Previous PageTable Of ContentsNext Page

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 1

FAO. World Agricultural Statistics. FAO Statistical Pocketbook, FAO, Rome. 1985

Hutchinson, Sir Joseph. Preface to: Resource Development in Semi-Arid Lands. Royal Society, London. 1977

Ormerod W.E. The relationship between economic development and ecological degradation: How degradation has occurred in West Africa and how its progress might be halted. J. Arid Environments, l: 357-379. 1977

Sinclair A.R.E. and Fryxell J.M. The Sahel of Africa: ecology of a disaster. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63(5): 987-999. 1985

CHAPTER 2

Adams M.E. A development plan for semi-arid areas in Western Sudan. Experimental Agriculture 11: 277-287. 1975

Bolton F.E. and Booster D.E. Tillage, moisture conservation and water use efficiency for dryland cereal production in winter rainfall regions. In: Proc. international Symposium on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions, Riverside, California, 17-22 April 1977. Cannell G.H.(ed). University of California. 1975

Breman H. and Vithol P.W.J. The Primary Production in the Sahel (PPS) Project - A Bird's-eye View. CABO, Wageningen, Netherlands. 1984

Bryan R. and Yair A. (eds). Badland geomorphology and piping. Geo Books, Norwich, UK. 1982

Charreau C., Yerroanes D.M., Fauck R., Hall A.E., Dancette C.L. and Turk K.J. Dryland farming practices: semi-arid tropics. In: Proc. Int. Symp. Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions, Riverside, California, April. Cannell G.H. (ed). University of California. 1977

Dennett M.D., Elston J. and Prasad P.C. Seasonal rainfall forecasting in Fiji and the southern oscillation. Agric. Meteor 19: 11-22. 1978

Dennett M.D., Rogers J.A. and Stern R.D. Independence of rainfalls through the rainy season and the implications for the estimation of rainfall probabilities. J. Climatology 3: 375-384. Dennett M.D. and Rodgers J.A. A comparison of rainfall regimes at several sites using a rainfall 1986 model: An example from Botswana. In press. 1983

El-Swaify E.S., Pathak P., Rego T.J. and Singh S. Soil management for optimized productivity under rainfed conditions in the semi-arid tropics. Advances in Soil Science No. 1: 1-64. Stewart B.A.,(ed), Springer-Verlag, New York. 1985

FAO. Arid zone hydrology. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 3. FAO, Rome. 1981

Franke R.W. and Chasin B.H. Peasants, peanuts, profits, and pastoralists. Ecologist 11: 156-168. 1981

Hall A.E., Cannell G.H. and Lawton H.W. (eds). Agriculture in semi-arid environments. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1985

ICRISAT. Farming Systems Research at ICRISAT. IARC Workshop on Farming Systems Research, Hyderabad, India, Feb. 1986

ILCA. The First Years. International Livestock Centre for Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1980

Johl S.S. Drought loss manageroent: strategies for minimizing the risks of drought in India. In: Proc. Expert Meeting on Management, Conservation and Development of Agricultural Resources in the ECWA Region, May 1981, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic. Vol. 2. Pub. by UN Econ. and Social Council, New York. 1981

Jones M.J. Programme for improved land and water management systems for Southern Africa. Proc. SDCC Agric. Res. Conf. Gaborone, Botswana, February 1984. Dept. of Agric. Research, Gaborone. 1984

Kampen J. and Burford J. Production systems, soil-related constraints and potentials in the semi-arid tropics with special reference to India. In: Soil-related constraints to food production in the Tropics. IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. 1980

Keatinge J.D.H., Dennett M.D. and Rodgers J. The influence of precipitation regime on the management of three-course crop rotations in northern Syria. J. Agric. Sci., Cambridge 104: 281-287. 1980

Kronstad W.E. The Turkish experience in increasing food production in arid and semi-arid lands. In: Part A of Advances in food-producing systems for arid and semi-arid lands. Manassah, Brickey, Davenport, and Hagen (eds). Academic Press, New York. 1981

Lowdermilk W.C. Conquest of the land through 7000 years. Agricultural Information Bulletin 99. USDA-SCS. Washington DC. 1975

Rainey R.C. Rainfall: scarce resource in "opportunity country". In: Resource Development in Semi-arid Lands. pp 1-16. Royal Society, London. 1977

Sharon D. The spottiness of rainfall in a desert area. J. Hydrology, 17: 161-175. 1972

Sinclair J. Persistence of rain£all patterns through the season in Botswana. Bulletin of Agric. Res. in Botswana, No. 3. Gaborone. 1985

Stewart J.I. and Hash C.T. Impact of weather analysis on agricultural production and planning decisions in the seroi-arid areas of Kenya. J. Applied Meteorology 21: 477-494. 1982

Thalen. D.C.P. Discussion on "Fxperience in the Middle East" by V.C. Robertson, p. 96. In: Resources Development in Semi-arid Lands. Royal Society, London. 1977

Valentin C. Organisations pelliculaires superficielles de quelque sols de region subdesertique. Agadez, Rep. de Pdiger. Collection Etudes et Theses. ORSTOM, Paris. 1985

Vogel H. Terrace farming in the Yemen Arab Republic. Traditional forms of soil and water conservation and their present degradation; a case study of the Manakhah Region. Paper presented to IVth Int. Conf. on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, 3-9 Nov. 1985. 1985

CHAPTER 3

Aldrick J.M., Howe D.F. and Dunlop C.R. Report on lands o£ the Ord River Catchment, Northern Territory. Animal Husbandry and Agriculture Branch, Dept. of Northern Territory, Australia, Tech. Bull. 24. 1985

