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Summary report and recommendations
The overall objective of the Workshop was to address broad issues of integrated natural resources management (land, water and plant nutrition) in the context of sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. Specific objectives of the Workshop were: o to define land and water linkages;
to develop a conceptual framework to predict land/water/plant nutrient interaction;
to establish a landscape and river basin approach to integrated land and water resources, including aspects of scale;
to draft a programme action including:
applied research and modelling,
education, extension and manuals, and
field projects aimed at promoting integrated management of natural resources.
to stimulate interaction among the three Special Action Programmes that are under the care of the Land and Water Development Division.
In the plenary session of the Workshop, eight papers were presented. These presentations, and the subsequent discussions are summarized below, in relation to each paper.
Defining land-water linkages
Humans depend on water in the landscape for several functions. Water may sustain land use for socio-economic production, biomass production, etc. At the same time, land use influences water characteristics by water partitioning at the soil surface and in the subsoil, and by the role of water as a carrier of solutes and sediment. These land-water linkages may cause both land and water problems, which should be recognized in advance.
Several kinds of water can be usefully distinguished, labelled by a colour convention (see Land-water linkages, M. Falkenmark): Green water - precipitation and water on and in the soil, directly relevant to local vegetation or crops; part of this is returned to the atmosphere through transpiration with production of biomass, part through non-beneficial evaporation. Blue water - fresh water in streams and lakes, in groundwater below the reach of roots and in aquifers. This may be polluted by sediments from runoff, or by wastewater from urban or industrial use.
The concept of land adopted by FAO, includes the Green water (local precipitation and water in the soil and any local runoff and run-on). It does not include Blue water or irrigation supplies up to the field boundary.
Humans manipulate the landscape that contains the natural resources. Natural laws operating there produce side-effects of human activities ("environmental impacts"). These disturbances are transmitted in large part through the water cycle (from atmosphere to land to groundwater and rivers, to lakes and coastal areas).
Three main types of disturbing activities can be distinguished: waste handling, and manipulations related to biomass and to water systems. The problem profiles are quite different in different hydroclimatic regions.
To avoid undesirable effects from human activities involving land-water linkages, an integrated approach has to be taken to land and water and their uses. The integrity of the water cycle makes the watershed the desirable spatial unit for conceptual integration.
There should be a shift from the present land/water dichotomy, apparent in UNCED Agenda 21, toward an integral concept of the land as a system traversed by water, with land use depending on access to water (among other factors) and at the same time, affecting the passing water in its pathways, seasonality, yield and quality.
Development of a conceptual framework for river basin management
In the past, natural resources and their use tended to be dealt with in a mono-disciplinary and single resource manner, both conceptually and during design and execution of field programmes. The need for a holistic and integrated approach is now fully felt and understood. The degree of holism hinges on the definition of "land". The following definition is advanced:
"Land is a delineable portion of the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above or below this surface, including those of the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and the physical results of past and present human activity, (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, etc.)."
If the term "land" is used in a more narrow sense, it would comprise only soil and topography or landform. In that case, vegetation or land use, plant nutrient sources and water-related attributes would be identified as separate features, but all these elements should still be considered in relation to each other and evaluated in a landscape-ecological framework.
Water has some special attributes because of its bulkiness, mobility and transience, combined with the site-specificity of its management requirements. Still, information on the various kinds of water could be harnessed in a land-centred GIS system. For the purpose of concepts, frameworks and strategies, distinction should be made between different geographic entities and scales, namely:
local, village-level landscapes
whole catchments within a climatic zone
- parallel catchment series in the coastal zone
- river basin catchment areas
- major lake catchment areas
international river basins traversing distinct climatic zones
At each of the above scales or levels of geographic aggregation, a multi-disciplinary and holistic approach is warranted and feasible. However, the weight between the different disciplines, the approach and the tools to be used are different, as a consequence of the different main purpose of the studies and the interventions envisaged. With increasing extent of landscape or catchment, the emphasis gradually shifts from transverse to longitudinal influences, and water flow and quality-related aspects become more prominent.
Biomass production in dry tropical zones
The extreme environmental vulnerability of dry tropical landscapes, where most of the population depends on finite and scarce soil and water resources for its livelihood, makes it imperative to focus on soil and water integration for improved and sustained biomass production in these landscapes. Agriculture in these regions consumes a large proportion of the available water resources - at very low efficiencies - mainly to satisfy the high crop water requirements, in the order of 1000 to 4000 m3/t of grain produced, (100 to 400 mm/t/ha).
