Millet production

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Several kinds of millets are grown in the world, but FAO data on area, yield and production of all millets are given together under the general heading of millet. Pearl millet, finger millet and prove millet account for a large proportion of the world production. Millet production increased from 26 million tonnes in 197981 to 31 million tonnes in 1988 and was similar in 1989 and 1990. Asia, Africa and the former Soviet Union produce almost all the world's millets, as shown in Table 7. The major producers of millets in 1990 were India (39 percent), China (15 percent), Nigeria (13 percent) and the Soviet Union (12 percent) (Table 8).

The area under millet production decreased marginally from 38.1 million hectares in 1979-81 to 37.6 million hectares in 1990. However, production increased by 17 percent, from 25.6 million tonnes in 1979-89 to 29.8 million tonnes in 1990, largely because of production increases in Nigeria (65 percent), India (25 percent) and the Soviet Union (207 percent). However, there was a 24 percent decrease in production in China during the same period.

In all of the ten leading millet-producing countries except the Soviet Union, vegetable products supplied 90 percent or more of total dietary energy in 198789 (Table 9). In India, China, Nigeria, the Niger, Mali, Uganda, Burkina Faso and Nepal, vegetable products supplied more than 80 percent of protein. Thus in many sorghum- and millet-producing countries, vegetable products, especially cereals, provide the bulk of energy and protein.

TABLE 7: Area, yield and production of millet, by region, 1990

Region

Area

Yield (kg/ha)

Production

  (10 ha) (% of total)   (10 t) (% of total)
Asia 20 853 55.5 804 16 767 56.2
Africa 13 548 36.1 669 9 066 30.4
USSR 2903 7.7 1 256 3647 12.2
North and Central America 150 0.4 1 200 180 0.6
South America 55 0.2 1 655 91 0.3
Oceania 34 0.1 882 30 0.1
World 37565 100 794 29817 100

Source: FAO,1991.

TABLE 8: Leading millet producers, 1990

Country

Area

Production

  (10 ha) (% of total) (10 t) (% of total)
India 17 000 45.3 11 500 38.6
China 2 601 6.9 4 401 14.8
Nigeria 4 000 10.7 4 000 13.4
USSR 2 903 7.7 3 647 12.2
Niger 3 100 8.3 1 133 3.8
Mali 900 2.4 695 2.3
Uganda 400 1.1 620 2.1
Burkina Faso 1 150 3.1 597 2.0
Senegal 865 2.3 514 1.7
Nepal 200 0.5 240 0.8
Total 33 119 88.2 27 347 91.7
World(1990) 37 565   29 817  
World (1989) 37 409   29 962  

Source: FAO. 1991.

TABLE 9: Sources of energy and protein in the food supply of the world's ten leading millet producers, 1987-89

Country

Energy per caput per day (kcal)

Protein per caput per day (g)

  Total Vegetable products Percentage of total Animal products Total Vegetable products Percentage of total Animal products
India 2196 2 048 93.3 148 53.2 45.6 85.7 7.6
China 2634 2 365 89.8 269 62.8 50.7 80.7 12.1
Nigeria 2306 2 248 97.5 58 49.5 43.6 88.1 5.9
USSR 3380 2 444 72.3 936 106.2 50.1 47.2 56.1
Niger 2297 2 152 93.7 145 64.0 53.2 83.1 10.8
Mali 2234 2 090 93.6 144 62.5 50.1 80.2 12.4
Uganda 2136 2 010 94.1 126 48.1 38.7 80.5 9.4
Burkina Faso 2286 2 186 95.6 100 69.8 62.6 89.7 7.2
Senegal 2374 2 160 91.0 214 68.2 49.9 73.0 18.3
Nepal 2074 1 937 93.4 137 52.5 44.8 85.3 7.7

Source: FAO,1991.


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