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Appendix 4.4.5

NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCT RESEARCH AT CSIRO DIVISION OF FORESTRY

J.C. Doran 1/
CSIRO Division of Forestry

INTRODUCTION

The CSIRO Division of Forestry has its headquarters in Canberra with regional groups in Hobart, Mt. Gambier and Perth. The Division has a staff of 170 and a mission to increase the economic and environmental benefit to Australia by improving the productivity and management of the nation's forests. The Division's research is organised in four programmes: Australian Tree Resources, Hardwood Plantations, Regrowth Forest Management and Softwood Plantations.

Research on non-wood forest products (NWFPs) is largely within the Australian Tree Resources programme, where the objective is to explore, sample, evaluate and distribute the genetic resources of trees of actual or potential value for planting in Australia and other countries.

NWFPs which are significant in Australia include: honey and pollen production, wild flowers and tree foliage, seed, nut and other tree crops, essential oils, sandalwood, craftwood, broombush, Christmas trees, drugs, tannins, gums and resins. Many of the existing NWFPs industries rely on exploiting natural forests, but there is increasing attention being paid to establishing man-made forests for this purpose. The human and financial resources available for work on NWFPs at CSIRO Division of Forestry are limited, dictating a high degree of selectivity in the projects undertaken and dependence on a high level of external support. Despite these constraints, a significant programme has developed within the Division, focused mainly on the Division's strengths in species selection, genetic improvement and beneficial symbionts. This paper provides a brief review of current projects on NWFPs at CSIRO's Division of Forestry.

PROJECT SUMMARIES

Australian Acacias for Human Food

The seeds of about 50 Australian dry-zone Acacia species are traditional food of Australian Aboriginal people. Nutritional and toxicological analysis of seeds shows them to be quite high in protein, fat and carbohydrates, and to have low levels of known toxic and anti-nutritional factors. Recently in Australia, the seeds of several acacias have become popular ingredients of "bush tucker" (i.e. use of indigenous species of both plant and animal as food) preparations such as biscuits and coffee. Three species, Acacia colei, A. cowleana and A. tumida, have grown rapidly in trials in semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. In the 450-700 mm annual rainfall zone of the Sahel, wide-spaced plants can produce heavy crops of seed annually. Trials conducted at Maradi, Niger have shown that seed of A. colei is easily processed using local technology and can be used to prepare palatable foods (Harwood, 1994).

In August 1991, CSIRO Division of Forestry organised a workshop to discuss the merits and methods of developing the human food value of Australia's dry-zone Acacia species (House and Harwood, 1992). Work so far has concentrated on extending the knowledge base for species with human food potential, including their Aboriginal use, ecology and botany, nutritional value and performance in field trials both within Australia and outside (see Annex 1.A). Priorities for future research include feeding trials with laboratory animals, medically monitored dietary trials with human volunteers and field experiments to determine appropriate silvicultural strategies for maximum seed yields.

Cut Flowers and Foliage

Cut flowers and foliage constitute a $A 150 million industry in Australia today, with significant growth potential from expanding exports. A small project is under way at CSIRO Division of Forestry to assess the potential of eucalypts as a source of material for the cut-flower industry. A growth retardant, paclobutrazol, is being used to stimulate the formation of large numbers of flowers in potted specimens of species with colourful and decorative floral parts (see Annex 1.D.1).

Edible Fungi

The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) is currently funding a project involving CSIRO Division of Forestry in Perth, the Chinese Academy of Forestry and researchers in the Philippines to improve the performance of plantation-grown eucalypts through the introduction of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi that enhance eucalypt growth. To bolster dwindling supplies of fungi from native forests in China and the Philippines, the team is also researching the potential for introducing new species of edible fungi from Australia that are compatible with eucalypts and acceptable to the palate.

The Division is also assisting in the development of a black truffle-growing industry in Tasmania, aiming to supply truffles to the world market. Details of these projects are summarised in Annex 1.B.