Chambers R. Rapid rural appraisal: rationale and repertoire. Public Administration and Develop ment 1: 95-106. 1981

Collinson M. A low-cost approach to understanding small farmers. Agricultural Administration 8: 433-450. 1981

FAO. Agro-ecological zones project. World Soil Resources Report 48. FAO, Rome. 1978

Floret C., le Floch E., Romane F. and Pontanier R. Dynamique de systèmes écologiques de la zone aride. Acta Oecologica 2(3): 195-214. 1981

Keech M.A. The evaluation of erosion change using aerial photographs. Paper presented to Annual Meeting of Brit. Soc. Soil Sci. at Cambridge, UK. 1985

LRDC. The natural resources of Northern Nigeria. Land Resources Development Centre, Tolworth Tower, Surbiton, Surrey. 1968

LRDC. The natural resources of Lesotho. Land Resources Development Centre, Tolworth Tower, Surbiton, Surrey. 1968

Mann R.D. The complexity of problem identification among small-holder farmers in Africa. NCAE Silsoe/Project Report No. 3. Intermed. Tech. Dev. Group. London. 1974

Pickup G. and Nelson D.J. Use of Landsat radiance parameters to distinguish soil erosion, stability and deposition in arid central Australia. Remote Sensing of the Environment 16(3): 195-209. 1984

CHAPTER 4

1. General references on soil conservation in semi-arid areas

FAO. Soil conservation for developing countries. Soils Bulletin 30, FAO, Rome. 1976

FAO. Conservation in arid and semi-arid zones. Conservation Guide 3, FAO, Rome. 1976

Narayana V.V. Dhruva and Ram Babu. Soil and water conservation in semi-arid regions of India. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun, India. 1985

Stewart B.A., Unger P.W. and Jones O.R. Soil and water conservation in semi-arid regions. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation. Ei-Swaify S.A., Moldenhauer W.C. and Lo A. (eds). Soil Cons. Soc. Amer., Ankeny, Iowa. 1985

2. References in text

Billy B. Water harvesting for dryland and floodwater farming on the Navajo Indian reservation, 3-7. In: Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Dutt G.R., Hutchinson C.F. and Garduno M.A. (eds). Workshop at Tucson, Arizona, USA. Pub. by Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, Farnham Royal, Bucks. UK. 1981

Boersma L. and Jackson T.L. Fundamentals of water conservation practices used in the summer fallow system of farming. In: Proc. Int. Symp. on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions, Riverside, California, April 1977. 1977

Bonsu, M. Organic residues for less erosion and more grain in Ghana. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation. El-Swaify, Moldenhauer and Lo (eds). Soil Cons. Soc. Amer., Ankeny, Iowa. 1985

Charman P.E.V. (ed). Conservation Farming. Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales, Australia. 1985

Collett J. and Boyd J. Eight simple surveying levels. Ag. Equipment leaflet 42. Int. Tech. Pubs. London. 1977

Doolette J.B. The application of the Australian lay farming system in North Africa. In: Proc. Int. Symp. on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions. Riverside, California, April 1977. 1977

Fitzgerald K. Management and regeneration of degraded catchments and eroded pastoral land, with particular reference to range seeding. Conservation Guide 3, FAO, Rome. 1977

Hallam G.M., Van Campen W. and Roose E. Reacting to farmers' complaints of agriculturally intensive farms in southern Mali: from fixed answers to flexible response. Paper to IVth Int. Conf. on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, Nov. 1985. Hallam G.M. and Roose E. Runoff, erosion, and soil degradation as constraints for rural development 1985 in Sudano-Sahelian areas of Southern Mali: Analysis of two conservative approaches. Paper to IVth Int. Conf. on Soil Conservation, Maracay, Venezuela, Nov. 1985. 1985

Heusch B. 50 Years of soil conservation in North Africa: a review. Proc. l0th Int. Conf. on Agric. Eng., Sept. 1984, Budapest, I, 1/6, 50-57. 1985

Hudson N.W. Soil Conservation. 2nd Edition, Batsford, London and Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 1981

ICARDA. Annual Report, I982. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. 1982

ILCA. Livestock research and food production in Africa. Annual Report 1984, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1985

Jones M.J. Conservation systems and crop production. Paper presented to Conf. on Agric. Development in Drought-prone Africa. Royal Commonwealth Soc. London. 13 Sept. 1985. 1985

Lindhauer M.G. Effect of potassium on water use efficiency. In: Nutrient balances and the need for fertilizers in semi-arid and arid regions. Int. Potash Inst., Berne, Switzerland. 1983

Manichon H. Experimental bases of dry farming techniques in arid and semi-arid zones. In: Nutrient balances and the need for fertilizers in the semi-arid and arid regions. 211-222. Int. Potash Inst., Berne, Switzerland. 1983

Mannering J.V. and Fenster C.R. What is conservation tillage? J. Soil and Water Conserv. 38(3): 141-143. Special ed. on Conservation Tillage. 1983

Muchiri G. and Gichuki F.N. Conservation tillage in semi-arid areas of Kenya. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Occas. Paper 42, Inst. for Development Studies, Univ. of Kenya. 1983

Oertli J.J. Adaptation of plants to limited water availability. In: Nutrient balances and the need for fertilizers in semi-arid and arid regions. Irit. Potash Inst., Berne, Switzerland. 1983

Pereira H.C., Wood R.A., Brzostowski H.W. and Hosegood P.H. Water conservation by fallowing in semi-arid tropical East Africa. Empire J. Exptl. Agric. 26: 215-228. 1958

