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III Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

III Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

This section outlines the ways that gender considerations need to be integrated into the project cycle in its various stages. The different sections highlight the particularly stage-related issues that need to be confronted.

The successful integration of people-centred considerations in the creation, implementation and operation of a project will depend most on who participates in decision-making. The involvement of the communities as partners in the development process will help guarantee that forestry activities are designed to fit local circumstances. Similarly, the use of consultants and staff members who are aware of and have terms of reference (see chapter entitled "Choosing consultants and project staff") that emphasize the importance of people-related concerns will further reinforce the relevance of gender issues to each element of forestry efforts.

For all project cycle stages, the information that will aid incorporation of gender-related considerations into the project cycle will be consistently of the same nature. The depth and type of analysis will, however, change as design progresses. In-depth analysis will not need to take place in every stage of the project cycle.

The gender analysis framework overleaf outlines the basic questions that are relevant in the integration of gender considerations. Those questions should guide the entire project cycle. Depending on the country, the sector, the institutions, and other contextual factors, the answers to the questions in the framework can produce very different profiles.

Gender analysis framework: basic questions

1. Who does what? What is the actual (as opposed to the idealized) division of labour between men and women in the project area. For example, in many parts of rural Honduras the division of labour between men and women is clear. The men plant (siembran) the corn and the women grind (muelen) the corn. It can also be important to consider who provides "informal" assistance related to given tasks. In Honduras, although cultural prescriptions clearly divide labour by gender, the whole family helps in the fields when the corn needs to be harvested or the men leave the farm to work in sugar cane fields or pick coffee.

2. Who has what? Who has access to and control over private resources in the project area? In Honduras, for example, women in particular often have access to and control over land surrounding the house (solares). Those areas often have trees and vegetation that provide both food and income for the family.

3. What influences arrangements related to resource access and control? What cultural and religious prescriptions, laws, economic and political policies influence gender-differentiable rights of access and control. Are any of the gender-based distinctions flexible? In what ways are rules changing, if at all? In Kenya, because 60% of rural households are now headed or managed by women, they have begun to take on jobs that were traditionally done by men. The cultural prescriptions have evolved through necessity.

4. How are public resources distributed and who gets what? What institutional structures are involved; do they function equitably and efficiently? How can institutional responsiveness to al I community members be insured? For example, until recently in Honduras little attention was given to the land and agriculture which women controlled. Extension services focused primarily on corn growing (and therefore men). Women are now being trained to use fuel efficient stoves and to grow vegetables.

1. Pre-identification

IN PRE-IDENTIFICATION, it is most important to discuss explicitly the project beneficiaries and highlight gender considerations. Starting the process by enunciating the relevant considerations and focusing attention on the intended beneficiaries implicitly sets the tone for both future documentation and the project itself.

The idea for a project can come from a range of different sources - donors, governments, rural communities and multilateral organizations among others. Generally, pre-identification presents a social, economic or political opportunity or problem in a geographic area with a proposal for how to respond. Needs and opportunities can vary greatly - fuelwood, income from non-timber forest products, access to forest foods, trained forestry personnel, for example. Regardless of the target issue, answering the following five questions can lay the foundation for a project that focuses on the beneficiaries:

_ Which sectors, institutional personnel and community groups and individuals will be involved?

_ Who, around the world, is working on similar problems?

_ Who is working on similar problems in the targeted geographic region?

_ Who is examining the impact of similar types of problems on local people, both men and women?

_ What women's and men's groups, both inside and outside the proposed project area, can be consulted?

By considering each of these questions, the pre-identification statement can be written in an informed manner that adds both substance and credibility. The questions also help immediately focus the project on participants, both men and women. The pre-identification can be short while still responding to the questions.

Pre-identification: an example from Indonesia

Indonesia's Directorate General of Forest Utilization and Ministry of Forestry and several communities in East Kalimantan, along with FAO's Community Forestry Unit and Forest Products Marketing and Non-wood Forest Products Branches, are interested in promoting the development of non-timber forest products processing capability for income generation in East Kalimantan.

