and
  4. close relations with other intergovernmental and UN bodies, in particular the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and WHO on matters of common interest.

1 CL 124/INF/20

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