APPENDIX A

SPECIES WITH EDIBLE "NUTS" LISTED BY FAMILIES

ANGIOSPERMS

DICOTYLEDONS


ANACARDIACEAE; fruit drupaceous or dry, 1-plurilocular, 1-5 seeded stone

Species and distribution Common name Details References
 
Anacardium giganteum

Amazonia

cajui; cajuaçu; caju-da-mata; oloi forest tree; drupe with enlarged, edible peduncle and kernel, former fresh or for juice, latter roasted FAO, 1986
Anacardium humile

Brazil

monkey-nut nut edible, conserves made of the fruit Hedrick, 1972
Anacardium nanum

Brazil

  nut edible, conserves made of the fruit Hedrick, 1972
Anacardium occidentale 

tropical America; widely cultivated

cashew nut kidney-shaped nut with hard, acrid pericarp around seed (promotion nut, coffin nail); pedicel swells into edible, pear-shaped body (cashew apple) used in preserves, chutneys, etc. also cashew apple juice; roasted kernel eaten as a dessert nut, also in confectionery; pericarp yields the toxic cashew nut-shell liquid - caustic nut shell liquid used in brake linings, clutches, plastic resins, etc.  Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; FAO, 1986; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Bianchini et al.,1988; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Anacardium rhinocarpus

South America

wild cashew edible fruit, eaten like cashew Hedrick, 1972
Antrocaryon micraster

West Africa

  fruit pulp edible, may be made into a fermented beverage; seeds difficult to extract, kernel edible, rich in oil; timber for planks and furniture Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Buchanania latifolia

India, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan

almondette; cheronjee; Cuddapah almond; Hamilton mombin medium sized tree; fruit black, 1-seeded, kernels pear-shaped, 1 cm long, oily, edible, delicious with a combination of almond and pistachio flavours - known as "almondettes" occasionally imported into Europe, eaten raw or roasted or in sweetmeats, pounded and dried fruits made into bread in India, seed oil a substitute for almond or olive oil; bark and fruit yield a varnish; bark used in tanning; browsed; gum used in traditional medicine against leprosy; wood for fuel; trees grown for erosion control

kernel 51.8% oil, 12.1% protein, 21.6% starch, 5% sugars

Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Macrae et al., 1993
Gluta elegans

Malaysia

rengas seeds edible; sap can cause dermatitis Menninger, 1977
Gluta renghas

Malesia

rengas roasted seeds eaten; timber useful but sap can cause dermatitis Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Gluta velutina

Malaysia

rengas seeds edible; sap can cause dermatitis Menninger, 1977
Lannea schweinfurthii

var. stuhlmannii

East Africa

  raw fruit eaten, seeds crushed, boiled with salt and eaten as a relish, bark made into a tisane Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992
Mangifera altissima

Solomon Islands to Philippines; cultivated

medang evergreen tree; immature fruit eaten raw, pickled or mixed with vegetables; ripe fruit eaten or used in preserves; seeds salted and pounded for an edible meal; wood for general construction and indoor woodwork, not durable; locally marketed Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Mangifera indica

Indo-Malesia; widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics

mango evergreen tree; drupe flesh eaten or made into chutney, pickles, squashes, commercially marketed; starchy kernels eaten roasted or dried and pickled, a source of flour and famine food; seed kernel meal fed to cattle and poultry; young leaves eaten as a vegetable; timber for fuel (excellent charcoal), tea-chests and floor-boards Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Mangifera kemanga

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo; commercially cultivated

kemang tree; ripe fruit eaten fresh, pickled or made into a juice; fresh, grated seeds sometimes eaten; young leaves eaten Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Mangifera odorata

not known in wild; cultivated in Sumatra, Borneo and Java

kuwini tree; fruit peeled to remove acrid skin, eaten fresh or made into chutneys and pickles; seed kernel made into a flour; bark used in traditional medicine; thrives in areas too wet for M. indica Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Pistacia mexicana

S. Mexico to Guatemala

  seeds edible Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Pistacia terebinthus

Mediterranean

terebinth; Cyperus turpentine kernel sweet, edible; source of tan galls; formerly source of turpentine Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Pistacia texana

Texas to central Mexico

Texas pistacio dioecious shrub or tree; with small, nut-like drupe <1 cm long Krochmal, 1982
Pistacia vera 

Iran to central Asia; widely cultivated in Mediterranean and USA

pistachio seed eaten as dessert nut, the pistachio nut of commerce, used in ice-cream and confectionery Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;

Pleiogynium timoriense

Queensland

Burdekin or sweet plum fruit used in jams and jellies; timber good; ornamental street tree Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Sclerocarya birrea

subsp. birrea

N. tropical Africa 

subsp. caffra

E. and southern Africa


 
 
 
 

marula

dioecious tree

fruit flesh used to make alcoholic beverage; kernel oily, eaten 

dioecious tree; fruit eaten, flesh rich in vitamin C, stone contains 2-3 highly nutritious embryos

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Arnold et al. 1985; Peters et al. 1992

Semecarpus anacardium India; cultivated in tropical Asia, Australia and Africa marking nut; varnish tree; Australian corkscrew; oriental cashew ripe fruit collected, acrid and astringent when fresh, juice of which a strong skin irritant, kernels eaten roasted flavour of roasted apples, dried with taste like dates; roasted pedicel eaten; sap of unripe fruit mixed with lime used for marking linen, hence vernacular name; pericarp contains ca. 9% of an irritating oil used in traditional medicine and industrially in lacquers, paints and insulating material; wood used for charcoal Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; 

Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989; Verheij and Coronel, 1992

Semecarpus vitiensis New Caledonia, Fiji   kernel eaten, care required to avoid fruit blistering latex,  Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977 
Spondias mombin

tropical America; occasionally cultivated 

yellow Spanish or yellow mombin; jobo; hog plum fresh fruit pulp eaten raw, cooked, in confectionery or fermented; seed eaten; young leaves eaten as a vegetable; wood used for boxes, pulp or fuel; browsed by cattle and pigs; melliferous; grown as shade tree Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1978; FAO, 1982, 1986 Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Trichoscypha longifolia

West Africa

  oily kernel eaten Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992

 

ANISOPHYLLEACEAE; fruit indehiscent, woody to drupaceous
 
Poga oleosa 

W. tropical Africa

inoi nut, African Brazil nut, m'poga nuts with hard, bony shell, marketed locally; seed kernel eaten; seed oil used for cooking; formerly exported to Liverpool as oilseed Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1987; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

 

ARALIACEAE; fruit usually a drupe or berry
 
Panax trifolius

E. North America

groundnut herb with slightly pungent, edible, subglobose rootstock Howes, 1948

 