Essential Oils

Essential oils are produced throughout the world. A significant proportion is produced in the United States and Europe, as well as Brazil, India, China and a number of African and Southeast Asian nations. Australia, a net importer of essential oils and oil products, has a relatively small industry with considerable scope to expand. Australian native plants used for essential oil production since early times include Eucalyptus , Australian tea tree (mainly Melaleuca alternifolia), Australian sandalwood (mainly Santalum spicatum), huon pine and boronia. Other essential oil crops that have been developed in Australia during the last two decades include basil, blackcurrant, caraway, citrus oils, fennel, lavender, peppermint and spearmint.

Research on essential oils at CSIRO Division of Forestry is directed at selection and improvement of yield and quality of oil in woody plant species with potential for commercial exploitation of their oils. Specific projects are briefly described below and in Annex 1.C.

Eucalyptus Oil

Commercial production of Eucalyptus oil in Australia began in 1852, in Victoria near Dandenong. Eucalyptus oils were used as medicinal products, for various industrial purposes and in perfumery and were produced from natural forests. Annual production in Australia reached a peak of about 800 tonnes in the 1950s and has since declined to less than 100 tonnes against stiff overseas competition from oils produced as a by-product of the timber industry (Boland et al., 1991).

Current research in Australia is focused on the excellent solvent properties of 1,8-cineole, a major component of medicinal-grade Eucalyptus oils, for industrial applications like degreasing, where it may replace ozone-depleting, petrochemical-based solvents. The expectation that the demand for oil may increase dramatically (300 times) if this new market develops has led to a resurgence of interest in production of Eucalyptus oil, especially in Western Australia (Barbour and Bartle, 1993).

Species included in seed collecting and selection and breeding programmes at CSIRO Division of Forestry for their oil-yielding potential are E. camaldulensis, E. polybractea and E. radiata. Part of the work on E. camaldulensis is based in Thailand, where the Division, as a component of a project funded by ACIAR, is assisting the Thai Royal Forest Department to assess the potential of producing Eucalyptus oil locally (Annex 1.C.4). The book, Eucalyptus leaf oils: use, chemistry, distillation and marketing, was prepared by Divisional staff in collaboration with University of New South Wales and private companies (Boland et al., 1991). Papers highlighting the work done include Doran and Brophy (1990), Doran and Matheson (1994) and Doran and Bell (1994).

Melaleuca Oils

Several melaleuca species produce essential oils of commerce. Cayuput oil from M. cajuputi in Indonesia and Niaouli oil from M. quinquenervia in New Caledonia are among the best known. Australian tea tree oil from M. alternifolia has a rapidly expanding world market as a natural antiseptic. Once produced solely from natural stands in northern New South Wales, production since the 1980s has come increasingly from fast-growing, intensively managed plantations (Murtagh, 1991). Production of Australian tea tree oil is expected to reach 120 tonnes in 1994.

The Australian tea tree oil industry has recognised the need for enhanced efficiencies to maintain its position as the major world producer of this type of oil. The yields of oil from established plantations are variable; there is much scope to improve both the amount and quality of the yield through selection and breeding (Butcher et al., 1994). Since May 1993, CSIRO's Division of Forestry has been assisting in a M. alternifolia breeding programme with the aim of increasing oil yields of new seedling plantations by 30 percent in five years.

The Division of Forestry is also involved in the screening of Melaleuca species and their close relatives for interesting oils with commercial potential. Part of this work is based in the Mekong Delta region of Viet Nam where, as a component of a project funded by ACIAR, one indigenous and several exotic Melaleuca species have been established in field trials to assess their potential for both wood and oil production.

Other Oils

A range of other Australian tree species are currently under investigation as potential essential oil crop plants (e.g. species of the genus Backhousia).