There is an alarming tendency of declining crop yields in the semi-arid tropics, while demand for food is rapidly increasing. A driving force behind this undesirable trend is a population-driven vicious spiral, where diminished soil and water availability per caput forces farmers to reduce or even abolish fallow periods and extend cultivation to marginal lands. This results in human-induced soil fertility depletion, soil desiccation and soil erosion. This degradation is accelerated by recurrent droughts and may finally lead to higher order effects, including famines and migration.
There is close interaction between soil structure, plant nutrient availability and soil moisture, all of which have direct impact on potential biomass production. Increasing water use efficiency in dryland agriculture thus necessitates an integrated approach to plant nutrients and water management. Increasing water use efficiency in rainfed dryland agriculture is a question of converting unproductive water losses to productive transpiration flow and of satisfying crop water demand during all stages of crop growth. Options for achieving this are found within the framework of integrated soil-water-crop management on a catchment level, including integrated systems for plant nutrient restitution, crop management techniques, water harvesting systems, soil and water conservation measures, etc.
Four crucial questions have to be answered before introducing management activities:
Is there enough biomass to satisfy all the consumptive needs and also maintain a system of in-situ biomass rotation?
Does there exist a water surplus for supplementary irrigation as a safeguard for sufficient local biomass production?
Are the proposed measures economically feasible and socio-culturally acceptable by the rural community?
Would increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration have a positive influence on water use efficiency in practice?
Harnessing soil, terrain and hydrological conditions in a geographic information system
Soil and water resources are finite and vulnerable to the increasing pressure placed on these resources by an ever increasing human (and animal) population. An integrated effort by all concerned in land and water resources management is needed to strengthen the awareness of policy makers on the dangers of inappropriate use of these resources.
There is an urgent need for reliable, up-to-date information on the present status of soil and water resources, which is accessible to a wide range of users and which can be interpreted for a wide range of uses. The development of a geo-referenced information system of soil, terrain and water resources, with internationally accepted standards, is an indispensable tool to assess the current trends of soil degradation and water pollution, and will assist in the implementation of a programme for soil and water conservation and the sustainable use of those resources.
The FAO/ISSS/UNEP/ISRIC-supported Soil and Terrain Digital Database Programme (SOTER) is a fully operational system that is capable of harnessing soil, terrain and hydrological conditions in a geographic information system.
Changing rural-urban relations: a new context for river basin resources management
Water is a finite resource, indispensable for food and biomass production but also for industrial development and human well-being. In the past, water withdrawal and supply have been mostly directed to irrigation expansion and rural development in general. Huge investments have been made in this sector and water thus supplied has been virtually free to the recipients, or at least heavily subsidized. Now, the demand and need for water in urban sectors is increasing. In large parts of the semi-arid (and arid) parts of the world, the only realistic option is to re-allocate water from rural to urban uses and reuse urban effluents. In any case, there will be increased competition for common water resources.
One necessary consequence is that water and land resources must be more efficiently and productively used in order "to produce more with less". Another necessary step is to change into closed cycles the predominant linear, one-way flows of fresh water to the sea and of biomass, including nutrients and carbon, from rural to urban areas. The current treatment of scarce and valuable biological resources as waste has negative effects both where they originate and where they are being deposited (presently in landfills, in coastal waters, etc.).
New approaches are needed to deal with changes in rural-urban configurations. Cycles must be closed so that nutrients and carbon are being returned to rural areas from where they come. This is a precondition for sustainable production of food and biomass. The necessary change can be promoted by economic incentives, education and a review of rules and roles defining responsibilities between government agencies, authorities and communities, including land and water owners or managers.
Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater
In most parts of the world, precipitation and peak runoff in rivers and streams do not coincide with peak water demands. Thus storing of water in reservoirs is a normal practice, but a valuable alternative is storing water in the ground. Groundwater constitutes an important source for irrigation and other consumptive uses. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater often offers the best solution for optimizing water use over time. Conjunctive use consists of harmoniously combining both sources of water in order to minimize the undesirable physical, environmental and economic effects of each, used separately, and to optimize the balance between water demand and supply.
Usually, conjunctive use is considered within a river basin management programme, where both the river and the aquifer belong to the same catchment. Assuming that conjunctive use is part of a national water resources management policy, a number of factors and options will need to be evaluated, namely: (a) underground storage availability; (b) production capacity of the aquifer; (c) natural aquifer recharge; (d) induced natural recharge; (e) artificial recharge; and (f) comparative economic and environmental benefits. Adoption of an integrated river basin approach to manage natural resources will enable the promotion of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater on a sustainable basis and optimal adaptation to the land conditions.
