Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1990

COPYRIGHT AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Informartion Network on Post-Harvest Operations (INPhO) 1998. All copyright and intellectual property rights reserved. No part of the procedures or programs used for the access to, or the display of, data contained in this database or software may be reproduced, altered, stored on a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO) and the Informartion Network on Post-Harvest Operations (INPhO). Applications for such permission, explaining the purpose and extent of reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Data contained in this database or software may, however, be used freely provided that the FAO and INPhO be cited as the source. FAO and INPhO decline all responsibility for errors or deficiencies in the database or software or in the documentation accompanying it, for program maintenance and upgrading as well as for any damage that may arise from them. FAO and INPhO also declines any responsibility for updating the data and assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions in the data provided. Users are, however, kindly asked to report any errors or deficiencies in this product to FAO.


Contents


Acknowledgments

Preface

1. Introduction

2. Origins and distribution

3. Production and consumption

Production
Consumption

4. Nutritive value

Nutritional composition of roots and tubers
Carbohydrates
Protein
Lipids
Vitamins
Minerals
Root crop leaves

5. Methods of cooking and processing

Cassava
Cooking and processing of yam
Cocoyam
Banana and plantain
Sweet potato
Potato

6. Effect of processing on nutritional value

7. Toxic substances and antinutritional factors

Cassava toxicity
Sweet potato
Potato
Cocoyam
Banana and plantain
Yam
Phytate

8. New frontiers for tropical root crops and tubers

Commercial dehydration of root crops and their use
Use of root crops as a source of industrial raw material
Use of root crops as animal feed
Production of single cell protein for livestock feed

9. Food security in developing countries

Constraints to production
Conclusion

Annex 1 - Some recipes based on roots, tubers, plantains and bananas

Annex 2 - Meals for young children

Annex 3 - Wheatless bread

Bibliography