Rawitz E., Morin J., Hoogmoed W.B., Margolin M. and Etkin H. Tillage practices for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone. I. Management of fallow during the rainy season preceding cotton. Soi1 and Tillage Research 3: 211-231. 1983

Roose E. and Piot J. Runoff erosion, and soil fertility restoration on the Mossi Plateau (Central Upper Volta). In: Challenges in African Hydrology and Water Resources. Proc. Harare Symp., July 1984. IAHS Pub. 144. pp 485-498. 1984

Stocking M.J. and Peake L. Crop yield losses from the erosion of alfisols. Tropical Agriculture 63(1): 41-45. 1986

Swaminathan M.S. Rainfall and dryland agriculture. Proc. Symp. on Rainwater and Dryland Agriculture. IARC, New Delhi, Oct. 1980. 1982

Thomas D.B., Barber R.G. and Moore T.R. Terracing of cropland in low rainfall areas of Machakos District, Kenya. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 25: 57-63. 1980

Thomas R.G. Ancient spate irrigation in Wadi Beihan, People's Democratac Republic of Yemen. FAO, Rome. 1982

Virmani S.M. Climatic approach to transfer of farming systems technology in the semi-arid tropics. In: Development and Transfer of Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer. Int. Symp., Aug. 1979, ICRISAT, India. 1979

Walker P.J. Cropping and soil conservation in semi-arid western New South Wales (Australia). J. Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales 38(2): 49-56, July 1982. 1982

Whiteman P.T.S. Moisture conservation by fallowing in Botswana. Experimental Agriculture 11: 305-314. 1975

Willcocks T.J. Tillage requirements in relation to soil type in semi-arid rainfed agriculture. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 30: 327-336. 1984

Wittmuss H. and Yazar A. Moisture storage, water use, and corn yields for seven tillage systems under water stress. Proc. ASAE Conf. on Crop Production with Conservation in the 80's. Dec. 1980, Chicago, Illinois. 1981

Wright P. La gestion des eaux de ruissellement. Oxfam, Ougadougou, Burkina Faso. 1984

Yadav R.C. Note on the effect of mulches on the conservation of soil moisture and on maize yield under semi-arid conditions. Central Arid Zone Res. Inst., Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Indian J. of Agric. Sci. 44(4): 241-242. 1974

CHAPTER 5

1. General references on water conservation and run-off farming (See also the general references for Chapter 6)

Boers T.M. and Ben-Asher J. Harvesting water in the desert. In: Annual Report 1979, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI) Wageningen, Netherlands. 1979

Cannell G.H. (ed). Proceedings of an International Symposium on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions, Riverside, California, April 1977. 1977

Matlock W.G. and Dutt G.R. A Primer on Water Harvesting and Run-off Farming. 2nd Ed. Agric. Eng. Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Arizona. 1986

National Academy of Sciences. More Water for Arid Lands. Board of Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations. NAS, Washington DC. 1974

Pacey A, with Cullis A. Rainwater Harvesting - the Collection of Rainfall and Run-off in Rural Areas. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. 1986

UNEP. Rain and Stormwater Harvesting in Rural Areas. Ed. UNEP, Tycooly International, Dublin. 1983

2. References in text

Ahn P.M. Soil factors affecting rainfed agriculture in semi-arid regions, with particular reference to the Sahel Zone of Africa. In: Proc. Int. Symp. on Rainfed Agriculture in Semi-Arid Regions, Riverside, California, April 1977. 1977

ASAE. A series of papers on tests of conservation bench terracing in six western States of USA. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, Michigan. 1968

Bennett J. Tigrayan Test-bed. World Water, May 1985. 1985

Bilbro J.D. and Hudspeth E.B. Furrow diking for basin tillage. Experiment Station,- Lubbock. World Farming, 221, 7, 48: 104-105. Texas, USA. 1979

Billy B. Water harvesting for dryland and floodwater farming on the Navajo Indian Reservation 3-7. In: Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semi-arid Regions. Dutt G.R., Hutchinson C.F. and Garduno A. (eds). Workshop at Tucson, Arizona, USA. Pub. by Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, Farnham Royal, Bucks. UK. 1981

Brahmbatt B.M. and Patel A.S. Role of moisture conservation practices for semi-arid condition of Gujarat. Gujarat Agri. Univ. Res. J. 1983

Carr M.K.V. Land use and irrigated agriculture in the Woito and Lower Omo river valleys. UNDP/FAO Project ETH/78/013 Development of Irrigated Agriculture. 1979

Charnock G. Learning the hard way at Baringo (Kenya). World Water, May 1985. 1985

Cormack R.M.M. The causes and remedies for waterlogging of crops. Rhodesia Agricultural Bulletin No. 1719. 1954

Clark R.N. and Jones O.R. Furrow dams for conserving rainwater in a semi-arid climate. Proc. ASAE Conf. on Crop Production with Conservation in the 80' s. Chicago, Illinois, Dec. 1980. 1981

Cullis A. Small Steps Forward. World Water, May 1985. 1985

Cunningham G.M. Furrowing aids revegetation at Cobar despite the worst drought on record. J. Soil Water Conserv. of N.S.W. 23(3): 192-202. 1967

Cunningham G.M. Waterspreading, Cobar, Byrock District. J. Soil Water Conserv. of N.S.W. 31(2): 82-94. 1975

Dagg M. and Macartney J.C. The agronomic efficiency of the NIAE mechanized tied ridge system of cultivation. Exp. Agr. 4: 279-294. 1968