BIGNONIACEAE; fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely fleshy and indehiscent
 
Crescentia alata

W. Central America

Mexican calabash ripe seeds a popular festival food Menninger, 1972
Crescentia cujete

tropical America and Caribbean; cultivated

calabash tree young fruit pickled, flesh not very palatable; seeds cooked and eaten and used to make a drink in Nicaragua, source of a syrup and oil; woody pericarp used for bowls, etc. Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Kigelia africana

tropical Africa

sausage tree fruit pulp and bark used for making beer; roasted seeds famine food; fruit purgative Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Oroxylum indicum

Philippines

midnight horror; pinkapinkahan seeds eaten; leaves cooked as a vegetable; bark bitter, used medicinally; bark and fruits source of dye used in rattan basketry, also for tanning; wood used for fuel Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Mabberley, 1987
Parmentiera cereifera

Panama; cultivated

candle tree; cuachilote fruit and seeds eaten in Mexico; fodder source Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987

 

BOMBACACEAE; fruit a locucidal capsule, rarely fleshy and indehiscent
 
Adansonia digitata

tropical Africa; occasionally cultivated

baobab Pulp eaten raw, seed kernel eaten raw, roasted or boiled; bark for cloth and cordage; all parts of the tree utilised; grown as an avenue tree and ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Wickens, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Peters et al., 1992
Adansonia gregorii

West Australia

baobab seeds eaten by Aborigines; source of fibre Menninger, 1977; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Ceiba pentandra

tropical South America; widely cultivated

kapok or silk cotton tree young fruit edible; seeds eaten pounded in soup or roasted, source of edible oil; oil used as lubricant, illuminant, soap and paints; hairs from carpel walls the kapok of commerce; wood used for matches Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Durio ziberthinus

W. Malesia; widely cultivated in Malaysia

durian; civet fruit malodorous but highly esteemed fruit, aril of unripe fruit eaten as a vegetable; boiled or roasted seeds eaten; rind used for fuel; wood light, used for cheap furniture, etc.; plant used in traditional medicine  Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Pachira aquatica

tropical America, estuaries; cultivated

Guyana or Malabar chestnut delicious chestnut-flavoured seeds roasted and eaten, contain ca. 50% oil; young leaves and flowers eaten as vegetable; bark source of red dye, fibre for cordage; wood suitable for paper-making Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Mabberley, 1987
Pachira insignis

Central America

maranhao nut seeds eaten; young leaves and flowers also eaten Hedrick, 1977; Menninger, 1977
Rhodognaphalon schumannianum

tropical Africa

  seeds cooked and eaten Peters et al., 1992

 

BURSERACEAE; fruit a drupe with 1-5 1-seeded stones or 1 stones with all seeds, rarely a capsule
 
Boswellia serrata

India; cultivated

Indian olibanum tree; flowers and seeds eaten; wood used to make paper and tea chests, fuel; cultivated for its fragrant gum-resin Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Canarium album

S. China, Vietnam; cultivated

canarium; Chinese olive tree; fruit pulp and seeds edible, sold on the world market; wood and resin sometimes used; grown as an ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium harveyi

Solomon Islands

Santa Cruz Ngallinut oily nut edible; oil used locally for cosmetics; potential for development Pelomo, 1993
Canarium indicum

Malaysia to Melanesia; cultivated

Java almond; kanari or ngali nut tall buttressed tree, drupe, endocarp hard, thin and brittle, triangular in cross section, c 3 g, seeds 3; oily "pili" nuts (seeds) eaten after removal of testa raw or roasted, eaten in Sri Lanka as a dessert nut, made into bread in the Celebes, highly esteemed in Melanesia where several races cultivated; fresh seed oil mixed with food, also used as an illuminant; grown as a shade tree Hawes, 1948; Leenhouts, 1956; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Macrae et al., 1993; Pelomo, 1993
Canarium littorale

Malaysia

  nuts small, hard-shelled, kernel edible Menninger, 1977
Canarium luzonicum

S.E. Asia

Java almond, pili nut, elemi "oily pili" nuts edible; seed oil source of "Manila elmi" for varnishes, etc. Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987 
Canarium muelleri

Queensland

  deciduous tree; nuts very small, eaten by Aborigines Menninger, 1977; Lazarides et al., 1993
Canarium ovatum 

Philippines; cultivated

pili or Philippine nut evergreen tree; oily "pili" nuts eaten raw or roasted as a dessert nut or used commercially in confectionery, emulsion of kernels used as milk substitute; seed oil edible, source of "Manila elmi" for varnishes, etc., also used as an illuminant; young shoots edible; shell used for fuel and carving; grown as an avenue tree and windbreak Howes, 1948; Leenhouts, 1956; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium pateninervium

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia; Sumatra, Borneo

kedondong tree; seeds eaten; soft, light wood used for fuel Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium pilosum

Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei

damar lilin tree; seeds sweet, eaten; wood durable used for houses; resin used to close wounds Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium pimela

S. China, Hainan, Indo-China, Borneo; cultivated

Chinese black olive tree; oily "pili" nuts edible, fruit candies or pickled; sold on the world market; wood and resin sometimes used; fruit and leaves used in local medicine Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium salomonense

Solomon Islands, New Guinea

adoa oily nut edible; oil used locally for cosmetics; potential for development Pelomo, 1993
Canarium schweinfurthii

tropical Africa

African elemi; incense or bush candle tree oily nut edible, marketed locally; oily pericarp eaten raw, seeds cooked and eaten, seed oil substitute for shea butter from Vitellaria paradoxa; stained timber used as mahogany substitute; oleo-gum exudate source of incense  Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Canarium sylvestre

Ambon

  oily "pili" nuts edible  Hedrick, 1972
Canarium vrieseanum

Indonesia, Philippines

solo tree; seeds edible; resin burnt as an illuminant; tough wood used in construction Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Canarium vulgare Moluccas; cultivated Chinese olives, Java almond, wild almond oily "pili" nuts eaten in Sri Lanka as a dessert nut, made into bread in the Celebes; fresh seed oil mixed with food, also used for lamps; grown as a shade tree and in plantations;  Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977
Santira trimera

West Africa

  fruits smelling of turpentine, edible, marketed locally; oily seeds edible Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985

 

CAPPARACEAE; fruit often a berry, rarely a nut or drupe
 
Boscia angustifolia

tropical Africa to Saudi Arabia

kursan evergreen tree; berries bitter, edible, cooked seeds eaten; leaves and bark used in tisanes; browsed; wood hard, used for local carpentry; variously used in local medicine Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985; Peters et al., 1992
Boscia senegalensis