Honey and Pollen Production

The honey and pollen industries are important Australia-wide in all regions and climatic zones. Much of the industry is based on native species (predominantly eucalypts), but exotic and native crop plants and pasture and weed species also provide a large nectar supply for the industry. The gross value of honey production in Australia is estimated to be in the order of $A 32 million, not including the value of incidental pollination of many agricultural crops. Exports mainly to the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States earn about $A 12 million. Australia's beekeeping industry also produces 600 tonnes of beeswax annually.

Work at CSIRO Division of Forestry, as summarised in Annex 1.D, has concentrated on methods of inducing and enhancing flowering in various temperate and tropical tree species. The aims of the work are to reduce generation intervals in breeding programmes and encourage greater seed production from seed orchards of important commercial species such as Eucalyptus nitens (Moncur et al., 1994). Research at the Division has shown that the growth retardant, paclobutrazol, previously used in horticulture, can be used successfully in forestry. Following treatment of E. nitens trees with paclobutrazol at 2.5 years of age, flower buds were observed in year three, flowering occurred in year four and mature seed was harvested in year five - half the normal generation interval. A combination of additional treatments, including grafting, pot culture, temperature changes and espalier techniques, has further reduced generation time. The work of the Division on tropical tree species, such as that taking place in Indonesia with funding from ACIAR, uses similar technology to that developed for eucalypts. The Division is also assessing the potential of bees to enhance pollen flow in seed orchards, thereby improving the yield and quality of seeds in addition to providing honey as a by-product of seed orchard management.

Seeds

The Australian woody flora is an extensive and diverse resource which has proven to be very valuable in afforestation programmes, both in Australia and in other countries. Today Australian trees are of considerable social and economic importance throughout the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. Many species of the genus Eucalyptus grow quickly and can produce large quantities of wood for both industrial and community use. They are now the most widely planted hardwood trees in the world. Other widely-used genera include acacias and casuarinas: nitrogen fixing trees which are capable of tolerating harsh sites while yielding a variety of products, including timber, pulp, fuelwood, pollen in honey production and tannins. Estimates of the areas planted to species of these three genera globally are 9 million ha of eucalypts, 1.7 million ha of acacias and 1.4 million ha of casuarinas (Vercoe, 1993).

Tree seed exports from Australia are estimated to be in the order of 25-30 tonnes annually, with a commercial value of about $A 9 million (Doran and Gardiner, 1992). The Australian Tree Seed Centre (ATSC), part of CSIRO Division of Forestry, plays an important role in this industry. The Centre collects and supplies high quality seed of Australia's woody flora, with special emphasis on range-wide provenance collections and lots from widely spaced individual trees for research purposes. Currently, seed of over 1,000 species is held in store. ATSC responds to over 2,000 enquiries every year and dispatches several thousand seedlots to researchers in Australia and about 100 other countries (Vercoe and Midgley, 1993). ATSC manages the Seeds of Australian Trees Project for ACIAR. This project aims to identify and assist in the introduction and domestication of Australian tree and shrub species to meet fuelwood, agroforestry and industrial needs of developing countries. The research undertaken by the Centre generally complements the service role. Collaborative research projects cover several disciplines, including taxonomy, breeding strategies (including establishment and management of seed orchards), quantitative genetics, studies of genetic variation including use of biochemical markers, investigations of a range of physiological attributes (such as salt and waterlogging tolerance) and studies of pests and diseases of Australian trees. Several current ATSC projects are summarised in Annex 1.E.

Resins

CSIRO Division of Forestry is presently involved in only one project concerning resins (see Annex 1.F). ACIAR is providing limited support for the gathering of baseline data on the production of benzoin resin from Styrax tonkinensis, which is endemic to northern Laos and Viet Nam (Pinyopusarerk, 1994).