Damagnez J. Mediterranean climates, the economic use of water, and crop production. In: Soils in Mediterranean Type Climates and their Yield Potential, pp 43-55. Proc. l4th Colloq. Int. Potash Inst. Berne, Switzerland. 1979

DLFRS. Fifth annual report of the Dryland Farming Research Scheme (Phase III). Agr. Res. Stn. Sebele, Botswana. 1984

Dudal R. Dark Clay Soils of Tropical and Subtropical Regions. FAO Agr. Dev. Paper No. 83, FAO, Rome. 1965

El-Swaify S.A. Conservation-effective farming systems for the semi-arid tropics. ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. 1983

El-Swaify S.A., Pathak P., Rego T.J. and Smith S. Soil management for optimized productivity under rainfed conditions. In: Advances in Soil Sci. Vol. I. Stewart (ed). 1985

EMBRAPA (Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research). Pequena Irrigaçao para o tropico semi-arido vazantes e capsulas porosas. Bulletin de pesquisa No. 3, Jan. 1981. Agricultural Research Centre for Semi-arid Tropics (CPATSA), Petrolina, Brazil. 1981

Evenari M., Shanan L. and Tadmor N. The Negev, The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd Edition, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1982

Fairbourn M.L. Field evaluation of micro-watershed and vertical mulch systems. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

FAO. Equipment and methods for tied ridge cultivation. Farm Power and Machinery Informal Working Bulletin 28. FAO, Rome. 1966

FAO. Arid zone hydrology. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 37. FAO, Rome. 1981

Finkel M. Report on Water Harvesting in Turkana, Kenya. Field Document·FAO-AGO-GCP/Kenya/048/NOD. 1984

Finkel M. Turkana, Water Harvesting Manual. Prepared by Finkel and Finkel, Consulting Engineers, Israel, for a training course in Kenya sponsored by FAO, NORAD, and TIDP. 1985

Flug M. Production of annual crops on microcatchments. Soils, Water and Eng. Dept., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. CAB Farnham Royal, Bucks, UK. 1981

Gardner H. An analysis of the efficiency of micro-watershed systems. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

Garduno M.A. Research methodologies for in situ rain harvesting in rainfed agriculture. In: Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semi-arid Regions, pp 43-47. Dutt, Hutchinson and Garduno (eds). CAB Farnham Royal, Bucks, UK. 1981

Gindel I. Irrigation of plants with atmospheric water within the desert. Nature 207: 1173-5. 1965

Hauser V.L. and Cox M.B. Evaluation of Zingg conservation bench terraces. Ag. Eng. 43: 462-464, 467. 1962

Hurni H. Third Progress Report (Year 1983), Soil Conservation Research Project. Univ. of Berne, Switzerland. 1984

Hillman F. Water Harvesting in Turkana District, Kenya. Pastoral Network Paper l0d. ODI, London. 1980

Honisch 0. Water conservation in three grain crops in the Zambesi valley. Dept. Agric. Lusaka, Zambia. 1973

ICRISAT. Farming Systems Annual Reports 1975-1984. ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. 1975-84

IFAD. Soil and water conservation in sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Options. Centre for Development Cooperation Studies, Free Univ. Amsterdam, for IFAD, Rome. 1986

ILCA. Increasing African food production: ILCA's Highlands programme proposes new approach. Newsletter 4, 3 July 1985. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1985

ILCA. Livestock research and food production in Africa. Annual report 1984, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1985

Jain B.L. and Singh R.P. Run-off as influenced by rainfall characteristics, slope and surface treatment of micro-catchments. Central Arid Zone Res. Inst., Jodhpur, India. 1980

Jones M.J. Conservation systems and crop production. Paper presented to Conf. on Agric. Development in Drought-prone Africa. Royal Commonwealth Society, London, Septerober 1985. 1985

Jones O.R. Land farming effects on dryland sorghum production in the Southern Great Plains. J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 45: 606-611. 1981

Jones O.R. and Shipley J.L. Economics of land levelling for dryland grain production. J. Soil and Water Cons. 30: 177. 1975

Kampen J. Watershed management and technology transfer in the semi-arid tropics. Int. Symp. on Development and Transfer of Technology for Rainfed Agriculture and the SAT Farmer. ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. 1979

Kampen J., Hari Krishna J. and Pathak P. Rainy season cropping on deep vertisols in the semi-arid tropics - effects on hydrology and soil erosion. Tropical Agricultural Hydrology. Lal R. and Russell E.W.J. (eds). Wiley. 1981

Kolarkar A.S., Murthy K.N.K. and Singh N. Water harvesting and run-off farming in arid Rajasthan. Indian J. Soil Cons. 8(2): 113-119. 1980

Kolarkar A.S., Murthy K.N.K. and Singh N. Khadin - a method of harvesting water. J. of Arid Environments 6: 59-66. 1983

Kovda V.A. Land use development in the arid regions of the Russian plain, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. In: A history of land use in arid regions. Arid Zone Research Vol XVII. UNESCO, Paris. 1961

Krantz B.A., Kampen J. and Russell M.B. Soil management differences of Alfisols and Vertisols in the semi-arid tropics. In: Diversity of Soils in the Tropics. Amer. Soc. of Agron., S. Sci. Soc. Am., ASA Sp. Pub No. 34, pp 77-95. 1978

Krantz B.A. Water conservation, management, and utilization in semi-arid lands. In: Advances in Food Producing Systems for Arid and Semi-arid Lands, Part A, pp 339-378. University of California, Davis. 1981

Lal H. Animal-drawn wheeled tool carrier: An appropriate mechanization for improved farming systems. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 16(1): 38-44. 1985