Sahel

  evergreen shrub; berries marketed locally, fruit pulp, seeds and leaves eaten after leaching for 3-4 days and cooked, regarded as famine food, roasted seeds used as coffee substitute; wood used for huts; smoky firewood Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985; Peters et al., 1992
Buchholzia coriacea

West Africa; rain forest

musk tree evergreen tree; fruit thick-skinned, with disagreeable odour, boiled and eaten, seeds used as condiment, aril chewed; seeds used medicinally; bark and leaves used medicinally Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985; Peters et al., 1992

 

CARYOCARACEAE; fruit a drupe, stone separating into 4 1-seeded pyrenes
 
Caryocar amygdaliferum

Colombia

suari nut; sawarri nut; caryocar; almendron seeds woody; almond-flavoured kernels roasted and eaten, source of pleasant-tasting sawarri or suari fat used in cooking; fruit used for treating leprosy; fruit pulp used as fish poison Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Prance and Freitas, 1973; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Caryocar amygdaliforme

Peru

caryocar almond-flavoured kernels edible Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Caryocar brasiliense

Brazil; occasionally cultivated

pequí; piquí; piquia-oil plant tree, drupe 2-seeded, mesocarp fleshy, endocarp woody, muricate, stewed kidney-shaped; fruit pulp eaten, mainly as a flavouring, laxative, source of an edible oil; kernels source of an edible fat; wood used for construction, fences and fuel Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Clay and Clement, 1993; Dantas de Araujo, 1995
Caryocar coriaceum

N.E. Brazil

  fruit pulp oily, eaten; spiny seed shell difficult to remove, kernel oily, highly esteemed for food; fruit oil extracted and used in cooking Prance and Freitas, 1973; Menninger, 1977
Caryocar glabrum

N.E. South America; cultivated

almendro; piquia-rana kernels eaten fresh, boiled or roasted by natives; timber used for shipbuilding; epicarp used as fish poison; inner bark used for washing hair and clothes Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Prance and Freitas, 1973; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Clay and Clement, 1993
Caryocar nuciferum 

Guianas; cultivated in the Caribbean, Surinam, Malaysia 

souari or swarri nut; butternut large tree; fruit globose, soft wooded capsules ca. 15 cm in diameter; pulp yellow, edible; 2-5 pyrenes kidney-shaped, up to 5 cm long with very hard, woody shell up to 1 cm thick, hard to crack; seeds white, almond flavoured, eaten raw or roasted, source of pleasant-tasting fat. Nuts occasionally marketed in Europe, used for billiard balls; timber for shipbuilding Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Prance and Freitas, 1973; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Clay and Clement, 1993; Macrae et al., 1993
Caryocar villosum 

N.E. South America, Atlantic Brazil to French Guiana

amêndoa de espinho; arbre à beurre; bats sauari; pekea; pequiá; piquiá rainforest; kernel, seed pulp and cotyledons edible, kernel and surrounding tissue source of oil; timber for heavy construction and shipbuilding; introduced into Malaysia but plantations low yielding. Potential for development of fruit and oil Howes, 1948; Prance and Freitas, 1973; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Clay and Clement, 1993; Prance, 1994

 

CHRYSOBALANACEAE; fruit a 1-seeded drupe
 
Chrysobalanus icaco 

tropical America and Africa; cultivated

cocoplum; icaco shrub or small tree; cultivated for its edible fruit; kernel delicious, fruit eaten raw, boiled or candied; seed oil used as an illuminant in West Africa; source of timber and fuel; fruit used in tanning and traditional medicine; grown as an ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Burkill, 1985; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Peters et al., 1992
Couepia edulis

Amazonia; occasionally cultivated

cutia nut; castanha de cutia  large forest tree; fruit with hard, woody epicarp, very difficult to crack, ovoid; nut-like kernels, eaten raw or roasted, contains 73% oil, used for cooking and soap-making Mabberley, 1987; FAO, 1986; Clay and Clement, 1993; Prance, 1994
Couepia longipendula

Brazilian, Colombia and Peruvian Amazonia;

formerly cultivated around Manaus, some experimental plantations

pendula nut; castanha de galinha; castanha pêndula forest tree, bushy tree in open under cultivation; drupe 4-6 cm long, epicarp thin, mesocarp fibrous, woody; nut 3-5 cm long, sweet, eaten raw or roasted; edible seed oil semi-drying, easily rancifies, used as an illuminant; seed cake edible. Wood heavy, difficult to work, used in civil and naval construction. Excellent potential oil plant. Clay and Clement. 1993; Prance, 1994
Parinari campestris

Trinidad, Guyana to N. Brazil

  drupe small, kernel edible Hedrick, 1972
Parinari curatellifolia

tropical Africa

mbula; mupunda evergreen tree; drupe 3-4 cm long, eaten raw, source of a fermented beverage, oily kernel eaten raw, used as an almond substitute or pounded in soup; drying seed oil used in making varnish or paint; timber for railway sleepers, mine props, fuelwood Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982, 1983; Burkill, 1985; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Parinari excelsa

tropical Africa

rough skinned or grey plum evergreen tree; drupes marketed locally, insipid pulp eaten raw or fermented, oily kernels eaten raw Hedrick, 1972; FAO, 1983; Burkill, 1985; Peters et al., 1992
Parinari montana

Guyana, N. Brazil

  drupe large, fibrous, with thick, acrid rind, kernel sweet, edible Hedrick, 1982

 

COMBRETACEAE; fruit usually indehiscent, 1-seeded, drupaceous
 
Terminalia bellerica

Indo-Malesia; cultivated

myrobalm kernels eaten, possibly toxic or narcotic; seed source of tannin and black dye; timber good, source of firewood and charcoal; fruit source of commercial myrobalm, used for tanning, source of a black dye Exell, 1954; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Terminalia bentzoë

Mascarine Islands

false benzoin kernels eaten Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1972
Terminalia catappa

Peninsular Malaysia; widely planted in tropics

Barbados, Indian, Malabar or tropical almond kernel enclosed in fibrous flesh and difficult to open, limiting its commercial exploitation; kernels eaten raw or roasted, delicious, source of Indian almond oil; oil cake fed to pigs; timber used for general construction; bark for tanning; grown as shade tree and ornamental; oil, leaves and bark medicinal Howes, 1948; Coode, 1969; Hedrick, 1972; Thaman, 1976; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Morton, 1985; Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989
Terminalia chebula

India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar

myrobalan fruit difficult to open, kernel edible; dried fruit for tanning Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Terminalia copelandii