Tannins

Tanning greatly increases the durability, water resistance and flexibility of animal hides, which if not treated would decay rapidly. The bark of Acacia mearnsii, a tree native to southern Australia, is one of the most important tannin sources in the world. Australia, once the sole producer of wattlebark tannin, now imports all its supplies from other countries, including South Africa, Brazil and Kenya. Currently Australia annually imports about 7,000 tonnes (about $A 10 million) worth of wattlebark tannin. Of that, an estimated 600 tonnes is used in the leather industry while the major use is as part of the resin component of wood-adhesives for particleboard flooring, plywood and finger-jointing (Searle, 1991).

CSIRO Division of Forestry and collaborators are presently involved in an ACIAR-funded project in China and Viet Nam to assist agencies in those countries to cultivate and improve A. mearnsii and other Australian acacias for wood and tannin production. In Australia, the Division is involved in similar work in Western Australia and in the Australian Capital Territory (Searle, pers. comm.). Summary details of these projects are given in Annex 1.G.

RESEARCH CONTACTS


Project leaders at CSIRO Division of Forestry for each field of NWFP research are:
Australian Acacias for Human Food  Dr C.E. Harwood
Cut Flowers and Foliage  Mr M.W. Moncur
Edible Fungi  Dr N. Malajczuk (Perth)
Essential Oils  Dr J.C. Doran
Honey and Pollen Production  Mr M.W. Moncur
Seed  Mr T.K. Vercoe
Resins  Mr K. Pinyopusarerk
Tannins  Ms S. Searle

REFERENCES

Barbour, L. and Bartle, J. 1993. Oil in the leaves. Landscope Winter 1993 50-53.

Boland, D.J., Brophy, J.J. and House, A.P.N. 1991. Eucalyptus leaf oils. Melbourne, Inkata Press.

Butcher, P.A., Doran, J.C. and Slee, M.U. 1994. Intraspecific variation in leaf oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22:419-430.

Doran, J.C. and Bell, R.E. 1994. Influence of non-genetic factors on yield of monoterpenes in leaf oils of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. New Forests 8:363-379.

Doran, J.C. and Brophy, J.J. 1990. Tropical red gums: a source of 1,8-cineole-rich Eucalyptus oil. New Forests 4:157-178.

Doran, J.C. and Gardiner, C.A. 1992. Extent, control and documentation of tree seed trade at an international level: the Australian experience. In Wolf, H., ed., Seed procurement and legal regulations for forest reproductive material in tropical and subtropical countries. Muguga, Kenya, GTZ-Forestry Seed Centre.

Doran, J.C. and Matheson, A.C. 1994. Genetic parameters and expected gains from selection for monoterpene yields in Petford Eucalyptus camaldulensis. New Forests 8:155-167.

Harwood, C.E. 1994. Human food potential of seeds of some Australian dry-zone Acacia species. Journal of Arid Environments 27:27-35.

House, A.P.N. and Harwood, C.E. 1992. Australian dry-zone acacias for human food. Melbourne, CSIRO Publications.

Moncur, M.W., Rasmussen, G.F. and Hasaw, O. 1994. Effect of paclobutrazol on flower-bud production in a Eucalyptus nitens espalier seed orchard. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 24:46-49.

Murtagh, G.J., ed. 1991. Reports: tea tree marketing and planning conference, 31 October - 2 November 1991, Ballina New South Wales. Wollongbar, NSW Agriculture.

Pinyopusarerk, K. 1994. Styrax tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwiss: taxonomy, ecology, silviculture and uses. ACIAR Technical Report No. 31. Canberra, ACIAR.

Searle, S. 1991. The rise and demise of the black wattle bark industry in Australia. Technical Paper No. 1. Canberra, CSIRO Division of Forestry.

Vercoe, T.K. 1993. Australian trees on tour: a review of the international use of Australian forest genetic resources. Proceedings of 15th Biennial Conference of the Institute of Foresters of Australia, September 1993. Canberra, CSIRO.

Vercoe, T.K. and Midgley, S.J. 1993. Australian Tree Seed Centre: an update on current programmes and information on seed procurement for researchers. Forest Genetic Resources Information No. 21. Rome, FAO.