Lal H. Development of appropriate mechanization for the "W"-form soil management system. Soil and Tillage Research 8, Special Issue Nov. 1986, pp 145-160. 1986

Lawes D.A. Rainfall conservation and the yield of cotton in Northern Nigeria. Empire J. Experimental Agriculture 29(116): 307-318. 1961

Lawes D.A. A new cultivation technique in Tropical Africa. Nature, 198: 1328. 1963

Lawes D.A. Rainfall conservation and the yields of sorghum and groundnut in Northern Nigeria. Experimental Agriculture, 2: 139-146. 1966

Lyle W.M. and Dixon O.R. Basin tillage for rainfall retention. Trans. ASAE 20: 1013-1017. 1977

Macartney J.C., Northwood P.J., Dagg M. and Lawson R. The effect of different cultivation techniques on soil moisture conservation and the establishment and yield of maize at Kongwa, Central Tanzania. Trop. Agric. Trinidad 48: 9-23. 1971

Mickelson R.H., Cox M.B. and Musick J. Runoff water spreading on levelled cropland. J. Soil and Water Cons. 20(2): 57-60. 1965

Monteith J.L. Dew. Quart. J. Royal Meteorological Soc. 83: 322-341. 1957

Morgan W.T.W. Sorghum gardens in South Turkana. Geographical Journal 140: 80-93. 1974

Morin G.C.A. and Matlock W.G. Desert strip farming - computer simulation of an ancient water harvesting technique. US Agric. Res. Stn. Service, Western Region ARS-W Agric. Res. Serv. US Dep. Agric. Res. Serv. US Dep. Agric. 22, 141-150. Feb. 1975. 1975

Morin J., Rawitz E., Hoogmoed W.B. and Benyamini Y. Tillage practice for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone. III.Run-off modeling as a tool for conservation tillage design. Soil and Tillage Research 4: 215-224. 1984

Naghan G.P. Ecology of floodwater farming in N. America. Agro-ecosystem 5: 245-255. 1979

Narayana V.V. Dhruva and Ram Babu. Soil and water conservation in semi-arid region of India. CSWCRTI. Dehradun, India. 1985

Neff E.L. Snow trapping by contour furrows in southeastern Montana. USDA, SEA-AR, Northern Plains Soil and Water Research Center, Montana, USA. J. of Range Management 33(3): 221-223. 1980

Nilsson Gosta I. A strip-ploughing method, suggested for trial on dryland farms. Unpub. Memo, Botswana.

Njihia C.M. The effect of tied ridges, stover mulch, and farmyard manure on water conservation in a medium potential area, Katumani, Kenya. In: Soil Tillage and Crop Production, pp 295-302. Lal R. (ed). IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1979

Pacey A., with Cullis A. Rainwater Harvesting - the Collection of Rainfall and Run-off in Rural Areas. Intermediate Technology Publications, London. 1986

Pathak.P., Miranda S.M. and El-Swaify S.A. Improved rainfed farming for semi-arid tropics - implications f or soil and water conservation. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation, pp 338-354. E1-Swaify, Moldenhauer and Lo (eds). S. Cons. Soc. Am. 1985

Phillips R.L. Surface drainage systems for farm lands (Eastern United States and Canada). Transactions Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. 6: 313-317, 319. 1963

Quilty J.A. Soil conservation structures for marginal arable areas: Diversion spreader banks and tank drains. J: Soil Water Cons. of N.S.W. 28,(4) 157-168. 1972

Rawitz E., Morin J., Hoogmoed W.B., Margolin M. and Etkin H. Tillage practices for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone. I. Management of fallow during the rainy season preceding cotton. Soil and Tillage Research 3: 211-231. 1983

Robertson L.A.N. Report on single-line tile drainage experiments in Southern Rhodesia. Res. Bull. 16. Dept. of Cons. and Extension, Harare, Zimbabwe. 1964

Robinson J.B.D., Brook T.R. and de Vink H.H. A cultivation system for groundwater soils, Part 1. E. African Agric. J. 21: 69. 1955

Ryan J.G., Sarin R. and Pereira M. Assessment of prospective soil, water, and crop management technologies for the semi-arid tropics of peninsular India. Proc. Int. Workshop on Socioeconomic Constraints to Development of Semi-Arid Tropical Agriculture, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. 19-23 Feb. 1979. 1979

Saulmon R.W. Snowdrift management can increase water-harvesting yields. J. Soil Water Cons. 28(3): 118-121. 1973

Shanan L. and Tadmor N.H. Micro-catchment systems for arid zone development. Centre Int. Agric. Cooperation, Min. of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel. 1979

Sims D. Pnudivales, a practical and effective way of reducing winter waterlogging and preventing soil erosion on cereal land. Project Working Paper, Drainage and Soil Cons. in the Alentejo Region of Portugal, POR/81/002. FAO, Rome. 1983

Smith P.D. and Critchley W.R.S. The potential of run-off harvesting for crop production and range rehabilitation in semi-arid Baringo. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proc. Second National Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, March 1982. Occ. Paper 42, Inst. for Devel. Studies, Univ. of Nairobi. 1983

Stern P.H. Small-scale Irrigation. Intermediate Technology Pubs., London. 1979

Stewart B.A., Dusek D.A. and Musick J.T. A management system for the conjunctive use of rainfall and limited irrigation of graded furrows. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45: 413-419. 1981

Stewart B.A., Unger P.W. and Jones O.R. Soil and water conservation in semi-arid regions. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation. E1-Swaify S.A., Moldenhauer W.C. and Lo A. (eds). Soil Cons. Soc. America. 1985