Forest products help support the livelihood of more than 100,000 Indonesians. Many studies of forest products in Asia have examined the significance of a wide range of forest products, from traditional medicines and forest foods to tools and other goods for household use and sale (FAO 1991, Peluso 1993). In East Kalimantan, rattan collection and trade are an extremely important activity for both male and female peasants and off-farm labourers. The rattan from that region comprises approximately 50% of Indonesian rattan exports, valued at some $150 million annually. Much of the rattan is sold unprocessed, removing much of the value-added production from the source of collection. Given the importance of rattan to regional income, a project to increase local male and female rattan processing capacity might be advisable.

The Community Forestry Unit within FAO has published many relevant documents including Community Forestry Case Study 4, entitled Case studies in forest-based small scale enterprises in Asia: rattan, matchmaking and handicrafts. The Government of Indonesia is increasingly aware of the important role women and men play in natural resource management and forestry. For example, it has sponsored a series of studies on rattan harvesting, processing and grading.

East Kalimantan residents are aware of the income earning potential of processing. Two Dayak brothers, for example, have established a first stage processing centre. This centre employs both men and women who are primarily producers and has led to the construction of a school and dormitory for workers' children (FAO 1990). In order to explore the potential for a project that promotes non-timber forest production and processing in the East Kalimantan region of Indonesia, preparation of a preliminary project description and appointment of a project formulation team are recommended.

NB: It is easy to draft a pre-identification statement that does not focus on participants. The above example could have focused on forest products, saying little about who relies on them or could benefit from promotional efforts.

2. Project identification, formulation and appraisal

PROGRESSIVELY MORE DETAILED information about the community and project circumstances is gathered and then confirmed in the project identification, formulation and appraisal stages.

The final output is the project document which contains a statement of the goals, objectives, activities and approach for the project. Theoretically, identification, formulation and appraisal have distinct purposes and approaches:

_ The project identification phase is used to gather the information that is needed to analyse and assess the project situation. Project identification research is extensive and fairly general.

_ During project formulation the relevant technical, economic and social considerations are investigated in detail. The formulation stage leads to production of the project document.

_ Project appraisal validates the data and conclusions from formulation while also reviewing the soundness of the project document on the policy, technical and financial levels.

Frequently identification, formulation and appraisal are done simultaneously or by a single team of people. As noted in the descriptions, the type and depth of research and analysis will differ. However, in each of the three phases the overriding principle is to ensure focus on:

_ people and the effect the project will have on individuals; and,

_ how the different activities, rights, needs and requirements of men and women can be considered in project activities.

First, it is important to get an idea of the community. The local approach to division of labour, and the rights, responsibilities, restrictions and benefits accrued by different subgroups, particularly women and men, need to be understood if the project is to be constructed truly considering all the relevant information. An analysis of local rules, regulations and customs can help the team become aware of the motives for and constraints to participation by different community members. It can also help the team to identify positive and negative effects of participation on different community members. Simply looking and knowing what to look for can provide a new view of men's and women's roles in the community and, therefore, indicate how the project may need to be adjusted given the site. Driving, walking or riding through part of the project site with the project's beneficiaries, objectives and some pertinent questions in mind can yield a great deal of information about beneficiaries.

Project identification: gathering information

In order to ensure that beneficiaries and the opportunities for and constraints to their involvement are properly considered in project identification, social and socio-economic considerations must be examined to learn how proposed beneficiaries live and work. The basic framework identified in Table 1 provides the questions necessary for gathering the information that is needed at this stage. Several methods can be used in information collection: research, observation and consultation and discussion.


n Existing information

A review of literature is a good first step in project identification. The literature search should be used to find out about the project area, the project objectives, the people living in area and similar projects elsewhere. The literature that is used should not be limited to external reports. When possible, it should combine international, national and local documentation.