Runoff, erosion and sedimentation: prediction and measurements
The topics presented in this chapter are derived from FAO Soils Bulletin 68, which describes simple methods and techniques for use in the field, to provide information on runoff, erosion and sedimentation.
The control of runoff, erosion and sedimentation is of crucial importance in the context of river basin management and sustainable agricultural development. In order to evaluate land use potentials and implement irrigation and soil and water management programmes, runoff, erosion and sedimentation need to be assessed on a quantitative basis in time and space.
Runoff can be relatively easily measured, and can also be predicted by means of models. Quantifying erosion is more difficult. Direct measurements of erosion include reconnaissance methods, volumetric measurements and field plots, each having its merits and drawbacks. A number of erosion prediction models are available which could be grouped under three categories, namely, empirical, process-based and physical. Empirical models are usually limited to estimating soil movement from arable land. The newer process-based models can also consider the redistribution of soil by including an element of the subsequent deposition of eroded material. Measurement of sediments transported by water, both suspended and bed-loads, is difficult. Here again, various sampling techniques are available, but the reliability of the results depends on the representativeness of the samples and accuracy of measurements. Mathematical models are available to determine bed loads.
Plant nutrition management in farming systems
Under conditions of low population pressure, slash and burn practices were implemented in order to make available a large part of the plant nutrients stored in the natural vegetation during long-term fallows. The productivity of the system is low and plant nutrients are seldom depleted. Under the pressure of high population density, perennial and intensive use of large areas for cropping takes place with or without rotation. Under such conditions, farmers face the problems of both water management and plant nutrient management for sustaining the productivity of the land. The situation is further complicated by competition for resources by various social groups resulting in trade-offs for access to the resources. In most cases, successful integration of various land use patterns, optimizing the management of water and nutrients, is the result of a long process of formal or informal negotiations.
In many traditional farming areas, especially in Africa and Latin America, farming practices are organized in a sequence of cropping patterns with decreasing land use intensity with distance. The land close to the settlement is intensively cultivated; the productivity of water and nutrients is usually very high. Further away, the land use is rather intensive and the land may produce quite good yields, and hence there is a risk of nutrient mining. The most distant land is extensively used and yields are very variable, from medium to poor. The productivity of water is generally quite low because the supply of labour is usually insufficient.
The relationship between the availability of water and crop yield in a particular set of ecological conditions strongly depends on the management of the cropping system. The correlation between crop yields and the index of satisfaction of the crop water requirement depends on the land use intensity. The relationships between water availability, plant nutrition and crop yield therefore should be established for specific landscape-ecological conditions and cropping system management.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WORKING GROUPS
Working group I: Applied research and modelling
As defined in Chapter 10 of UNCED Agenda 21, land is viewed as a physical geographical entity including natural resources: soil, minerals, and the local water and biota (in the context of that report, the term minerals refers to plant nutrients). This formulation provided the starting point for the Workshop's discussions on land/water integration. In Chapter 18, water is perceived as an integral part of the ecosystem.
In the Workshop discussions, land was viewed as the scene for human production activities, which include, in addition to agriculture, forestry, industry and urbanization. Land becomes a biological entity by being exposed to the sun and water cycle. It is wetted from the atmosphere and traversed by water and the solutes it carries, which move within the constraints of the cycle. Due to the many functions of water, it is essential to most land uses. Moreover, land use influences the passing flux of water, its pathways above and below the ground, and the quality it acquires during its passage. The impacts of land use on water are manifested in Blue/Green partitioning changes, land desiccation, erosion and sedimentation, pollution and effects on biodiversity.
Neither the integration of soil and local, "Green" water (rainfall, and the water in and on the soil) as components of the land, nor the close relationships between the land and "Blue" water (in rivers, lakes, irrigation networks, aquifers) are evident in all chapters of Agenda 21. Water should be recognized as a moving force in the landscape. It is important to stress therefore, that integration of all these elements must take place in the early stages of land resources assessment and in land management, on the basis of land-water interactions, but also taking into account other interactions such as those with economic or social factors.
There is a severe scarcity of basic data on land, water and their interactions, and efforts should be strengthened to acquire these data, at all required scales.