______________________

1/ Australian Tree Seed Centre, CSIRO Division of Forestry, Canberra, Australia.
 
 


ANNEX 1

PROFILES OF CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS ON NWFPS AT
CSIRO DIVISION OF FORESTRY, AUSTRALIA






A.1
1. Title:  Australian Acacias for human food.
2. Description/Objectives: Collection and evaluation of the genetic resources of several arid zone Australian Acacia species.
3. Expected outputs: 
  1. Breeding systems and genetic diversity measurements for several acacia species.
  2. Nutritional and toxicological features of these species for human food. 
  3. Silvicultural and production regimes for relevant species.
4. Location of research:  Northwestern and central Australia, Niger West Africa.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, Obajemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, Sim International Niger, several other collaborators in Australia.
7. Status:  Several field trials, most seed collections completed, human nutrition study about to commence, Ph.D. and 1 graduate student working on isozymes/DNA.

A.2
1. Title:  Provenance/progeny trials of acacia species with human food potential.
2. Description/Objectives:
  1. Provenance trial of Acacia tumida. 
  2. Progeny trials of A. colei, A. cowleana, A. holosericea, A. neurocarpa, A. oligophleba, A. thomsonii, and A. tropica The aim of these trials is to study provenance/progeny variation in growth rates, growth habit, coppicing ability and seed characteristics. It is intended to eventually thin the progeny trial into seed orchards.
3. Expected outputs:  Information regarding provenance/progeny variation, growth rate, coppicing ability and seed characteristics. Seed collected from these trials will be of value for nutritional studies. 
4. Location of research:  Kununurra, Western Australia. 
5. Duration:  Ongoing. 
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, Department of Conservation and Land Management, WA, and Department of Primary Industry, WA.
7. Status:  Ongoing. 

B.1
1. Title:  Increasing productivity of Eucalyptus plantations in China and the Philippines by inoculation with ectomycorrhizas and nutrient application.
2. Description/Objectives:
  1. Collection of ectomycorrhizal fungi for temperate and tropical eucalypts.
  2. Screening ectomycorrhizal fungi that improve growth of eucalypts and that are edible. 
  3. Trialing inoculated eucalypts in China and the Philippines.
3. Expected outputs:  Provision of ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates that could be used in commercial inoculation programmes in China and the Philippines.
4. Location of research:  CSIRO, Div. of Forestry, Murdoch University, China and the Philippines.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO, Division of Forestry, Murdoch University, Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, CAF, University of the Philippines at Los Banos.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

B.2 Development of a Truffle industry in Tasmania.
1. Title:  Consultancy to assess the development of the black truffle fungus on roots of hazel seedlings.
2. Description/Objectives: Inoculated hazel seedlings for the production of the black truffle fungus in Tasmania.
3. Expected outputs:  Industry development.
4. Location of research:  Ongoing.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  Perigord Truffle Company of Tasmania
7. Status:  Ongoing.

C.1
1. Title:  Fast growing Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones for foliar oil production in the tropics.
2. Description/Objectives: Boost oil yield in combination with desirable growth characteristics by selection and cloning amongst Petford E. camaldulensis.
3. Expected outputs:  Fast-growing, high oil yielding clones for use in tropical countries wishing to produce Eucalyptus oil.
4. Location of research:  Australia.
5. Duration:  6 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, Australian National University, ACIAR.
7. Status:  Nearing completion.