East Indies, Philippines

  kernels edible; source of timber Exell, 1954
Terminalia glabrata

Pacific Islands

  kernels eaten, almond flavoured Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Terminalia impediens

New Guinea

  kernels edible Coode, 1969
Terminalia kaernbachii

Papuasia; cultivated

okari nut tree; kernels excellent, one of the best-flavoured, tropical nuts and a favourite article of diet among the natives; wood used for furniture Exell, 1964; Coode, 1969; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Macrae et al., 1993
Terminalia latifolia

Caribbean

  kernels eaten, almond flavoured Hedrick, 1972
Terminalia litoralis

Fiji, Tonga

  kernels edible, sometimes eaten by children; useful timber Smith, 1971; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Terminalia microcarpa

Philippines

kalumpit fruit 3 cm in diameter; fleshy, acidic kernels eaten raw or boiled; timber for general construction, ship planking, furniture and cabinet making FAO, 1984
Terminalia nitens

Philippines

sakat fruit oval, 3 cm long; raw kernel eaten; timber for construction and ship planking FAO, 1984
Terminalia pamea

Guyana; cultivated

  kernels eaten, almond flavoured Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Terminalia platyphylla

N. Australia

wild plum kernels eaten Smith, 1971; Hedrick, 1972

 
 
 

COMPOSITAE; fruit usually a cypsela, usually with persistent pappus, rarely a drupe
 
Helianthus annuus 

North America; widely cultivated

sunflower  seeds eaten as a dessert nut and health food, boiled or roasted, ground to a flour or in soup; source of a commercial seed oil used in cooking and margarine; stem a flax substitute; oilcake and leaves used as fodder; cultivated as an ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Purseglove, 1985; Mabberley, 1987

 

CORYLACEAE; fruit a nut
 
Corylus americana 

E. North America; cultivated

American filbert or hazelnut nuts with edible seeds,well flavoured but smaller and thicker shelled than C. avellana; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Corylus avellana Eurasia, cultivated filbert, hazel or cob nut shrub bearing nuts with edible seeds, seeds marketed commercially, source of edible filbert oil; coppice poles used for hurdles, wattle and daub and firewood; basketry; hybridizes readily with A. maxima Bobiov, 1936; Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;
Corylus chinensis

China

Chinese hazelnut, Chinese filbert Nuts with edible seeds Howes, 1948
Corylus colurna

S.E. Europe, S.W. Asia; cultivated

Turkish or Indian hazelnut, Turkish filbert,  tree bearing hard-shelled nuts with edible seeds, nuts marketed commercially as cobnuts, kernels sometimes processed for oil; wood used for furniture and turnery, formerly used for spinning wheels Bobiov, 1936; Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1987; Rathore, 1993
Corylus cornuta

N.E. North America

beaked filbert; beaked hazel nuts with well-flavoured, edible seeds; more cold hardy than C. americana Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 19982
Corylus ferox

Himalayan region

Himalayan hazelnut, curri nuts small, thick shelled with edible seeds but bristly involucre limits its commercial exploitation for food Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972
Corylus heterophylla

E. Mongolia, Manchuria, N. China; cultivated Japan

Siberian hazelnut nuts with edible seeds, marketed commercially Bobiov, 1936
Corylus maxima 

S.E. Europe; cultivated

giant filbert, Lambert's or Lombardy filbert,  shrub or small tree bearing nuts with edible seed; seed oil for cooking, confectionery, especially nut-chocolate, formerly used for paint, soap, etc.; charcoal used for gunpowder; hybridizes readily with A. avellana Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;
Corylus sieboldiana (including var. mandshsurica)

China, Japan

Japanese hazel nuts edible but bristly involucre limits its commercial exploitation for food Bobiov, 1936
Corylus tibetica

China

Tibetan hazelnut, Tibetan filbert nuts with edible seeds but bristly involucre limits its commercial exploitation for food Howes, 1948; Roecklein and Ping Sun Leun, 1987

 

CORYNOCARPACEAE ; fruit a drupe
 
Corynocarpus laevigata New Zealand karaka nut, New Zealand laurel tree, roasted seeds staple food of the Maoris, new seeds toxic unless steamed for a day and soaked; fleshy pulp eaten raw although embryo considered toxic unless soaked in salt water Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

 

CUCURBITACEAE; fruit a berry (pepo if hard-walled), less often a capsule, rarely samaroid
 
Acanthosicyos horrida

Namib desert

nara; narram; narra melon; butter nut spiny shrub; gourd pulp and seeds eaten by Hottentots; seeds oily, marketed in Cape Town as almond substitute Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Arnold et al., 1985; Mabberley, 1987
Citrullus lanatus 

tropical Africa and Asia; cultivated

watermelon  seeds eaten raw or roasted as a dessert nut; raw pulp also eaten, seed oil used for cooking, soap and as an illuminant; seedcake fed to livestock; also used as a masticatory and in local medicine Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987;

Peters et al., 1992

Cucurbita maxima

Central and South America; cultivated

pumpkin; winter squash annual herb; flesh of mature fruits fine-textured, used as a table vegetable, in pies and jams; seeds eaten as a dessert nut Rosengarten, 1984; Purseglove, 1987
Cucurbita mixta

Central America; cultivated

pumpkin; winter squash; cushaw annual herb; seeds eaten as a dessert nut, flesh stringy Rosengarten, 1984; Purseglove, 1985
Cucurbita moschata

Central America; cultivated

pumpkin, winter squash annual herb; flesh of mature fruits fine-textured, used as a table vegetable, in pies and jams; seeds eaten as a dessert nut Rosengarten, 1984; Purseglove, 1987
Cucurbita pepo

Central America; cultivated

pumpkin; summer squash; vegetable marrow  annual herb; seeds eaten raw, roasted or fried as a dessert nut or in food; baked pulpy flesh eaten in pies; pulp fed to livestock; some cultivars grown as an ornamental; used as a vermifuge Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Telfairia pedata 

E. Africa; cultivated

oyster nut; African pumpkin; Zanzibar oil vine dioecious, woody stemmed, climbing vine; gourd large, <15 kg, deeply ridged, seeds discoid, 3-4 x 1.5 cm, up to 140, enveloped in fibrous, bitter husk; seeds washed, sundried and dehusked; kernel eaten raw or roasted and in cooking, Brazil nut flavour, seed oil used in cosmetics, soap- and candle-making; the bitter husk limits its commercial exploitation as an oilseed

kernel ca. 6% fat, 27% protein, rich in edible oil

Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992; Macrae et al., 1993

 

DIPTEROCARPACEAE; fruits, dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded with woody pericarp
 
Anisoptera thurifera

Philippines

palosapis deciduous forest tree; fruit 2-15 mm in diameter; seeds eaten raw or roasted FAO, 1984
Shorea sp.