In order to carry out a literature review that emphasizes the relevant people-related considerations, several particular subjects and types of institutions should be consulted in different venues:

o At FAO Rome headquarters. Publications available include:

_ Restoring the balance, the FAO Forestry Department policy paper on women and forest resources;

_ Women in community forestry: a field guide for project design and implementation, the FAO Forestry Department guidelines;

_ the forestry-specific literature on participatory development and gender, land tenure and farming systems research;

_ the literature available from the FAO Women's Service, Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service, the People's Participation Programme (ESH).

Through the above resources, other possible information sources will become apparent. Non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, multilateral organizations and universities are all potentially useful. For example, women's organizations such as Kenya's Green Belt Movement, FINNIDA, UNIFEM, the World Bank, non-governmental organizations and university social sciences and women's studies departments are all sources of information regarding relevant socio-economic issues including those relating to gender. Some have published guidelines related to the integration of gender and women's issues in forestry.

o Within the partner country. A review of partner country literature will help the team understand the social or socio-economic issues: household characteristics, land tenure considerations, population and migration, labour supply and employment, income levels, social welfare policy end social organization-when possible all disaggregated by gender.

At national level, review government documents dealing with social or socioeconomic and gender issues and literature from universities, non-governmental organizations and women's groups.

At local level, review any literature from women's groups, municipal government agencies, cooperatives, extension offices, non-governmental organizations.

n New studies

A full socio-economic study of the project area is not appropriate during identification. Until the project is formulated such surveys cannot be properly designed. Socio-economic surveys on a variety of subjects (the specific topics will depend on the foreseen activities) will be needed later to provide baseline data for participatory project planning, monitoring and evaluation.

Rapid rural appraisal or participatory rural appraisal of the project area might be advisable during identification. There are many approaches to appraisals and the degree to which participants are actively involved varies. The gender analysis framework in Table 1 provides the basic questions for a rapid appraisal. A more detailed outline of the relevant questions is provided in Annex 1. For more in-depth consideration of the rapid appraisal approach to information gathering see Community Forestry Notes 3 and 5, Rapid appraisal and Rapid appraisal of tree and land tenure which are available in the FAO Forestry Department.

o Consultation and discussion. Consultation and discussion should also be used to gather information. A range of different people can often give relevant information from various perspectives and help ensure that relevant socioeconomic and gender-related issues are being considered. For example:

_ Discuss the issues with villagers, both men and women, local organizations, extension personnel, leaders of cooperatives and heads of municipal agencies within the geographic boundaries of the project.

_ Speak with the FAO Community Forestry Unit and Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy.

_ Interview the heads of the governmental agencies within the partner country that deal with women's concerns and with concerns of ethnic groups or the poor in the country.

_ Interview university department faculty who deal with gender issues in the partner country. If they are to be partners in the development process, consultations with future project participants will be particularly important. Their early collaboration helps ensure that the project is developed with local circumstances in mind.

o Observation. Direct observation can help quickly gather information about a potential project site. There are many ways to systematically observe a community. Walk around the area at different times throughout the day and observe who is doing which tasks.

In observing, the following people-related questions should be kept in mind.

In the town or village:

_ Who are the people?

_ Who looks prosperous and who less prosperous?

_ What are women, men and children doing?

_ Which institutions - such as schools, religious buildings, health facilities and markets - are visible?

_ Who works in these institutions - men or women a- and who uses them?

Along hack roads:

_ Who are the people?

_ Who is in the various types of fields?

_ What are the women doing?

_ What are the men doing?

_ What natural resources are visible?

_ What trees, bushes, plants and flowers are present; which of them seem to be close to the homestead?

Before beginning to gather information with the community, the teem needs to introduce itself and explain why it has come and what it will do. Initial introductions can be done through a village meeting, radio announcements, or meetings with village leaders who disseminate the information throughout the community. The best approach will vary based upon the culture of the involved communities.

One quick way to assess a community through observation is the community profile. Beginning at a predetermined point, members of the team walk in a straight line through the project site, noting what they see. Each team member is assigned a particular factor to observe: housing, trees, people, soils, etc. The members each walk with a community member/guide, asking questions about their observations.