Swindale L.D. and Miranda S.M. The distribution and management in dryland agriculture of vertisols in the semi-arid tropics. Proc. Symp. on the Properties and Utilization of Cracking Clay Soils, August 1981. In: Reviews in Rural Science No. 5, 1984, Univ. of New England, Australia. 1984

Tregubov P.S. Effective erosion control in the USSR. In: Soil Conservation: Problems and Prospects, p 454. Morgan R.P.C. (ed). Wiley. 1981

Vogel H. Terrace farming in the Yemen Arab Republic. Traditional forms of soil and water conservation and their present degradation, a case study of the Manakhah Region. Paper presented to IV Int. Conf. Soil Cons. Maracay, Venezuela, Nov. 1985. 1985

Warwick D.A. Annual Reports 1978/79 and 1979/81, Dryland Crop Agronomy Section (Big Bend). Agric. Res. Div., Min. of Ag. Swaziland. 1979/80

Willcocks T.J. The tillage of clod-farming sandy loam soils in the semi-arid climate of Botswana. Soil Tillage Research 1: 3223-350. 1981

Wollen L. Furrow cultivation (sowing) of cereals in Poland. Akademia Rolnicza, Krakow, Poland. Postepy Nauk Rolniczych, 1974, No. 4: 17-26. 1974

Wright P. La gestion des eaux de ruissellement. OXFAM, Ougadougou, Burkina Faso. 1984

Zingg A.W. and Hauser V.I. Terrace benching to save potential run-off for semi-arid land. Agron. J. 51: 289-292. 1959

CHAPTER 6

1. General references on water harvesting and use

Burton J. Water Storage on the Farm. Water Research Foundation of Australia. 1965

Cooley K.R., Dedrick A.R. and Frasier G.W. Water harvesting: state of the art. In: Watershed Management. Proc. Symp. 11-13 August 1975. 1975

Dutt G.R., Hutchinson C.F. and Garduno M.A. Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. Proc. Workshop sponsored by University of Arizona, USA and University of Chapingo, Mexico, at Tucson, Arizona, Sept 1980. Published by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK. 1981

FAO. Water laws in Moslem countries. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 20/1. FAO, Rome. 1976

FAO. Watershed Management Field Manual. FAO Conservation Guide, Volume 13/2 Water Harvesting. FAO, Rome. 1986

Frasier G.W. ed. Proceedings of Water Harvesting Symposium. Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

Frasier G.W. and Myer L.E. Handbook of Water Harvesting. Agricultural Handbook 600, USDA-AR6. 1983

Hollick M. Water harvesting in the arid lands. Scientific Reviews on Arid Zone Research Vol. 1: 173-247, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 1982

Hudson N.W: Field Engineering for Agricultural Development. Oxford Univ. Press. 1975

Kennedy W.K. and Rogers T.A. Human and animal-powered water lifting devices. Intermediate Technology Pub., London. 1985

Nissen-Petersen E. Rain Catchment and Water Supply in Rural Africa: A Manual. Hodder and Stoughton, London. 1982

2. References in text

Chiarella J.W. and Beck W.H. Water harvestinng cacahments on Indian lands in the Southwest. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 104-111. 1975

Cluff C.B. Engineering aspects of water harvesting research at the Univ. of Arizona. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, PP 27-39. 1975

Cluff C.B. Surface storage for water-harvesting agrisystems. Proc. Workshop sponsored by University of Arizona, USA and University of Chapingo, Mexico, at Tucson, Arizona, Sept 1980. Published by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK, pp 23-30. 1981

Cooley K.R. Evaporation suppression for conserving water supplies. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona" March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

Crow F.R. and Manges H.L. Comparison of chemical and non-chemical techniques for suppressing evaporation from small reservoirs. Trans. ASAE 10(2): 172-174. 1967

Dedrick A.R., Hansen T.D. and Williamson W.R. Floating sheets of foam rubber for reducing stock tank evaporation. J. Range Man. 26(6): 404-406. 1973

Dept. of Agriculture, Western Australia. A method for optimising cost of dam and roaded catchment combination. Technote 4/76 DAMCAT. 1979

Dept. of Agriculture, Western Australia. Roaded catchment design and construction. Farmnote 109. Roaded catchments: maintenance. Farmnote 129. 1984

Dutt G.R. Establishment of NaCl-treated catchments. Proc. Workshop sponsored by University of Arizona; USA and University of Chapingo, Mexico at Tucson, Arizona, Sept 1980. Published by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux; Farnham Royal, UK. 1981

Evenari M., Shanan L. and Tadmor N. The Negev, The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd Edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1982

Fink D.H. Paraffin-wax water-harvesting soil treatments improved with antistripping agents. Soil Science 138(1): 46-53. 1984

Frasier G.W. and Cooley K.R. Performance evaluation of water harvesting catchments. J. Range Management, 32, 6, Nov. 1979. 1979

Frith J.L. Design and construction of roaded catchments. In: Proc. Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 122-127. 1975

Frith J.L. Design standards for farm surface water supplies. Wheatbelt Water Supply Seminar. Water Res. Foundation of Australia, Northam WA. 1977

Frith J.L., Nulsen R.A. and Nicol H.I. A computer model for optimizing design of improved catchment. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 151-157. 1975

Hanson C.L., Neff E.L. and Woolhiser D.A. Hydrologic aspects of water harvesting in the northern Great Plains. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 129-140. 1975

Hollick M. The design of roaded catchments for maximum run-off. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 210-220. 1975

Hollick M. Water harvesting in the arid lands. Scientific Reviews on Arid Zone Research 1: 173-247. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 1982

