Wildlife Utilization in Latin America: Current Situation and Prospects for Sustainable Management. (FAO Conservation Guide - 25)

Table of Contents

by Juhani Ojasti

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - FAO
Rome, 1996

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

ISBN 92-5-103316-1

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© FAO 1996

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Table of Contents



1. Introduction

1.1 Objectives and scope
1.2 Sources of information and methodology
1.3 General description of the area

1.3.1 Vegetation
1.3.2 Wildlife

2. Patterns of utilization

2.1 Classifying patterns of utilization

2.2 Hunting and diet in indigenous communities

2.2.1 Types of game animals
2.2.2 Order of importance
2.2.3 Nutritional intake from game
2.2.4 Hunting and wildlife abundance

2.3 Subsistence hunting by campesinos

2.3.1 Game animals
2.3.2 Order of importance
2.3.3 Nutritional intake from subsistence hunting
2.3.4 Scope and impact of subsistence hunting

2.4 Commercial hunting

2.4.1 Commercial hunting for food
2.4.2 Commercial hunting for skins Hunting and the skin trade in tropical America Hunting and trade in non-tropical areas Ecological, economic and social implications

2.4.3 The live animal trade

2.5 Hunting for sport

2.5.1 The sport hunter as wildlife user

3. Key groups and species

3.1 Turtles

3.1.1 Podocnemis expansa and podocnemis unifilis (South American river turtles)
3.1.2 Geochelone carbonaria and Geochelone denticulata (tortoises)

3.2 Lizards and snakes

3.2.1 Iguana iguana and Ctenosaura similis (green and brown iguana)

3.3 Caimans

3.3.1 Caiman crocodilus (spectacled caiman)

3.4 Birds

3.5 Ducks

3.5.1 Dendrocygna (Autumnalis, bicolor and viduata) (whistling ducks)
3.5.2 Cairina moschata (Muscovy duck)

3.6 Cracids

3.6.1 Penelope (guans)
3.6.2 Crax (sensu lato) (curassows)

3.7 Mammals

3.8 Armadillos

3.8.1 Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo)

3.9 Primates

3.10 Carnivores

3.10.1 Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter)
3.10.2 Felis pardalis (Ocelot)
3.10.3 Panthera onca (Jaguar)

3.11 Manatees

3.11.1 Trichechus manatus and trichechus inunguis

3.12 Tapirs

3.12.1 Tapirus terrestris (Amazonian tapir)

3.13 Peccaries

3.13.1 Tayassu pecari (White-lipped peccary)
3.13.2 Tayassu tajacu (Collared peccary)

3.14 Camelids

3.14.1 Lama guanicoe (guanaco)
3.14.2 Vicugna vicugna (wild vicuña)

3.15 Deer

3.15.1 Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)
3.15.2 Mazama americana (brocket deer)

3.16 Rodents

3.16.1 Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (capybara)
3.16.2 Agouti paca (paca)
3.16.3 Dasyprocta (agouti)
3.16.4 Myocastor coypus (nutria or coypu)

3.17 Hares and rabbits

3.17.1 Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern cottontail)

3.18 Summary of key groups and species

3.18.1 Biological characteristics Habitat and diet Seasonal reproduction Life history strategies Current status

3.18.2 Available biological data Classifying the available information Biological aspects Species biology

4. Environmental, socio-economic and administrative aspects

4.1 Wildlife administration

4.1.1 Policy and legislation
4.1.2 Organization of the wildlife administration services
4.1.3 Administrative performance
4.1.4 Wildlife protection services

4.2 Demographic, social and economic factors

4.2.1 The present population
4.2.2 Population growth
4.2.3 Macro-economic aspects
4.2.4 Land ownership and income distribution

4.3 Environmental modifications

4.3.1 Wooded habitat Logging Shifting cultivation Deforestation for agricultural and livestock production Extent of deforestation Impact on wildlife

4.3.2 Open habitat Agriculture Burning vegetation Livestock and grazing Exotic animals

4.3.3 Aquatic and wetland habitats
4.3.4 Protected areas Status and extent of protected areas Protected areas and wildlife

5. General discussion and conclusions

5.1 The socio-economic scenario
5.2 Habitat relations
5.3 Wildlife populations
5.4 Proposed management strategies

5.4.1 Total protection
5.4.2 Protected areas
5.4.3 Sport hunting
5.4.4 Captive breeding
5.4.5 Extensive management of commercial species
5.4.6 Environmental education
5.4.7 Research
5.4.8 Wildlife protection services
5.4.9 Other strategies and approaches

5.5 North-South relations

6. Recommendations

6.1 Broad recommendations
6.2 Management recommendations
6.3 Research priorities



Appendix 1. References
Appendix 2. Persons replying to survey questions
Appendix 3. Organizations responsible for wildlife protection in selected Latin American countries: Surveys and interviews