Dimensions and determinants of rural poverty
The economic crisis of the 1980s and Structural Adjustment Programmes have contributed to the rising unemployment of women. Women in particular suffer from landlessness and a poorer quality of agricultural land. Environmental degradation is increasing due to population pressure and over-exploitation of natural resources. The increasing number of female-headed households (18.6% in 1992), due to male migration, leaves many households with a shortage of labour for productive activities. There is a high level of malnutrition in rural areas, particularly among children.