Demand on the land resources
The growing population in the world, especially in the water-scarce areas, now with 300 million inhabitants and rising to 3 billion by 20251, induces changes in social habits and in government policies which entail changes in the demands and the use of soil and water resources. The dynamic nature of the demands on soil and water should be taken into account when attempting to manage these resources in an integrated manner.
1 Falkenmark, M. 1993. Coping with water scarcity - a macro-scale overview.
Techniques for land appraisal and management
Land appraisal, planning and management takes place at several scales from farmer level to national and international level, covering landscapes or catchments of increasing extent and complexity. Each level has its specific objectives, issues and techniques to reach sustainable land management.
GIS is an efficient tool for land management, and its use should be promoted for planning, monitoring, communication and decision making purposes at all scales, since it facilitates making optimum use of existing data and identifying gaps in information. It should also be used for integration of information from small to more extensive areas.
So far, the dynamic nature of water has not been adequately incorporated in GIS or land and land-use models. Hydrologic and land-use models should be integrated.
Decision making tools should be developed which recognize the integration of land and water while offering "what if" scenarios and information in various forms appropriate at different scales.
Institutional aspects of integrative land resources studies and projects
Concrete action has to start at the village level. However, in order to benefit from the integral nature of the water cycle, continual account should be taken of the implications of any action for land resources planning and management of the whole river basin. Mechanisms to facilitate action at the scale of whole river basins should be promoted at international, national and local levels.
Land-use planning must be organized so as to ensure that the water available in the river basin is being used for the most worthwhile purposes, at the same time paying attention to all the main river functions. In view of the integrity of the water cycle, an administrative or coordinating body is needed at river basin level, for the integrated management of land and water resources (both "Green" and "Bluer), including land use impacts on water pathways and characteristics. River basin authorities should be promoted as an efficient tool for effective land-water interaction in natural resources management, including rainfed agriculture.
FIGURE 1. Possible additional inputs for the conceptual framework for land-water integration
Note. Names in quotes are existing FAO documents (full titles below), which would provide some of the required inputs. Other required inputs could probably also be drawn from existing FAO documents.
"Protect and Produce" - putting the pieces together (Rev. ed.) 1992. Also in French and Spanish. How Good the Earth. Quantifying land resources in developing countries: FAO's agro-ecological studies. "Land, Food and People" - based on the FAO/UNFPA/IIASA report "Potential population-supporting capacities of lands in the developing world", 1984. "Water for Life"- booklet being prepared on the theme of FAO's World Food Day for 1994. "ISCRAL" - An International Scheme for the Conservation and Rehabilitation of African lands, 1990. "Water and sustainable development" (WASAD) - An Integrated Action Programme on WASAD: a strategy for the implementation of the Mar del Plata Action Plan for the 1990s, 1990.
Legislation should promote the integrated management of natural resources in land and should by no means hinder it.
In line with the holistic approach by both the Dublin Water Conference and UNCED, organizations within the UN system can be expected to cooperate to ensure integrated assessment, modelling and management of soil and water resources. In doing this, they are encouraged to work together with the relevant non-governmental organizations. While each agency or organization has a specific mandate and policies, these should not hinder cooperation and maximum use should be made of the resources and expertise available to each.
Within FAO's Land and Water Development Division, activities and programmes of work should be task oriented rather than sector oriented. This does not call for any change in the Division's structure, but it will require specific action to be taken, such as proposed below in the Group II recommendations.
Working group II: Education, extension and manuals
The aim of the workshop was to provide guidance on the integration of land and water issues in the context of divisional programmes, FAO programmes and inter-agency activities. This should be done particularly within the general framework of Chapters 10 and 18 of Agenda 21; these two chapters should be seen as one structure. The needs and priorities for education, extension and manuals discussed below were examined in this light.
Establishing a conceptual framework
All work in education, extension and manuals should be developed around a central concept. A very good start for the development of a suitable central framework was provided by Dr. Falkenmark's introduction. The way in which this framework could be developed fully to incorporate soil, water and plant nutrients management is illustrated in Figure 1.
Publications and videos
Once a conceptual framework has been fully developed, it could be used as the basis for FAO publications which would be produced at three different levels. The materials would be used by the audiences indicated in Table 1, but would also serve as background material on sound practices to guide land users, NGOs, extension and education services.
The ideas presented in the publications should also be made available in the forms of general and more specific videos. The first of these videos would cover the same material as the Level I publication. It would be aimed at policy makers and would concentrate on the concepts of integrated water, land and plant nutrient use. A complementary series of videos could be produced for use of field officers and extension workers. These would cover the same subjects as those shown under Level 3 in Table 1.