Another way of observing is to randomly select several households in the community to visit and solicit help in touring both the community and the household's fields, trees, vegetation. When using this approach it is important to have both the woman and man of the house show a team member around independently. Separate tours often provide different insights.

Observation can also be done by a single member of the team wandering through the community asking questions along the way.

In some locations it may be possible to spend at least one night with a local family. Requesting such a stay can sometimes be made via a village head. This is perhaps the best way to learn about many of the social and socio-economic factors influencing the community. It can also provide a better opportunity to speak with women as they are frequently most available in the late evening.

The project formulation framework document

The "project formulation framework document" is the output of the identification process. It is a precursor to the project document.

The FAO Guidelines for the project formulation framework state that "discussion, debate and negotiations about the shape and content of the proposed project are to centre on the ideas presented in the formulation Framework rather than on the wording of a draft project document." Therefore, the project formulation framework document must focus on the factors that will influence people's access to project benefits. By doing so, the project design will naturally focus on participants, and their needs and concerns.

Several particularly important concepts need to be explored and integrated into the formulation framework document. By considering these issues, the proper in-depth analysis will take place in formulation:

_ The differential role and impact of economic incentives (positive and negative)

_ How and when to involve different beneficiary groups in various project stages;

_ The influence and importance of differential access to resources;

_ How the organization and distribution of authority within a project can influence success and the degree of participation;

_ How gender considerations can influence participation and project impact.

In each of these areas there are several factors that are known to be relevant to the integration of gender considerations and the maintenance of a focus on people in a project. Keeping these issues central to discussion of project design can help ensure that activities will be more efficaciously structured.

n The differential role and impact of economic incentives

o Depending on the forestry activities that are selected and who is involved in their selection, participation or enthusiasm for a project will frequently vary by gender. The production of timber, poles and pulp tends to be the man's domain. Therefore, unless women are consciously included in project activities, men tend to be more involved in and benefit from this type of project. Similarly, home gardens are often managed by the woman. Programmes to promote their use or diversification will frequently be more likely to involve women.

o Forestry projects can have different economic impacts on men and women. Forestry activities can inadvertently affect important income-earning opportunities for both participants and non-participants. Forestry projects sometimes produce unanticipated employment for community as nursery workers, "budders and grafters", or seedlings salespeople. Projects can also provide the opportunity for people to sell food to project workers. Conversely, projects can inadvertently limit job availability by reducing supplies of raw materials used in small-scale enterprises. Men and women frequently have completely different tasks, income-earning opportunities, and time schedules. As a result, the two groups are frequently affected differently by forestry projects.

o Income generation should not be automatically assumed to be of greater importance than community fuelwood, medicine, forest foods and household forest product needs. Often men and women have different priorities. All need to be considered before objectives and activities can be selected.

o Women and men are both interested in cash returns. The large number of women-headed households (one in three worldwide) indicates that involving women in commercially-oriented projects is extremely important. Sometimes involving both women and men in projects requires special arrangements such as multiple production sites, trainers and/or work schedules. By noting the particular needs of different groups in the project formulation framework document, potential barriers to full participation by both men and women can be foreseen and averted.

o Men and women often spend their income differently. Women, for example, often spend a higher percentage of their money than men do on household needs. In planning project activities, the possibly different effects of increases in women's and men's incomes should be considered unintended effects of projects can be foreseen.

n Involving beneficiary groups in various project stages

o Local people often possess knowledge and insights that cannot be found elsewhere. Projects that are designed without asking local men and women what they know, what they want, what they can and cannot do, what they cannot do and when they are available to do it, frequently exclude men or women de facto because they are not designed to fit into work schedules or function within the cultural setting. In Niger, a "successful" windbreak project succeeded in raising crops between the rows of newly planted trees, but women's income actually fell as a result. Only later was it realized that in the off-season women had kept small ruminants in the agricultural fields; they had given up the practice after being fined for allowing their animals to stray into the newly planted areas (FAO 1987).