C.2
1. Title:  Breeding for improved leaf oils in Eucalyptus polybractea and E. radiata.
2. Description/Objectives: To select individuals in the field for seed collection that are superior in oil traits.
3. Expected outputs:  Seed of above-average quality for establishment of breeding programmes
4. Location of research:  New South Wales
5. Duration:  5 years
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, CALM, WA.
7. Status:  Ongoing

C.3
1. Title:  Breeding for improved leaf oils in Melaleuca alternifolia.
2. Description/Objectives: To increase the oil yields in new seedling plantations by 30 percent in five years, with a 60 percent increase at the conclusion of the first generation of breeding, about the year 2000.
3. Expected outputs:  Improved seed of progressively better quality should be available to the industry from late 1995 onwards.
4. Location of research:  New South Wales.
5. Duration:  3 years.2
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ATTIA, NSW Agriculture, RIRDC
7. Status:  Ongoing.

C.4
1. Title:  Melaleucas and eucalypts for foliar oil production in SE Asia.
2. Description/Objectives:
  1. Identify Australian Melaleuca species and provenances with potential for wood and /or oil production in the Mekong Delta area of Viet Nam. 
  2. Assess factors influencing oil yield and quality.
  3. Identify Eucalyptus and Melaleuca oil markets
  4. Build a low cost oil still in Thailand.
3. Expected outputs:  Information on Melaleuca species and provenances that grow best in the difficult conditions of the Delta. 

Seed collection and oil survey of melaleucas in northern Australia and PNG. 

Seasonal variation in the oils of E. camaldulensis in Thailand.

Pilot oil distillations in Thailand.

4. Location of research:  Viet Nam, Australia, Thailand.
5. Duration:  18 months.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ACIAR, FSIV of Viet Nam, RFD Thailand.
7. Status:  Under review.

C.5
1. Title:  A study of the essential oils of tropical and sub-tropical Melaleucas and Callistemons.
2. Description/Objectives:
  1. To analyze tropical and sub-tropical species of Melaleuca and Callistemon for essential oil content.
  2. To use data to supplement work on temperate species relating essential oils to species taxonomy.
  3. Select species for commercial essential oil production.
  4. Identify and select species whose oil content and yield may be useful as a value added product in forestry and agronomy.
3. Expected outputs:  Detailed knowledge of essential oil composition of 40 species of Melaleuca and Callistemon.
4. Location of research:  Australia.
5. Duration:  12 months.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, UNSW, ACIAR.
7. Status:  Under way.

D.1
1. Title:  Integrated seed production systems for Eucalypt breeding.
2. Description/Objectives: To develop cultural regimes that stimulate flowering and seed production. Methods include grafting, hedging and growth retardant "Paclobutrazol".
3. Expected outputs:  Reliable source of seed, early flowering.
4. Location of research:  Canberra.
5. Duration:  2 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, NSW Agriculture, University of Tasmania.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

D.2
1. Title:  Enhance seed production in tropical forest species, e.g. A. mangium, E. urophylla, and Dipterocarps.
2. Description/Objectives: Using methodology developed in Australia enhance early flowering and seed production in a range of commercially important tree species.
3. Expected outputs:  Methods to increase quality and quantity of seed from plantations.
4. Location of research:  Indonesia - Java, Sumatra.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, Indonesian Agency for Forest Research and Development.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

D.3
1. Title:  Control of flowering in tropical forest species (e.g. Shorea spp.).
2. Description/Objectives: Using methodology developed in Australia to enhance early flowering and seed production in indigenous tree species in Malaysia. These trees take a very long time to first flower (15+ years).
3. Expected outputs:  Methodology to obtain early flowering in Malaysian indigenous tree species. Assist conservation of these species.
4. Location of research:  Malaysia.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, FRIM.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

D.4
1. Title:  Manual "Controlled Pollination of Eucalypts".
2. Description/Objectives: Produce a hands-on manual to help train technicians in methods of controlled pollination.
3. Expected outputs:  Completion by July 1995.
4. Location of research:  Canberra.
5. Duration:  1 year.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ACIAR.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

D.5
1. Title:  Reproductive biology of forest trees.
2. Description/Objectives: Document the breeding systems of tree species. Aid to breeding programmes.
3. Expected outputs:  Methodology for controlled pollinations.
4. Location of research:  Canberra, NSW, Queensland.
5. Duration:  2 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