TABLE 1. Proposed FAO publications on land-water integration
University, colleges, govt.
Concept extended to practical
Field officers, extension workers,
NGOs, Local Community Leaders, etc.
Technical documents and manuals
e.g. agro-ecological zoning, land-use planning,
irrigation management, support for local practices, etc.
Matrix documents of varying length
How to do it?
Also a video.
2 Possibly also a series of videos.
In-county activities to promote integrated land, water and plant nutrient management
Integrated land, water and plant nutrient management could be brought about in a number of ways. Possibly the most effective of these would be through the three Special Action Programmes (SAP) concerned with land, water and plant nutrients. Country programmes developed under the different SAPs should all be done within the general conceptual framework of integrated land, water and plant nutrient use as shown in Figure 1. Secondly, the publications and videos mentioned above would be widely distributed to the appropriate in-country audiences. Thirdly, the example of the International Soil Conservation Seminar in Costa Rica could be used as a model for gaining inter-ministry and inter-departmental acceptance of the concepts of integrated land, water and plant nutrient use. In the Costa Rica Seminar a small group of high level international people was brought in to explain how different concepts and strategies had been applied in their own countries. This provided a neutral platform on which local government departments were able to put forward and develop ideas on how similar schemes could be implemented in Costa Rica. This approach could be used as a model for integrated soil, water and plant nutrient management and should then be followed up by workshops in appropriate subjects.
Activities within the Land and Water Development Division to promote better integration
There are three services within the Land and Water Development Division, covering the subjects of water (AGLW), soils (AGLS) and plant nutrient management (AGLN). Soil, water and plant nutrient management could be better integrated into the overall programme of the division in a number of ways which could include:
Informal seminars within the division, where small groups from the three services would discuss their work programmes and explore ways in which they may be more closely integrated.
The three SAP leaders, in addition to joint missions where possible, should be required to meet regularly (perhaps monthly) to brief each other on their activities and to ensure close coordination and compatibility in their work plans.
Staff from the three services would be asked to work together in developing the different publications and videos mentioned above.
Activities within FAO to promote better integration
Early in the biennium, a seminar could be arranged for all FAO SAP leaders. A short presentation could be made of the aims and proposed programme for each SAP and the SAP leaders would be given the responsibility for developing a mechanism whereby they would keep their programmes coordinated and compatible. This is important particularly to develop and maintain close links between the physical, economic and social aspects of soil, water and plant nutrient management.
Working group III: River basin field projects
For a comprehensive coverage in the field, the working group recommends a consistent programme approach based on the river basin management concept, with technical assistance activities at three different levels:
Micro-basin: Focusing on land-use practices and good land and water husbandry
National River Basin: Coordination and allocation of "Blue" waters
International or Inter-regional Basin: Coordination, technical cooperation and water-sharing frameworks
Individual project activities will have to be coordinated in a consistent manner at the next larger (higher-order) basin level(s), in a nested approach.
The programme includes activities covering two broad types of agro-ecological zones: humid, and arid & semi-arid.
Based on an issue-driven approach and providing clear answers to questions on " what and how to do; how to get it done; how to make it possible; how to ensure the implementation", the project activities could be included as components under on-going projects or as new projects. The project objectives should fit within FAO policies on sustainable development (food security; employment and income generation; natural resources conservation and environmental protection). Projects and activities should coincide with policies and priorities, confirmed and endorsed in soil, water and nutrient policy reviews at the national and regional level.
Focusing on developing countries with an overall long-term objective of alleviation of poverty, the development objectives are:
Ensuring national and regional livelihood security;
Conservation, development and management of natural resources.
Within this framework, the working group identified the following seven project ideas, with immediate objectives and with project activities in different countries and at different scales, including the case of a large international river basin.
1. Watershed management approach for land and water management in Yemen
a. Activities at Micro-basin level:
- adjustment and re-establishment of sustainable cropping patterns and enhanced rainfed agricultural production
- re-establishment of water harvesting and water management practices and infrastructure founded on community based management and an adequate agricultural pricing policy
- groundwater recharge schemes
- establishment and enforcement of water protection areas
- reorientation of cropping patterns; control of agricultural use of groundwater
- introduction of water-efficient irrigation
- monitoring and protection of groundwater resources including overdraft, pollution and sea water intrusion
b. Activities at National river basin level:
- definition and delineation of national river basin units
- rapid assessment of land and water resources and balancing socio-economic demands
- balancing water availabilities and land uses throughout the basin
- establishment of basin database
- decentralized river basin management and coordination
References: (a) National Water Resources Policy; FAO-TCP 1993; (b) National Action Programme for Environment and Development; FAO TSS-1 1993.