Houston J. Rapid relief for Zimbabwe. World Water, May 1985, p 31. 1985

ITDG. The introduction of rainwater catchment tanks and micro-irrigation to Botswana. Intermediate Technology Pubs., London. 1969

Karan F. and Julka R. The use of soda-clay in reducing seepage in water harvest technology (Storage and conservation methods, India). Trans. Ind. Soc. Desert Technology and Univ. Centre of Des ert Studies. 6,1, Jan. 1981. 1981

Laing I.A.F. Sealing leaking excavated tanks on farms in Western Australia. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 159-174. 1975

Laing I.A.F. Rainfall collection in Australia. Proc. Workshop sponsored by University of Arizona, USA and University of Chapingo, Mexico, at Tucson, Arizona, Sept 1980. Published by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK., pp 61-66. 1981a

Laing I.A.F. Evaluation of small catchment surface treatments. Aust. Water Res. Council, Tech. Paper 61. Canberra. 1981b

Laing I.A.F. and Pepper R.G. Sealing farm dams. J. Agric. Western Australia 17(2): 2-7. 1976

Laing I.A.F. and Prout A.L. Bitumen oil, and clay surfaces on a deep sand to increase run-off from catchments for excavated tanks in Western Australia. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

Laing I.A.F., Pepper R.G. and Prout A.L. Flat batter dams suit difficult sites. J. Agric. Western Australia 4: 110-112. 1980

McBride M.W. and Shiflet L.W. Water harvesting catchments in the Safford District, south eastern Arizona. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 115-121. 1975

Mickelson R.H. Performance and durability of sheet metal, butyl rubber, asphalt roofing, and bentonite for harvesting precipitation. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22. 1975

Myers L.E. and Frasier G.W. Asphalt-fibreglass for precipitation catchments. J. Range Management 27(1): 12-15. Jan. 1974. 1974

Odell M.L. and Odell M.J. The evolution of a strategy for livestock development in the communal areas of Botswana. Pastoral Network Paper l0b, ODI, London. 1980

Plueddemann E.P. Soil treatment with silicones for water harvesting. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 76-83. 1975

Poesen J. Surface sealing as influenced by slope angle and position of simulated stones in the top layer of loose sediments. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 11: 1-10. 1986

Pressland A.J. and Lehane K.J. Run-off and the ameliorating effect of plant cover in the Mulga communities of south western Queensland. Aust. Rangeland J. 4(1): 16-20. 1982

Richards K.S. Rain-water harvesting for domestic purposes. In: Water in Agriculture. Rhodesian Agric. J. Tech. Bull. 15, pp 45-51. 1972

Roose E. and Piot J. Run-off erosion, and soil fertility restoration on the Mossi Plateau (Central Upper Volta). In: Challenges in African Hydrology and Water Resources. Proc. Harare Symp., July 1984. IAHS Pub. 144, pp 485-498. 1984

Sandford S. Management of Pastoral Development in the Third World. Wiley, Chichester, UK. 1983

Shanan L, Morin Y. and Cohen M. A buried membrane collector for harvesting rainfall in sandy areas. Proc. Workshop sponsored by University of Arizona, USA, and University of Chapingo, Mexico, at Tucson, Arizona, Sept 1980. Published by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK. pp 67-76. 1981

Sheikh M.I., Shah B.H. and Aleem A. Artificial catchments for rainwater harvesting in deserts of Pakistan. Pakistan For. Inst., Peshawar, Pakistan. 32(1): 7-17. 1982

Sinclair A.R.E. and Fryxell J.M. The Sahel of Africa: ecology of a disaster. Canadian J. Zoology 63(5): 987-999. 1985

Tadmor N.H. and Shanan L. Run-off inducement in an arid region by removal of vegetation. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 33(5): 790-793. 1969

Valentin C. Organisations pelliculaires superficielles de quelques sols de region subdesertique. AGADEZ, Rep. de Niger. Collection Etudes et Theses, ORSTOM, Paris. 1985

Wade N. Sahelian drought: no victory for western aid. Science (Washington DC) 185: 234-237. 1974

Welchert W.T. and Freeman B.N. Horizontal Walls. Jo Range Management 26(4): 253-256. 1973

Wulff H.W. The qanats of Iran. Scientific American 218: 94-101. 1968

CHAPTER 7

1. Some general references for 7.1 - Grazing land

Alchin B.M. Species trials in semi-arid south western New South Wales, 1956-1971. J. Soil Cons. Serv. New South Wales 30(1): 46-73. 1974

Palit S.B. Species for wood, food, and fodder in arid and semi-arid zones of India. In: Sand dune stabilization, shelterbelts, and afforestation in dry zones. Conservation Guide 10, pp 183-188. FAO, Rome. 1985

2. Some general references for 7.2 Trees and shrubs

Anon. A strategy on the role of forestry in combatting desertification. Paper presented at the Int. Arid Lands Research and Development Conference - Arid Lands Today and Tomorrow - Tucson, Arizona, Oct. 1985. 1985

Armitage F.B. Irrigated Forestry in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: A Synthesis. IDRC Publication 234E, Ottawa. 1985

Berry L. Agro-forestry in the West African Sahel. Advisory Committee on the Sahel. Nat. Res. Council, Washington, USA. 1984

Chandler T. and Spurgeon D. International Cooperation in Agro-forestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 1979

Lundgren B. and Nair P.K.R. Agro-forestry for soil conservation. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation. E1-Swaify, Moldenhauer, and Lo (eds). pp 703-717. Soil Cons. Soc. Amer., Ankeny, Iowa. 1985