Malaysia, Borneo, New Guinea 

Borneo illipe nut emergent rainforest tree; kernels commercial source of speciality fats (cocoa butter equivalents) used as cocoa butter substitute in chocolate formulations also in cosmetics, formerly important for soap and candles; valuable timber tree  Blicher-Mathiesen,

1994; Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987;

Vateria indica

S. India

dammar seeds used for making a bread; seed fat - "Malabar fat" or "dhupa fat" used for candles, etc.; resin - "white dammar" or "piney varnish" formerly important Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

 

ELAEOCARPACEAE; fruit a capsule or drupe
 
Elaeocarpus bancroftii

Australia

karanda nut; Johnstone River almond; karanda quandong nut edible, excellent flavour, equalling that of Macadamia; virtually unknown in cultivation, CSIRO interested in developing; timber  Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989; Lazarides and Hince, 1993

 

EUPHORBIACEAE; fruit a 3-lobed capsule
 
Aleurites moluccana

S.E. Asia; widely cultivated in the tropics

candle-nut; candleberry;

balucanat; Indian or 

Otaheite walnut

fruit fleshy; nut 1, globose, ca. 3 cm in diameter, shell harsh, thick, kernel white, oily, ca. 5 g; kernels eaten when thoroughly dry or after roasting to destroy mild toxins, used in curries; source of the edible "China wood oil", "candle-nut oil", "lumbang oil", "walnut-oil" or "artist's oil", used in soaps, paints and quick-drying varnishes and as an illuminant; oily seeds strung together serve as candles, hence vernacular name; cultivated as an ornamental; wood not durable, used for fuel and matches Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989; Lazarides and Hince, 1993; Macrae et al., 1993; Burkill, 1994
Caryodendron amazonicum

NW Brazil, Colombia, Peru

  Possibly cospecific with C. orinocense; uses as for C. orinocense Reckin, 1983; Clement and Villachica, 1994
Caryodendron orinocense

Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela; small plantations in Colombia and Ecuador

inchi; tacay or taccy nut; orinoco nut kernel surrounded by thin shell, easily broken with fingers; roasted seeds eaten, flavour like Corylus avellana (hazel); source of edible oil.  Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Reckin, 1983; Mabberley, 1987; Clement and Villachica, 1994
Cnidoscolus oligandrus

Brazil

  seeds with 40-50% oil, eaten in times of drought Menninger, 1977
Elateriospermum tapos

S. Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia

tapos seeds large, oily, eaten after boiling to remove HCN Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Manniophytom fulvum

Tropical Africa

gasso nut seed kernel boiled and eaten, marketed locally; seed contains 50% oil, source of a drying oil formerly considered for paint manufacture; liane with fibres used for ropes and nets Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Omphalea diandra

Caribbean

cobnut seeds edible, embryo deleterious and requires removal Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Omphalea megacarpa

Caribbean

Russell river nut large nuts eaten raw Menninger, 1977
Omphalea triandra

tropical America

Jamaican cob nut seeds eaten raw or roasted after removal of deleterious embryo, source of a sweet, fine-flavoured oil Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Phyllanthus emblica

tropical Asia; cultivated

emblic; ambal seeds edible, made into sweetmeats; dried fruit provides "emblic myrobalan", used in local medicine and source of tanbark and dyes Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberely, 1987
Pimelodendron amboinicum

Moluccas

  seeds edible; bark purgative; milky latex used as a varnish Menninger, 1977; Mabberely, 1987
Plukenetia conophora

Sierra Leone to Zaire

owusa nut liane cultivated for its oilseeds for use in cooking; kernels eaten raw Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberely, 1987
Ricinodendron heudelotii

tropical Africa

erimado edible nuts and oilseeds; trade timber Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Schinziophyton rautanenii 

S. Angola and N. Namibia eastwards to Tanzania and N. Mozambique

manketti nut Raw pulp and seed kernel eaten, a staple diet of the Kalahai bushmen; manketti nut oil used in food, varnishes, etc. timber used as a balsa Ochroma lagopus, substitute with possible use for paper-making  Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Tetracarpidium conophorum

West Africa; cultivated

conophor; awusa nut lianne; seed eaten raw or roasted, marketed locally; fruit, leaves and young shoots edible; source of a drying oil Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al. 1992

 

FAGACEAE; fruit a nut
 
Castanea crenata 

Japan; cultivated

Japanese chestnut nuts variable in size, some 5 cm in diameter, edible but bitter due to tannin content; fed to pigs in Japan; timber used for sleepers, furniture, cabinet work, shipbuilding; cultivated, resistant to chestnut blight, grown as an ornamental Camus, 1929; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Castanea dentata 

E. North America

American or North American chestnut; sweet chestnut nuts smaller and sweeter than C. sativa; best trees almost extinct due to chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica and commercial market ruined; marketed and sold roasted in towns; eaten by native Americans, also leaf tea used to treat whooping cough, as sedative and tonic, bark for dysentery; important timber for furniture, fencing, pulp and source of tannin Camus, 1929; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Castanea henryi

China coast

  nuts excellent, small, edible; timber for building Camus, 1929; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Castanea mollisima

N.W. China; cultivated China, introduced North America

Chinese chestnut nuts edible, sweeter than C. sativa but less sweet than C. dentata, resistant to chestnut blight; cultivated and sold in local markets; source of timber and fuel Camus, 1929; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984
Castanea ozarkensis

central USA; limestone

ozak chinquapin nuts small, edible Krochmal, 19982
Castanea pumila 

E. North America; cultivated

Virginia chestnut; chinquapin; Allegheny chinquapin evergreen tree; nuts small, sweet, very palatable but difficult to shell, eaten by local Americans, formerly sold locally; nuts used to fatten pigs; also strung to make necklaces; root astringent, used as tonic and to treat fevers; timber for railway sleepers Camus, 1929; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Castanea sativa 

Mediterranean to Caucasus; cultivated in mild temperate Europe and subtropical regions

Spanish or sweet chestnut tree; nuts starchy, sold roasted, flour used in cooking, especially in Italy, candied (marrons glacés); timber used for sleepers, coppice timber for fencing, gates, walking sticks, cellulose; bark used in tanning; cultivated as ornamental and for erosion control Camus, 1929; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanea seguinii

E. and central China

  nuts small, edible, used for flour Camus,1929; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Castanopsis acuminatissima

