At the Expert Consultation on Planning for Aquaculture Development, held in Policoro, Italy, in 1988 (see ADCP/REP/89/33), the participants put forward an integrated set of opportunities for technical assistance to developing countries. The opportunities were predominantly a group of identified needs or ideas, which collectively would assist in guiding investment decisions, primarily at the national level in both the public and private sectors.
One of the production needs identified by the ADCP Consultation was the need for new long-term approaches to increase production of low-cost fish through aquaculture and fisheries technologies. This need is greatest in those countries and sub-regions where population growth is rapidly accelerating the gap between market demand for fish and all potential sources of supply, including traditional aquaculture. Special priority should be given to the promotion of appropriate production systems, which are feasible from a socio-economic and environmental point of view, to enhance production in bodies of water which are not presently considered utilizable. Of particular importance is the promotion and management of culture-based fisheries (particularly in Africa and Latin America); of coastal lagoons (in Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean); and in open-water systems (potentially all regions).
At the Consultation, it was proposed that appropriate actions be taken starting at the interregional level "to prepare a catalogue listing available systems and practices of production", to assist governments of developing countries in planning and developing appropriate aquaculture methodologies.
To this end, "Aquaculture Systems and Practices: A Selected Review", commissioned by ADCP, has been prepared by Ms. Elvira Baluyut. It describes available practices in different environments (marine, brackishwater, and freshwater) using the three main culture systems (extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive). In addition, the Selected Review presents various considerations which have to be taken into account in the selection of the most appropriate culture system/approach. It also describes approaches to culture-based fisheries which are seen as potentially useful tools for resource enhancement, especially in those countries where extensive open-water areas are available to use for fisheries development.
The Consultation also pointed out that there is a need to stimulate ideas on innovative and appropriate approaches whereby aquaculture technology can be applied toward the management of large water bodies for increased low-cost fish production. Hence one of the ideas behind the preparation of this Selected Review was the hope that it would lead to an expert consultation to identify and test approaches for aquaculture production of low-cost fish. The approach then should be regional reviews of existing projects, technologies, and resources of the individual regions, followed by regional expert consultations to identify specific research opportunities and to outline model projects (for each region) which are systems-oriented in design and application.
Colin E. Nash
Craig B. Kensler