Glossary

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Aflatoxins dangerous poisons produced by moulds of the Aspergillus species, found in cereals, oilseeds and nuts when incorrectly dried and stored.
Acid preserves foods that have a high acid content that inhibits spoilage.
Adulteration deliberate contamination of foods with materials of low quality.
Average weight a known proportion of containers have a fill-weight above system that shown on the label.
Bulk fermentation the whole of the dough is fermented at 27C in a closed container to prevent surface drying.
Capacity of flour used to calculate bakery recipes.
Case hardening the formation of a dry skin on a wet food due to over-rapid drying. It slows the rate of drying and can lead to spoilage during storage.
Chlorination the addition of chlorine to water to destroy micro-organisms.
Composite flours mixtures of wheat flour (usually more than 80%) with other flours such as maize, rice, sorghum etc (usually less than 20%)
Conditioning standardisation of the moisture content of grains or oilseeds before milling.
Contamination materials that are accidentally included with a food (eg dirt, leaves, stalks etc).
Critical control stages in a process where quality control can have a major points effect on food quality.
Critical faults those faults in a product or package that would injure a consumer or cause substantial financial loss to the producer.
Cross contamination the transfer of soils or micro-organisms from raw food to processed.
Crumb the internal structure of baked products, especially bread and cake.
Detergent a chemical that removes soils but does not sterilise equipment (see soils below).
Enzymes natural proteins in foods that can cause changes to colour, flavour or texture of the food.
Equilibrium relative the moisture content at which a food does not gain or lose weight
humidity (ERM) and is stable during storage.
Fill-weight the amount of food placed into a container or package and written on the label (also net weight).
Final proof tinned loaves are placed in a prover at 35C (85-90% RH) until desired height is reached before baking.
Gelatinization swelling and rupturing of starch grains due to heat and of starch moisture.
Gluten a protein found in wheat that gives the characteristic crumb structure to bread.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system a system used to identify and control contamination in food processing.
Headspace the gap between the surface of food in a container and the underside of the lid.
High risk foods those foods that are capable of transmitting food poisoning micro-organisms to consumers.
Humidity the amount of water vapour in air.
Hydrometer an instrument that measures specific gravity of liquids, used to measure salt, sugar or alcohol concentration.
Low-acid foods foods that have little acid and therefore can contain food poisoning bacteria if poorly processed.
Micro-organisms tiny forms of life, including moulds, bacteria and yeasts, that are invisible until they are in large numbers.
Minimum weight all packages have a fill-weight equal to system or greater than that shown on the label.
Moulding process of passing dough through a moulding machine prior to filling into baking tins.
Net weight the amount of food filled into a container.
Pectin a natural gelling agent found in some fruits
pH a scale used to express acidity or alkalinity, from 1 (strong acid) through 7 (neutral) to 14 (strong alkali).
Potable water drinkable water that will not cause illness.
Preservation index a figure that is calculated to show that the amounts of acid, sugar and salt used in pickles will be enough to prevent spoilage.
Quality assurance a management system which controls each stage of food production from raw material harvest to final consumption.
Quality characteristics of a food. a set of descriptions that identify the specific quality features
Quality control a series of checks and control measures that ensure that a uniform quality food is produced.
Refractometer an instrument that measures the refractive index of a liquid, which is used to measure soluble solids in syrups, jams and marmalades, or salt in brines.
Rope in bread bacterial spoilage that produces rope-like threads in bread and can cause food poisoning.
Scaling dividing of dough into pieces of equal weight.
Shelf life the time that a processed food can be stored before changes in colour, flavour, texture or the number of micro-organisms make it unacceptable.
Sodium benzoate a chemical preservative that is particularly effective against yeasts.
Sodium metabisulphite a chemical preservative that is effective against moulds and yeasts.
Soils any material that contaminates equipment (ea. grease, scale, burned on food or other food residues).
Sterilant a chemical that destroys micro-organisms but does not remove soils.
Strong flour wheat flour that has a high level of gluten.
Sugar preserves foods that have a sufficiently high sugar content to stop spoilage.
Thief sampler equipment to take samples from sacks of food.
Titration a method of accurately adding one liquid to another, commonly used in food analysis.
Water absorption measurements that indicate how much water can be held in a dough.

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