Myanmar

gon nuts eaten raw or cooked Menninger, 1977
Castanopsis argentea

Indo-Malesia

  seeds edible; bark source of dye; timber Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis argyrophylla 

India

  nuts edible Menninger, 1977
Castanopsis boisii

N. Vietnam

  nuts edible, marketed locally Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Castanopsis chinensis

China 

  nuts edible Menninger, 1977
Castanopsis chrysophylla

S.W. USA

golden-leaved chestnut; golden or giant chinquapin tree evergreen; nuts ripen in second year, 8-12 mm long, sweet, eaten by native Americans; wood used for agricultural implements Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Castanopsis costata

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra; lowland to submontane forest

berangan duri tree; nuts eaten parched, roasted or boiled, used in confectionery; wood hard, difficult to work; bark tannin source Howes, 1948; Soepadmo, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis cuspidatus

Korea, S. China 

  acorns small, sweet, eaten boiled or roasted; planted in Japan as an ornamental; leaves formerly used as rice bowls Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Castanopsis hysteris

E. Himalayas 

  nuts eaten; timber for construction, , sleepers, cheap furniture, tools, etc. tannin potential; coppices well Howes, 1948; CSIR, 1992
Castanopsis indica

tropical Himalayas

  nuts eaten; timber for construction, panelling, tools, fuel; browsed  Howes, 1948; CSIR, 1992
Castanopsis inermis

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra; cultivated

berangan nuts eaten boiled, parched or roasted, used in confectionery, marketed in Sumatra; wood hard, difficult to work; bark tannin source Camus, 1929; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis javanica

Malesia; forests

  cultivated in Java for its edible nuts; post timber; bark used for rice baskets Howes, 1948; Soepadmo, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis lucida  Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo berangan papan nuts eaten raw, boiled or roasted, used in confectionery; wood hard, difficult to work; bark tannin source Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis malaccensis

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra

berangan gajah nuts eaten raw, boiled or roasted, used in confectionery, causes diarrhoea if eaten to excess; wood hard, difficult to work; bark tannin source Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis megacarpa

Malaysia

  nuts bitter, eaten Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis philipensis

Philippines

  nuts eaten; timber Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Castanopsis sclerophylla

E. and central China

  nuts eaten locally Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Castanopsis sempervirens

California

bush or Dudley sierra chinquapin nuts eaten by native Americans, good roasted and served with butter and salt Krochmal, 1982
Castanopsis tibetana

China, Tibet

  nuts eaten locally Camus, 1929; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Castanopsis tribuloides

subtropical Himalayas

  evergreen tree; nuts roasted and eaten; timber durable, used for planks, shingles and fuel Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; CSIR, 1992
Castanopsis wallichii

Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia; forest

berangan duri tree; nuts small, rind thick and difficult to open, eaten parched, roasted or boiled, used in confectionery; wood hard, difficult to work; bark tannin source Howes, 1948; Soepadma, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Fagus grandifolia

E. North America

American, Carolina, red, grey or white beech nuts shaken from tree after frost has opened husks or raked from the ground; eaten roasted, considered delicious, also as coffee substitute; leaves eaten by some native Americans; leaf infusions used to treat burns, scalds and frost bite; leaves and bark source of tannin and dyes; timber source; cultivated as ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987

Fagus sylvatica 

Europe; cultivated

European beech nuts eaten fresh, dried or roasted, in cooking or as coffee substitute, oil source of salad oil and butter substitute, also as an illuminant; timber; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Lithocarpus cornea

S. China

  evergreen tree; ground acorns eaten, marketed locally; wood used for poles, carpentry, utensils, wagons,  Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984
Lithocarpus densiflorus

Asia, introduced W. USA

tanoak; tanbark oak acorns mature end of second season; acorns leached in hot water to remove tannins, dried, ground and eaten by native Americans Krochmal, 1982
Lithocarpus philippinensis

Philippines

ulayan tree; acorns eaten roasted or boiled, also used in candies FAO, 1984
Nothofagus procera

Chile

rauli roble deciduous tree; acorns edible; timber used for furniture Menninger, 1977; Hoffmann, 1978; Mabberley, 1987
Quercus aegilops

subsp. persica

Iran, Iraq

manna oak deciduous tree; acorns used for making bread Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Quercus agrifolia

S.W. North America

coast live or Californian field oak evergreen tree; acorns eaten raw or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Saunders, 1976; Menninger, 1977
Quercus alba

E. North America

white or Quebec oak deciduous tree; acorns sweet, eaten dried, boiled or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking or used as coffee substitute; important source of construction timber and fuel; basketry Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Quercus coccifera

Mediterranean

kermes oak evergreen shrub, acorns ripening in second year, formerly eaten Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; 
Quercus emoryi

S. Arizona, New Mexico

Emory or blackjack oak; bellota evergreen tree; acorns sweet and palatable, eaten by native Americans and Mexicans; timber source; good watershed protection; browsed Howes, 1948; Kearney and Peebles, 1951;

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; USDA, 1988

Quercus frainetto

Balkans

Hungarian oak tree; ground acorns used as a coffee substitute; cultivated as an ornamental Davison, 1994
Quercus gambelii

W. North America

Gambel or shin oak deciduous tree; ground acorns edible, used as flour; browsed by game and livestock Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Mabberley, 1987; USDA, 1988
Quercus garryana

British Columbia to California

Garry, western or Oregon white oak tree; acorns highly palatable, eaten by native Americans; important timber tree; browsed by cattle and sheep Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; USDA, 1988
Quercus glabra

Japan

  acorns eaten locally Camus, 1936-74; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Rosengarten, 1984
Quercus glauca

Himalayas

  acorns eaten Menninger, 1977
Quercus grisea

S.W. North America

grey, evergreen, live or Mexican blue oak tree or shrub; acorns eaten by native Americans Hedrick, 1972
Quercus ilex

subsp. ilex

Mediterranean excluding the Iberian Peninsula

holm oak, holly oak; cultivated evergreen tree; acorns occasionally eaten; oak timber used for furniture; galls used for tanning; also planted as an ornamental Kuzeneva, 1936; Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Camus, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
subsp. rotundifolia

Spain, Portugal, N. Africa

  evergreen tree, cultivated in Spain and Portugal for its acorns, which are roasted and eaten, also source of oil Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977
Quercus kelloggii 

California 

California black or Kellogg oak deciduous tree; acorns used by Indians for food; browsed by game and livestock; wood used for fuel Saunders, 1976; Menninger, 1977; 

USDA, 1988

Quercus libani

Middle East

Lebanon oak deciduous tree; acorns roasted and eaten Townsend and Guest, 1980
Quercus lobata

