Neglected crops 1492 from a different perspective


Contents


 

Edited by
J.E. Hernández Bermejo and J. León

Published in collaboration with the Botanical Garden of Córdoba (Spain) as part of the Etnobotánica 92 Programme (Andalusia, 1992)

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1994

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

David Lubin Memorial Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Botanical Garden of Cordoba (Spain)
Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective
(FAO Plant Production and Protection Series, no.26)
ISBN 92-5-103217-3

1. Plant production
2. Marginal farms
3. Crops
4. Trends
I. Title
II. Series
III. FAO, Rome (Italy)
IV. Hernández Bermejo, J.E.
V. León, J.

FAO code: 11 AGRIS: F01

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

© FAO 1994


Contents


Foreword

Abbreviation

Preface

Introduction

Plant genetic resources of the new world

Genetic resources
The major phytogeographical regions
Biodiversity of American flora
Cultural relationships
Distribution of genetic diversity
Changes since 1500
The challenge of conservation
Ornamental plants
Medicinal plants

Introduction of flora from the old world and causes of crop marginalization

Degree of marginalization of American plants
Causes of the marginalization of useful plants
Conclusion

Agriculture in Mesoamerica

Domesticated plants and neglected crops in Mesoamerica

Physical geography and human occupation
Past cultures
Agricultural systems
Domesticated plants
Marginalization of crops in Mesoamerica

Beans (Phaseolus spp.)

Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus acutifolius
Phaseolus lunatus
Phaseolus polyanthus

Cucurbits (Cucurbita spp.)

Cucurbita argyrosperma
Cucurbita pepo
Cucurbita moschata
Cucurbita ficifolia

Chayote (Sechium edule)
Custard apples (Annona spp.)

Annona diversifolia
Annona reticulate
Annona scleroderma

Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.)

Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus

Sapote (Pouteria sapota)
Spanish plum, red mombin (Spondias purpurea)
Tomatillo, husk-tomato (Physalis philadelphica)

Andean agriculture

Neglected crops of the Andean region
Andean grains and legumes

Canihua (chenopodium pallidicaule)
Quinoa (Chenopodium quince)
Andean Lupinus(Lupinus Mutabilis)
Love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus)

Andean tubers

Oca (Oxalis tuberosa)
Mashwa (Tropaeolum tuberosum)
Bitter potatoes (Solanum x juzepczukii), (Solanum x curtilobum)
Ullucu (Ullucus tuberosus)

Andean roots

Maca (Lepidium meyenii)
Arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza)
Mauka, chago (Mirabilis expanse)
Leafcup (Polymnia sonchifolia)

Andean fruits

Pepino (Solanum muricatum)
Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea)
Mountain papaw (Carica pubescens)

Amazonian and Caribbean agriculture

Crops of the Amazon and Orinoco regions: their origin, decline and future

Origins of agriculture and genetic diversity
The decline of the amazon and Orinoco regions
Current erosion of genetic and cultural resources
Crops and wild species that deserve attention
New directions for neotropical agricultural development

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum)
Peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes)
Species of Paullinia with economic potential

Guarana (Paullinia cupana)

Subtropical myrtaceae

Jaboticaba (Myrciaria spp.)

Arazá (Eugenia stipitata)
Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana)
Guinea arrowroot (Calathea allouia)
Maté (Ilex paraguariensis)
Tannia, yautia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium)

Across the Atlantic: Spain

Processes and causes of marginalization: the introduction of American flora in Spain

Neglected species
Arrival of American species
Models and causes of marginalization

Grain legumes for animal feed

Composition and use
Botany and ecology
Genetic diversity
Cultivation practices
Prospects for improvement

Traditional varieties of grain legumes for human consumption

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
Field bean, kidney bean, garden bean, haricot bean, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Broad bean(Vicia faba)
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)
Lentil (Lens culinaris)
Pea (Pisum sativum)

Neglected horticultural crops

Rocket (Eruca saliva)
Garden cress (Lepidium sativum)
Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
Borage (Borago officinalis)
Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum)
Scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica)
Spotted golden thistle (Scolymus maculatus)
Spanish salsify (Scolymus hispanicus)