o Women and men often possess different kinds of knowledge. Men and women can frequently identify community needs, risks and opportunities that may be created by proposed activities; by doing so they can better determine the groups that will benefit or suffer, and ensure that intended beneficiaries actually gain.

o Different groups often discuss their concerns and knowledge more fully among themselves. Independently consulting different groups can help project planners work with complete and clear information.

o Community priorities are not always apparent, nor universal. Though communities may suffer evident shortages of fuel or fodder, their highest forest and tree-related priorities may differ. Assumptions about different beneficiary groups' priorities can also vary. Women are often believed to be most concerned about fuelwood. Increasingly, however, it is found that this may not be their first priority.

o Both men and women work with trees, though the nature of the work may be different and they may only be aware of the tree-related jobs their gender performs. One anecdote relates the story of a village man strenuously denying that women grew trees despite the fact that the courtyard of his home was filled with fruit trees planted by his wife and daughters.

o Formal monitoring and evaluation structures need to be placed in every project. It is important to establish a system that can help determine the extent to which different groups, disaggregated by gender within the community, are involved in and benefit from various project activities.

n The influence and importance of differential access to resources

o Ownership of and access to land often differ by gender. In many societies women do not possess land; they work their husband's or father's land. In both the Gambia and Kenya, land has been legally allocated by the government to male heads of household and male relatives, leaving women with responsibility for, but no legal rights to the land. Often, even if women own land, the products from the land are either in the name of or controlled by the senior male relative of the family.

o Women and men often control different areas and have different land use preferences. Women often plant trees around the homestead; in most places this area is considered women's domain. They usually plant multipurpose species.

o In some cultures tree planting signifies land ownership. General community tree planting can sometimes face strong resistance from those with land tenure.

o Male and female differential time availability must be considered when designing projects. Labour availability often varies by gender as well as time of the day and season. The labour demands of forestry activities need to be assessed along with a knowledge of men's and women's workloads and peak, critical workload periods.

o Limitations on access to capital can limit project participation. Women, in particular, often have little collateral to secure credit and are considered credit risks. Sometimes they simply are not allowed access to credit. It should be noted and emphasized that women frequently have proven better credit risks than men.

o In areas where there are many women-headed households, the cultural barriers for women's participation in forestry seem to be breaking down. This is rendering it easier to include them as participants in projects that focus on traditionally male activities.

o Forestry activities sometimes pay women less than men for the same work. An effort needs to be made to indicate men's and women's equal status in projects even if pay is determined by output rather than time.

n How the organization and distribution of authority within a project can influence success and the degree of participation

o Women sometimes have difficulty fully participating in projects because they have less education and less direct representation in community decision-making bodies. Efforts to involve women as both direct participants and beneficiaries can help them gain status within and outside the project context.

o Simply because a forester is a woman does not necessarily mean she will support women's programmes. Gender sensitivity training is useful for both men and women. Including women professionals on a team can sometimes increase the likelihood that more attention is paid to women beneficiaries or that women beneficiaries are willing to participate and discuss their interests. It is crucial, in any circumstance, that the obligation to consider gender issues is explicit in the consultant's terms of reference.

o Projects should work to include the more and less powerful members of a community. If projects work to involve groups and individuals that are not traditional community heads they can often (i) gather information they might not have learned otherwise, (ii) better target a variety of beneficiary groups, (iii) narrow the gap between richer and poorer, and (iv) help broaden the circle of project participants.

n How gender considerations influence participation and project impact

o Project design can sometimes be influenced by faulty cultural assumptions and social attitudes, try not to exclude groups from projects on the basis of misconceptions. In one region of India, for example, a training project to improve lacquerware production, a non-timber forest product, taught men and not women to use electric powered lathes because it was erroneously felt that women were not capable of using them. As a result, the speed and quality of women's production was lower and women consistently earned less than men did for their lacquerware (Campbell 1991).

o Training can often impart both a skill and a sense of self-worth. In Nepal, an impact evaluation ten years after a literacy project showed that few women could still read. It also found, however, that through the classes, women had gained self-confidence; some had become community leaders (Hocking 1990).