California

California or valley white oak massive tree; ground acorns formerly a favourite food of native Americans; important timber tree Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Saunders, 1976; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; USDA, 1988
Quercus macrocarpa

North America

bur oak acorns large, eaten raw or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking Menninger, 1977
Quercus macrolepis

S. Balkan, Aegean

camata, camatina or valonia oak evergreen tree; ripe acorns eaten boiled or raw; cups - "valonia" and unripe fruits - "carnatas" or "carnatina" used for tanning Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Quercus marilandica

E. USA

black jack oak acorns eaten Howes, 1948
Quercus nigra

S.E. USA

black jack or possum oak tree; acorns formerly used by Indians for food; wood for fuel Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Quercus oblongifolia

S.W. USA

evergreen or live oak tree or shrub; acorns eaten by native Americans Hedrick, 1972
Quercus petraea

Europe

sessile oak acorns eaten Mabberley, 1987
Quercus phellos

N.E. North America

willow oak acorns eaten Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Quercus prinus

S. USA

basket, chestnut, chinquapin or cow oak deciduous tree; acorns sweet, 4 cm long, eaten raw or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking; acorns eaten by livestock; important source of tanbark; timber Camus, 1936-74; Hedrick, 1972; Saunders, 1976; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Quercus robur

Europe, Mediterranean

English, French, Scandinavian, Polish, black or truffle oak deciduous tree; acorns bitter, used as famine food, ground acorns used as coffee substitute; acorns eaten by pigs; sweet manna-like exudate used as sweetener; important timber tree; wood source of acetic acid; bark and galls source of tannin; galls source of acetic acid Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Quercus stellata

E. USA

iron or post oak tree or shrub; acorns eaten raw or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking; wood for charcoal Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Quercus suber

S. Europe

cork oak evergreen tree; acorns sometimes eaten roasted; thick bark source of commercial cork Hedrick, 1972;

Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

Quercus undulata

California

Rocky Mountain scrub or wavyleaf oak low shrub; acorns sweet, eaten by native Americans; wood used for fuel; bark used for tanning Camus, 1936-54; Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977
Quercus virginiana

E. North America

live oak acorns eaten raw or roasted by native Americans, also ground for baking, also source of sweet cooking oil; timber formerly important for ship-building; bark used for tanning Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

 

GUTTIFERAE; fruit a drupe, berry or septicidal capsule
 
Allanblackia floribunda

West Africa 

tallow tree; kisidwe seeds edible, source of oils, used as a butter substitute, suitable for soap making; seedcake too bitter cattle food Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Allanblackia stuhlmannii

Tanzania

  evergreen tree; seeds yield an edible fat used in cooking, as an illuminant and liniment. Seeds marketed; potential plantation crop FAO, 1983; Peters et al., 1992
Allanblackia ulugurensis

Tanzania

  evergreen tree; seeds yield an edible fat used in cooking and as an illuminant; sap produces a yellow dye. Seeds exported; potential plantation crop FAO, 1983; Peters et al., 1992
Garcinia conrauana

Cameroon

  seeds edible Menninger, 1977
Garcinia cowa

Assam, Myanmar

  aril and pericarp good flavour Mabberley, 1977
Garcinia indica

tropical Asia

cocum; kokum fruit pulp edible, seeds source of edible fat - "kokum" or "Goa butter", pericarp used to flavour curries Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1987
Garcinia kola

West Africa

bitter or false kola pulp eaten raw, rind used in curries, seeds eaten raw, chewed with a bitter, astringent and resinous taste; root a chewstick Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992
Garcinia lateriflora

Philippines

  seeds edible Menninger, 1977
Garcinia mangostana

Malesia; cultivated, not known in the wild

mangosteen evergreen tree; arils delicious, one of the best tropical fruit; seeds eaten raw or in various preparations; rind used for tanning and source of black dye; wood used for cabinet work and construction

Seeds contain 45% fat

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel,1991
Garcinia planchonii

Viet Nam, N. Laos

  seeds edible, acidic pulp edible, sun dried for storage Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Mesua ferrea

Indo-Malesia

ironwood fruit with a rind like that of a chestnut, resembles a chestnut in size, shape substance and taste; timber very hard, formerly used for lances; sacred tree in India; flowers used medicinally, cosmetically and to scent the stuffing of pillows Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Pentadesma butyracea

West Africa

butter, candle or tallow tree; black mango young seeds eaten, old seeds source of "Sierra Leone, Kanga or lamy butter", used for cooking, soap, margarine and candles Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

 

HIPPOCASTANACEAE; fruit a capsule
 
Aesculus californica

California

Californian buckeye deciduous tree or shrub; seeds boiled or roasted and leached, toxic if eaten raw, formerly much eaten by Californian native Americans Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Saunders, 1976; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Aesculus hippocastanum

Balkans to Himalayas

horse-chestnut deciduous tree; seeds bitter and inedible unless leached, may be used as coffee substitute; horse medicine; leaves and husks yield a yellow dye; timber of limited use; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Aesculus indica

Himalayas

Indian horse-chestnut deciduous tree; seeds edible, eaten by hill tribes as famine food; seed oil used externally for rheumatic complaints; fruits given to horses for colic; browse lopped for livestock; wood used to building, packing cases, troughs, etc. Howes, 1948; Mabberley, 1987; Rathore, 1993 
Aesculus octandra

S.E. USA

yellow, big or sweet buckeye starchy seeds roasted and leached for several days to remove toxic aesculin before eaten by native Americans - a nutritious food Krochmal, 1982
Aesculus parviflora

S. USA

buckeye fruit eaten boiled or roasted Hedrick, 1972
Aesculus pavia

S.E. USA

little, red or scarlet buckeye; firecracker plant starch extracted from seeds; ground seeds toxic to fish and possibly livestock; seeds used to relieve headache Krochmal, 1982

 

IRVINGIACEAE; fruit a capsule, samara, rarely a berry or drupe, often a schizocarp of dry and sometimes samaroid or fleshy mericarps
 
Irvingia gabonensis  dika nut; bread tree; wild mango large tree; drupe 5-6 cm long; pulp eaten, seed ground cooked to make dika bread, also source of an edible oil, dika butter, formerly considered as a substitute for cocoa butter; seed oil used for making soap Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

 

JUGLANDACEAE; fruit a nut or drupe-like
 
Carya alba

North America

shagbark or shellbark hickory an important food of native Americans, also marketed and exported; timber for wagons, agricultural implements and tool handles; fuel Hedrick, 1972
Carya aquatica