E.1
1. Title:  Seeds of Australian Trees Project.
2. Description/Objectives:
  1. To select appropriate species and provenances and to provide high quality seed and technical information for research projects and pilot plantations in selected countries in Asia, Africa, South Pacific and Latin America.
  2. Short-term training in the fields of seed technology, design and analysis of species and provenance trials, and tree breeding.
  3. Undertake advisory visits to selected countries and provide information and advice on species/provenance selection, seedling propagation and establishment techniques and pest and disease amelioration.
3. Expected outputs:  To contribute to an increase in the quality and quantity of wood and NWFPs from agroforestry, community and plantation forestry in developing countries.
4. Location of research:  Australia, Asia, Africa, South Pacific and Latin America.
5. Duration:  5 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, ACIAR, AIDAB, FAO and other international agencies.
7. Status:  1st year.

E.2
1. Title:  Seed orchards of tropical tree species.
2. Description/Objectives: 30 ha of seed orchards were established during 1988-1991 of Acacia aulacocarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa, Eucalyptus pellita, E. urophylla and Casuarina junghuhniana in northern Queensland and Melville Island, Northern Territory.

The objectives are:

  1. To produce a secure supply of genetically improved seed from a wide genetic base of superior provenances and provenance combinations.
  2. Estimate provenance and family variation in economic traits and genetic parameters.
3. Expected outputs: 
  1. A secure and continuing supply of high-quality seed of superior provenances of these species.
  2. Estimate provenance and family variation in economic traits and genetic parameters.
4. Location of research:  Northern Queensland, and Melville Island, Northern Territory.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division Forestry, Conservation Commission of NT, Queensland Forest Service and Melville Forest Products Ltd.
7. Status:  Trial measurements have been recorded and seed collections made. Results have been published.

E.3
1. Title:  Improving tree productivity in South East Asia through support to FAO's Regional Project RAS/91/004. "Improved Productivity of Man-made Forests through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation" (FORTIP).
2. Description/Objectives: FORTIP aims to significantly increase the present levels of production and use of genetically superior seed in the region to increase the potential productivity of future plantations by a minimum of 25 percent and to enhance national capabilities to develop tree improvement technologies through the development, transfer and application of appropriate tree breeding and plantation technologies.
3. Expected outputs: 
  1. Help ensure the long-term supply of improved tree seed of 5 priority Australian species in SE Asia.
  2. Provide scientific and technical information, including biogeographic notes on two priority species and a much needed field key of the tropical acacias.
  3. Provide training, through a course and field trips, to participating forest scientists to develop skills in techniques for the genetic improvement of tree species.
4. Location of research: Australia, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam.
5. Duration:  4 years.
6. Partnerships: CSIRO Division Forestry, FAO, AIDAB, FRDC Indonesia, Dept. Of Forestry Laos, ERDB Philippines, RFD Thailand, FSIV Viet Nam.
7. Status:  1st year.

E.4
1. Title:  TREEDAT (tree performance database).
2. Description/Objectives: Collect and selectively retrieve tree performance data related to site, species and provenance, and management factors.
3. Expected outputs:  Enhance ability to select species/provenances for various sites. Performance profiles for species across a wide range of sites.
4. Location of research:  Canberra ACT.
5. Duration:  Ongoing.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, FAO, Australian Government Agencies, many collaborators in Asia and Africa.
7. Status:  4,000 performance records from around the world, Moderate comprehensive coverage for 6 species.