Project formulation

Socio-economic studies of the project region and people, disaggregated by gender, need to be conducted during project formulation. The studies that are completed during the formulation stage are used to obtain answers to the more detailed questions related to beneficiaries (see Annex 1). These studies provide the foundation for beneficiary identification and monitoring participation. The in-depth analysis in formulation culminates in development of the project document.

The project document

The project document must continue to emphasize the focus on people. Different parts of the document need to highlight alternative elements of a beneficiary-focused approach.

The project document includes statements of:

_ the project's rationale;

_ the development objective(s);

_ the project's immediate objectives, outputs and activities;

_ the risks;

_ the project reporting scheme and a schedule for review and evaluation.

Each element of the document must be described to focus on the participants:

_ how beneficiaries can be identified;

_ how participation can be monitored;

_ how the project's impact on various beneficiary groups can be monitored;

_ how costs and benefits as they relate to different beneficiary groups can be compared and assessed.

n The project's rationale

The project rationale explains why the project is needed, outlining the location and resource opportunity and constraints. In order to properly focus on people, this part of the project document should centre analysis of the need fore project on the status and expressed needs of proposed participants. For example, the project's rationale might first state: "The decline in Rabat's forest economy and the resulting negative effect on agriculture have most directly affected the rural poor in the Northeast. In that region the rural poor are primarily subsistence-level cultivators that farm steeply-sloping marginal land. "

Following this participant-focused description, the rationale could go on to describe the site's latitude, agriculture, climate, vegetation and technical assistance needs.

n The development objective

The development objective describes the over-arching long-term project goal. It should present the goal as it relates to intended beneficiaries. By communicating the objective in a detailed, participant-oriented manner, consideration of beneficiary-related factors is promoted. Rather than stating the objective "to develop and introduce a sustainable land utilisation system involving intercropping of trees and plants", it could be specified to read:

"to develop an environmentally advantageous, productive land utilisation system that renders rural communities' farming systems sustainable, especially those of the women and men of the poorer strata as identified by low nutritional status."

n The immediate objectives

The project document's explanation of the immediate objectives, outputs and activities would:

_ identify the intended beneficiaries,

_ design activities,

_ explain why beneficiaries would indeed benefit, and

_ encourage built-in monitoring of participation.

The statement of immediate objectives could build on the statement of the rationale and development objectives: "to promote participatory agroforestry development on steep-sloping farm land, especially considering the differential effect of customary land tenure on women and men."

n Determining outputs and activities

In order to select activities and outline outputs, opportunities and risks, formulation team research would need to include analyses of people/gender-related issues. For example, the potential feasibility of the project might be studied by examining land use rules to determine division of labour and land use/ownership rights.

The statement of outputs and activities would build on that foundation to ensure involvement of beneficiaries and activities to answer questions that would uncover participant-related risks. The activities might include:

"Establish an extension station which encourages agroforestry on steep-sloping farm land by both male and female farmers."

Built into the selection of activities would need to be mechanisms to ensure that the project was designed and implemented to consider the differences between women and men as they regard the following questions:

_ participant activities: Who plants? Who weeds? Who harvests? Do these rights vary based on location?

_ access to and control of resources: Who has access to trees? Who controls the forest harvest?

_ constraints they face: Do women and men face different constraints? Do ethnic groups have differential access to resources?

_ time availability: During which times of the day/which seasons are men and women available to work with extensionists?

_ local customs: Can men and women work together?

n The opportunities and risks

A statement of the opportunities and risks highlights potential problems that may be encountered. Proper research and activity design can decrease risks. No project can, however, hope to eliminate them completely. Problems can relate to a variety of factors. As projects begin to consider and incorporate socio-economic concerns earlier in the process of design, risks can be minimized and better defined.