Nair P.K.R. Agro-forestry Species: a crop sheets manual. Pub. 003E. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya. 1980

3. References in text

Anderson R. Imprinting technique offers new scope for reforestation. Ceres 19(3): 3-5. 1986

Barrow E.G.G. Use of microcatchment for tree planting in soil conservation in semi-arid areas. In: Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Thomas D.B. and Senga W.M. (eds). Inst. Dev. Studies and Fac. of Agric. Univ. Nairobi, pp 32.4-332. 1983

Boers T.M. Economic evaluation of water harvesting in microcatchments. Water Resources Research 19(5): 1099-1105. 1983

Brown L.R. Reversing Africa's Decline. Worldwatch Paper 65, Washington DC. 1985

Cunningham G.M. Regeneration of scalded duplex soils in the Coolabah district of New South Wales. J. Soil Cons. Serv. of New South Wales 30(3): 157-169. 1974

Dixon R.M. Land imprinting for controlling infiltration and desertification processes. ASAE Paper 83-2514. 1983

Dragoun F.J. and Kuhlman A.R. Effect of pasture management practice on run-off. J. Soil Water Cons. 23(2): 55-57. 1968

Eckholm E.P. Losing Ground: Environmental Stress and World Food Prospects. Norton, New York. 1976

Erickson L.R. and Currie P.O. A multifunction rangeland improvement machine for semi-arid regions. ASAE Paper 82-1021. 1982

Evenari M., Shanan L. and Tadmor N. The Negev, The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd Edition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1982

Fitzgerald K. Management and regeneration of degraded catchments and eroded pastoral land with particular reference to range reseeding. In: Conservation in arid and semi-arid zones. Conservation Guide 3, pp 41-60, FAO, Rome. 1976

Fortmann L. and Roe E. Dam groups in Botswana. Pastoral Network Paper 12b, ODI, London. 1981

Fowler M. Overgrazing in Swaziland. A review of the technical efficiency of the Swaziland herd. Pastoral Network Paper 12d, ODI, London. 1981

Gallacher R. Niger - Conservation des eaux et des sols. FAO, Rome. 1974

Hadley R.F. Evaluation of land-use and land-treatment practices in semi-arid western United States. US Geol. Survey, Denver, Colorado, USA. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. 1977, 278, 962, 543-554. 1977

Harrington G.N., Wilson A.D. and Young M.D. Management of Australia's Rangelands. Div. of Wildlife and Rangelands Research, CSIRO. 1984

Hays T.R. Modern and ancient utilization of rainfall in the Sudanese Butana (abstract) Assoc. for Arid Lands Studies, Proc. Vol. IV. Publ: Lubbock, Texas, USA. 1981

Houerou H.N. le. Agroforestry techniques for the conservation and improvement-of soil fertility in arid and semi-arid zones. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1980

Jones R.M. Scald reclamation studies in the Hay District of New South Wales: Part III. Reclamation by ponding banks. J. Soil Cons. Serv. of N.S.W. 23(1): 57-71. 1967

Keetch R.I. Rangeland rehabilitation in Central Australia. Land Cons. Unit, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory. 1981

Kowsar A. Water harvesting for afforestation. II. Dependence of tree growth on amount and distribution of precipitation. J. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 46(4): 802-807. 1982

Martin C.S. and Ward D.E. Rotating access to water to improve semidesert cattle range near water. J. Range Management 23(1): 22-26. 1970

Neff E.L. and Wright J.R. Contour furrowing as a range management practice. In: Proc. Symp. on Watershed Management, Boise, Idaho, July 1980. 2, 827-835. ACSE, New York. 1980

Newcombe K. An Economic Justification for Rural Afforestation: the Case of Ethiopia. Energy Department Paper 16, World Bank, Washington DC. 1984

Odell M.L. and Odell M.J. The evolution of a strategy for livestock development in the communal areas of Botswana. Pastoral Network Paper l0b. ODI, London. 1980

Ormerod W.E. The relationship between economic development and ecological degradation: How degradation has occurred in West Africa and how its progress might be halted. J. Arid Environments 1: 357-379. 1978

Rawitz E. an.d Hillel D. Water harvesting by run-off inducement for irrigation of an almond orchard in a semi-arid climate. In: Proc. Water Harvesting Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1974. Frasier G.W. (ed). USDA-ARS-W-22, pp 223-232. 1975

Shanan L. and Tadmor N.H. Micro-catchment systems for arid zone development. Centre of Int. Agric. Cooperation, Min. of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel. 1979

Simanton J.R., Osborn H.B. and Reynard K.G. Effects of brush to grass conversion on the hydrology and erosion of a semi-arid southwestern rangeland watershed. Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest 7: 249-256. 1977

Stocking M.A. Development projects for the small farmer: Lessons from eastern and central Africa in adapting conservation. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation. E1-Swaify, Moldenhauer and Lo (eds). Soil Cons. Soc. Amer., Ankeny, Iowa. 1985

Tromble J.M. Semi-arid rangeland treatment and surface run-off. J. Range Management 29(3): 251-255. 1976

UNDP. Project completion report, Eastern Senegal Livestock Development Project. Western Africa Projects Dept. (WAPAC), World Bank, Washington DC. 1984

Valentine J.F. Range Development and Improvements. Brigham Young University Press, Utah, USA. 1971

Viertmann W. Amenagements agro-sylvo-pastoraux dans les bassins versants du centre et du nord-ouest Tunisien. Final Report on Watershed Management TUN/81/004. FAO, Rome. 59p. 1984

Previous PageTop Of PageNext Page