2. Integrated management of land and water resources in north-eastern China
The project follows a problem-oriented approach with eight priority activities addressing drought, waterlogging, soil and groundwater salinization, mining of groundwater, depletion of plant nutrients and soil erosion. The activities include review of agricultural production; data and information systems; defining policy for comprehensive management and use of water resources; regional water and salt management technology system; optimization of fertilizer use; improved crop varieties; shelter-belts.
Reference: FAO: "Proposal for Integrated Management of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture in the North-eastern Plain in PRC".
3. Sustainable land and water management in Parana, Brazil
- management decentralised to the level of municipalities
- water as key development element: drilling of wells
- change to no-till practices with considerations of related increased pollution hazard
- soft credit facilities through a soil conservation fund
- environmental awareness and active political agenda through participatory approach; community based waste management
- incentive and deal-condition driven development: provision of rural roads
b. National River Basin:
- rapid assessment and action plan
- coordinating institutions and mechanisms
4. Social forestry in India
- introduction of appropriate vegetation cover in the upper watershed, including a suitable and socially accepted mix
- establishment of percolation ponds
- community involvement in planning, adapted to actual capability and capacity constraints
b. National River Basin:
- rapid assessment and action plan
- coordinating institutions and mechanisms
5. River basin management for sustainable irrigation development in the Save river basin Zimbabwe
a. National River Basin:
- development and implementation of planning methodology
- identification of immediate and long-term solutions to water and soil conservation
- human resources development: training of national staff for use in planning other national river basins
Reference: IAP-WASAD Country Programme, Zimbabwe. FAO, 1993.
6. Integrated land, water and nutrient management in the Himalayan foothills (regional project)
- assessment of source and deposit areas and flows of soil, water and nutrients
- assessment of balance of soils, water and nutrients along the foothills
- adoption of appropriate vegetation covers and land-use at different levels and slopes
- socio-economic and cultural attitude parameters affecting land and water uses
- regional cooperation and exchanges
7. Land and water management in the Nile basin a. Micro-basin:
- adjustment for sustainable cropping-patterns, and stable farming-system and practices, and enhanced rainfed agricultural production
- re-establishment of water harvesting and water management practices and infrastructure founded on community based management and adequate agricultural pricing policy
- establishment and enforcement of water protection and recharge areas
- community involvement in planning and data collection adapted to actual capability and capacity constraints
- community participation in conservation of biodiversity and fisheries resources
b. National River Basin:
- rapid assessment of supply and demand of soil, water and nutrient resources
- strengthening data base and information network and exchange
- develop national and river basin management policy
c. Nile Sub-Basins (Blue Nile, White Nile and Middle-Lower Nile):
- protect the water body from pollution based on management of soil, water and nutrient in the sub-basin, with assessment and balancing of national supplies and demands of land and water uses at the basin level
- establish planning, coordinating and data exchange mechanisms and capacity at the sub-basin level
- rapid assessment of supply and demand of soil, water and nutrient resources
- development of sub-basin policy on soil, water and nutrient management
- establish sub-basin management plans
- initiate negotiations for water sharing within the sub-basins
d. The Nile Basin:
- develop a framework for multilateral and bilateral negotiations and technical cooperation, including data collection and exchange, based on modern (remote sensing) technology, towards a water-sharing and environmental protection basin policy. The emphasis will be on sharing the "Green" and the "Blue" waters of the Nile. The institutions will support technical cooperation in sub-committees on issues such as agro-ecological zoning, protection of indigenous cultures etc.
- legal advice, assistance and legal training in national and international land, water and nutrient management law and environmental law for the establishment of international basin conventions.
The activities will include the establishment and adjustment of sound national level land and water resources management policies, with the activities at micro-basin and national river basin levels as defined for the national projects. The project will have two phases, with the first 3 year phase establishing basin policies in the three sub-basins and with a second 2-year phase for concluding the assessment, planning and allocation of land uses and water resources in the whole Nile Basin.
Reference: Ongoing FAO projects: GCP/RAF/286/ITA "Operational Water Resources Management and Information System in the Nile Basin Countries"; FAO/GCP/EGY/018/USA "Monitoring, Forecasting and Simulation of the River Nile in Egypt"; FAO/TCP/RAF/2635 "Water Resources Policy Management in the Lake Victoria Region".
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