A programme to encourage home gardens might, for example, identify two risks: (1) the relative regularity of drought; (2) that the project may suffer from low male participation because home gardens are traditionally a woman's activity.

n Project reporting, review and evaluation

The specifics for reporting, review and evaluation need to incorporate mechanisms to monitor and evaluate participation by and the impact of the project on different beneficiary groups. The methods that are recommended do not need to be complex. They do, however, need to ensure awareness of the potentially different impact of the project on different groups within the community. For example:

_ use a chart that identifies the inputs (i.e. seedlings, training) and tracks recipients by gender, ethnic group, age, social status.

_ track how project field personnel's time is distributed among various beneficiary groups - differential time allocation can serve as an indicator of varying levels of participation.

Analyse extension and outreach services:

_ with whom are personnel in contact; with whom do they interact?

_ are there women extension agents to work with local women?

_ are field personnel working with the full spectrum of intended beneficiaries?

Project appraisal

Project appraisal should, in addition to checking the soundness of the technical and financial foundations of a project, examine the extent to which beneficiary-related considerations have been adequately assessed and used in design. By using the relevant issues that were identified in the last chapter as a guide, the appraisal team can ensure that men's and women's specific needs have been considered and integrated into planning.

3. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation

AFTER APPRAISAL, THE PROJECT is implemented and continuously monitored and evaluated. This section outlines the proper way to consider women's and men's interests in each of these stages. It also provides guidelines for completion of the following:

_ The inception report

_ Semi-annual and annual reports

_ The tripartite review

_ The terminal report.


It is, of course, easier to implement a project that considers the needs and demands of beneficiaries when the project design process has maintained the focus on participants; the project document is presumably written on the basis of the requisite analytical findings. Frequently, however, the project has not been formulated with an adequate knowledge of men's and women's needs and, hence, activities are improperly conceived. In these circumstances, the first project activity needs to be completion of the requisite people-focused analyses so that activities can be adapted prior to implementation. An outline of the issues these studies need to confront is provided in the chapter "Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle".

The inception report

The inception report revises the plans contained in the project document based upon the reality of the project site and lays out the work plan. The inception report should make sure to note any participant-related factors that influenced development of the project and its work plan. For example, if the timing of training sessions was governed by an assessment of task distribution and time availability, the analysis that was completed should be briefly described.

Semi-annual and annual reports

Semi-annual reports are required of FAO Trust Fund projects. They are written using the "Project progress report: Trust Fund Programme" form. Annual reports are required of United Nations Development Programme projects. They are written using the "Project performance evaluation report: United Nations Development Programme."

By adding the following information to the sections noted for each relevant form, reporting can more accurately include an assessment of participation disaggregated by gender.

n Semi-annual report: "The project progress report - Trust Fund Programme"

In completing the project progress report Form consider the following:

o Title of project. Unless the project title or objectives explicitly include the words "women" or "woman", the FAO computerized data system will not know if women are a part of the project activities. These data are essential in implementing the FAO's Women in Development policy. By adding an indication of the beneficiaries to the title, a concrete record of the intended beneficiaries is created.

o Section A - progress and outputs. Currently the form reads: "Recall briefly the immediate objectives and describe progress towards their achievement and in particular the outputs produced during the reporting period as outlined in plan of operation/work plan under all headings and sub-headings." Include a description of the beneficiaries and the impact of the outputs on the ultimate beneficiaries, identifying any differences in impact on different beneficiary groups.

o Section B - Inputs. Currently the form reads: " 1. List national and international professional staff assigned to the project during the reporting period. Names and Functions." List the gender of the staff people as well. The form also says: "2. Report training activities during the reporting period, viz: fellowships, study tours, field days, local workshops, etc. Please list how many trainees were involved in each activity." Disaggregate the numbers trained by gender... For example: 47 trained, 30 women, 17 men.

o After Section C, "Problems encountered and actions taken or requested to resolve them". Add a new section: "By whom are the project outputs being used?" Be as specific as possible about the beneficiaries, using specific characteristics, including the proportion of women.