E.5
1. Title:  Variation in Grevillea robusta.
2. Description/Objectives: Analysis of isozyme variability and breeding systems in natural populations.Estimation of genetic variability in exotic plantations. Establish provenance/progeny trials.
3. Expected outputs:  Obtain information on genetic variation between and within provenances as well as silvicultural and seed storage information.
4. Location of research:  Australia and Kenya.
5. Duration:  Started 1989.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ICRAF.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

E.6
1. Title:  Genetic diversity of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. pellita.
2. Description/Objectives: Understand genetic variability in E. urophylla and E. pellita as an aid to provenance selection and tree improvement.
3. Expected outputs:  Understanding the nature of genetic diversity and relationships between E. urophylla and E. pellita.
4. Location of research:  Indonesia and Australia.
5. Duration:  3 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, FAO and others.
7. Status:  Seed collections, isozymes, taxonomic studies complete and analysis of trial results in progress
E.7
l.Title  Genetic improvement of multipurpose tropical trees.
2.Description/Objectives 
  1. Use of molecular markers to study genetic diversity, population structure and outcrossing rates in Acacia mangium
  2. Use of selected markers in plantation establishment and commercial breeding programmes.
3. Expected outputs  Research papers and project reports to overseas funding organisations and technology transfer to Indonesian scientists.
4. Location of research  Australia.
5. Duration  1993-1996.
6. Partnerships  CSIRO Division of Forestry, AIDAB, Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, Indonesia.
7. Status  In progress.

E.8
1. Title  Isozyme study of population genetics of Acacia aulacocarpa.
2. Description/Objectives  Use of isozyme markers to study genetic diversity, population structure and outcrossing rates of Acacia aulacocarpa.
3. Expected outputs  Research paper and honours thesis.
4. Location of research  Australia.
5. Duration  1994.
6. Partnerships  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ANU.
7. Status  In progress.

E.9
l. Title  Genetics of rainforest species.
2. Description/Objectives 
  1. Investigate reproductive biology of rainforest plants and relate this to mating systems and genetic structure of the species.
  2. Examine genetic variation of cabinet timber species and reforestation species to assist with provenance trials and provide a sound biological basis for selection of sites for the collection of seed for reforestation.
  3. Examination of fragmentation and utilisation effects on the evolutionary processes and population viability of species. The use of rapidly reproducing species, such as annuals, may provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of fragmentation on plant genetic structure.
3. Expected outputs 
  1. Scientific journal articles.
  2. Contribution to "Atlas of Genetic Diversity" for study area in QLD.
4. Location of research  Australia.
5. Duration  Proposed.
6. Partnerships  CSIRO Division of Forestry, TREM-CRC Townsville.
7. Status  Proposed.

F.1
1. Title:  Variation in Styrax tonkinensis.
2. Description/Objectives: Research on Styrax tonkinensis, including preparation of a species monograph, seed and resin collections and establishment of a provenance trial to study variation in economic traits.
3. Expected outputs:  Assessment of species biogeography, silviculture, resin extraction methods, assembly of germplasm, field trials.
4. Location of research:  Laos, Australia, Viet Nam.
5. Duration:  3 years.
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, ACIAR, QFRI, Laos Dept. Forestry, FSIV.
7. Status:  Approaching project review.

G.1
1. Title:  Australian acacias for sustainable development in China, Viet Nam and Australia.

ACIAR Project 9227

2. Description/Objectives: This project will explore the potential of 30 Australian acacia species for their potential under cultivation for multipurpose uses in China, Viet Nam and Australia. 

Biological and economic surveys of insect pest damage will be conducted.

Rhizobia associated with these species will be collected and screened for effectiveness and persistence.

3. Expected outputs:  A wider choice for successful tree-form legume species for land rehabilitation and economic return in cool subtropical areas, together with effective and persistent rhizobia strains that will be more appropriate for insect prone areas.
4. Location of research:  Australia (NSW, Vic, ACT), China (Guangdong, Guangxi), Viet Nam.
5. Duration:  3.5 years
6. Partnerships:  CSIRO Division of Forestry, Plant Industry and Entomology, ACIAR, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Research Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Forestry and Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam.
7. Status:  Ongoing.

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1/. Australian Tree Seed Centre, CSIRO Division of Foresty, Canberra, Australia

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