o Section E "Work plan and expected outputs for the next reporting period". Include a description of the specific characteristics of the expected beneficiaries with a breakdown by gender.

o Annual report: "Project performance evaluation report- UNDP."

o Title of project. Once again, unless the project title or objectives include the words "women" or "woman" the FAO computerized data system will not record that women are a part of the project activities. These data are essential in implementing the FAO women in development policy. In the Section "Summary of conclusions", include a description of the immediate beneficiaries and the ultimate beneficiaries.

o Section 4. Currently the form reads: "If produced, to what extent and by whom is the output being used?" Include information on the gender and socioeconomic status of the recipients/participants.

o Section IV.6. Currently the form reads: "Has the project had any significant unforeseen effects either positive or negative?" Include an analysis of the specific affect on beneficiaries, disaggregated as necessary to show differential effects on different groups.

o Section 7 (b). Currently the form reads: "What action do you recommend to be undertaken by any of the three parties involved (Government, executing agency, UNDP) to improve the effectiveness of the project?" Consider adding recommendations related to how participatory the project is and/or the extent to which socioeconomic considerations were adequately assessed. Additionally, think about including some recommendations for community/participant action.

o The status of activities form. The "comments" column can be used to list the beneficiary group for each activity.

o Report annexes. An annex could be added to discuss the socio-economic effects of the project, the level of participation by different beneficiary groups and the potential for men and women to independently benefit from the project.

Monitoring and evaluation

Any project monitoring and evaluation system should integrate the local people's perspectives on the project as well as that of project staff and national forestry officers. The evaluation process should include different groups of local people's responses to the major evaluation questions: how were local people involved in planning and implementing the project; how have they benefited from the effort; do they believe the project attained its goals and/or local goals?

The beneficiaries: asking the questions

Monitoring should include identification and tracking of participants. Gender disaggregated examinations of intended and actual beneficiaries can unearth explanations for under-participation by different groups.

n Identifying beneficiaries

_ Who are the various intended beneficiaries?

_ Who is actually participating?

_ How were the beneficiaries identified?

_ How are the actual beneficiaries characterised? Age, gender, socioeconomic status, regional, provincial or ethnic affiliation?

_ Are the intended and actual beneficiaries similar in profile? Why or why not?

n Monitoring participation

_ How have the ultimate beneficiaries been involved with the project?

_ Who has been involved: Women, men, ages, socio-economic status, ethnicity?

_ What monitoring system does the project have in place to track who has been involved and how?

n Determining the impact of the project on the beneficiaries

_ How is the impact of the project on the beneficiaries being assessed?

_ Is there a differential impact on different groups? On women? On men?

In order to answer these questions adequately, some form of socioeconomic survey or series of interviews could be conducted. The results should clearly outline the following:

_ The project-related activities of the beneficiaries, gender- disaggregated

_ The beneficiaries' access to and control of project-related resources

_ The constraints faced by particular beneficiaries

Finally, include a copy of the FAO Community Forestry Unit's "Guidelines for monitoring people and gender issues in FAO forestry projects" with the terms of reference for the monitoring and evaluation team.

The tripartite review mission

The tripartite evaluation is a comprehensive on-site review of all the key components of a project with the purpose of improving the project design and implementation. It is conducted by a team representing the host government, the donor and the implementing agency, FAO.

Terms of reference are written for the tripartite review, providing a guide for the teem of what is to be evaluated. It is essential the terms of reference ensure that beneficiary-related issues are assessed, therefore, al I tripartite terms of reference should explicitly ask the monitoring questions outlined in the previous section "The beneficiaries: asking the questions".

The terminal report

The terminal report, written at the end of the project, has two basic parts:

_ an assessment of the extent to which project activities have been implemented, outputs have been produced and progress has been made in achieving the project objectives;

_ a presentation of recommendations for follow-up.

The project management prepares the terminal report. In writing the terminal report, it is essential to examine the extent to which the people-centred objectives were achieved and the extent to which pre-implementation preparation helped or hindered project efficacy.

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