S.E. USA

water or swamp hickory, bitter or wild pecan nuts small, astringent, sometimes eaten; source of a brown dye Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982
Carya carolinae-

septentrionalis

S.E. USA

Caroline hickory, southern shagbark hickory nuts sweet, edible Krochmal, 1982
Carya cathayensis

E. China

Chinese hickory; mountain walnut nuts edible, used in sweetmeats; wood used for tool handles Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984
Carya cordiformis

E. North America, S. Appalachians

bitternut, swamp hickory nuts bitter, rarely eaten by native Americans; bark formerly used in making chair seats; wood used for yokes and hoops Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Carya glabra 

E. North America

broom, hognut, oval, redheart, red or pignut hickory nuts variable, hard and tough, kernel sometimes sweetish but usually astringent, eaten by native Americans; timber used for wagons, agricultural implements and tool handles; fuel Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Carya illinoinensis 

S. USA; widely cultivated

pecan; Illinois nut, sof-shelled hickery common dessert nut, especially thin-shelled ones; used like hazelnuts (Corylus spp.) or walnuts (Juglans sp.) in food; seed oil formerly used by native Americans to season food, now used in cosmetics, etc.; timber for veneer, furniture, flooring and panelling; grown as ornamental; first cultivar selected in 1846, now over 500 names Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;

Carya laciniosa 

central North America; cultivated

big, western, botton shellbark or king nut hickory nuts thick shelled, considered to be of fine quality, marketed; nuts eaten by native Americans, source of the fermented drink "powcohiccorir"; wood used for agricultural implements and tool handles; fuel Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Carya myristiciformis

S.E. USA

numeg or bitter water hickory nuts with very thick shell, sometimes eaten by native Americans Howes, 1948; Menninger 1977; Krochmal, 1982
Carya ovalis

North America

smaller loose bark hickory nuts small, sometimes eaten by native Americans Howes, 1948; Krochmal, 1982
Carya ovata 

E. North America; cultivated

shagbark, scalybark, white, red heart or upland hickory nuts edible, marketed - commercial hickory nuts; wood used for wagons, axe handles, basketry and fuel Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Carya pallida

S.E. USA

sand, pale or pale leaf hickory nuts with thick, hard shell, eaten by native Americans Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982
Carya texana

var. villosa

S-central USA

Texas, Buckley's or black hickory small nuts often produced from young plants, sometimes eaten Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977 
Carya tomentosa 

E. North America

mockernut; white hickory nut with very hard, thick shell; kernel sweet and in some varieties as large as that of shellbark but difficult to extract. A variety with prominent angles known as "square nut". Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Carya tonkinensis

N.E. India, Viet Nam, S. China

may-chau kernels source of edible oil, also used as illuminant Howes, 1948
Juglans ailanthifolia

var. cordiformis China, Japan; cultivated

cordate, Japanese or Siebold walnut; heatnut nuts small, edible; husk used as piscicide; wood used for gunstocks, cabinet work; bark exocarp used in dyeing; hardy, cultivated for nuts in Canada; grown as an ornamental; rootstock for cultivars of J. regia Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972; Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Juglans australia

Argentina, S. Bolivia 

Argentine walnut nut small with thick shell, edible; wood prized, especially for making guitars National Research Council, 1989
Juglans baccata

Caribbean

walnut nuts edible, rich in starch, source of oil Hedrick, 1972
Juglans boliviana

N. Bolivia, S. and Central Peru; mountains

Bolivian black walnut nuts excellent, good quality; grows well in Costa Rica Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; National Research Council, 1989
Juglans californica

S. California

black walnut fruit with thick husk, kernels eaten Krochmal, 1982
Juglans cathayensis

central China

  kernels eaten locally; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Juglans cinerea

E. North America; cultivated

butternut; lemon nut; oil nut; white walnut kernels edible, with strong oily taste, used to thicken pottage, seed oil used for seasoning, immature kernels pickled; sap source of butternut sugar; timber for furniture and interior finishing; nuts laxative, used to treat intermittent fever, tape worm and fungal infection; inner root bark mildly cathartic; green husks yield yellow to orange dye; cultivated for shade  Howes, 1948; Uphof. 1968; Hedrick, 1972;

Usher, 1974; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984;

Juglans duclouxiana

Asian mountains; cultivated in China

  nuts edible Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Juglans hindsii

California

California black walnut, Hind's walnut nuts edible, harvested from the wild; grown in California as a street tree; rootstock used for J. regia Howes, 1948; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984
Juglans kamaonia

W. Himalayas

  nuts edible Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Juglans major

S.W. North America

Arizona, Arizona black or little walnut; nogal sylvestro nuts small, eaten by native Americans; leaves astringent Howes, 1948; Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984
Juglans mandshurica

N. China

Manchurian walnut nuts edible; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948
Juglans microcarpa

W. North America; sometimes cultivated

Texas, Texas black, little or river walnut nuts small, sweet, edible Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Krochmal 1982; Rosengarten, 1984
Juglans neotropica

W. Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador; highlands

Ecuador walnut semievergreen; nuts thick-shelled, edible, marketed locally, used in sweetmeats; wood strong, used in furniture; occasionally cultivated Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974; Rosengarten, 1984; National Research Council, 1989
Juglans nigra

E. North America; cultivated

black, American or eastern black walnut nuts thick-shelled, kernels sweet, edible, used in confectionery; timber prized for cabinet making, furniture, gunstocks, etc.; rootstock for cultivars of J. regia; husk for treating intestinal worms, syphilis, ulcers, fruit juice laxative; nuts and bark yield brown, green or blue dye Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Juglans regia 

S.E. Europe to W. Asia; cultivated

English or Persian walnut walnuts of commerce; timber excellent cabinet wood, furniture, gunstocks, veneer; seed oil used in cooking, paints and soap; sap source of sugar; dye from husks as floor stain; cultivated as ornamental  Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;
Juglans venezuelensis

N. Venezuela; coastal mountains

Venezuelan walnut nuts edible, now rare National Research Council, 1989 
Pterocarya fraxinifolia

W. Asia; cultivated

Caucasian wingnut nut edible; wood used for matches and clogs; cultivated as ornamental Uphof, 1968; Hedrick, 1972;

Usher, 1974; Mabberley, 1987

Pterocarya rhoifolia

Japan

Japanese wingnut nut edible; wood used for chopsticks, clogs and matches Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974
Pterocarya stenoptera

China; cultivated

wingnut nut edible; bark medicinal Uphof, 1968; Usher, 1974

 

LAURACEAE; fruit a 1-seeded berry or drupe, rarely dry and indehiscent
 
Beilschmiedia bancroftii

Queensland

canary ash; yellow walnut; 

wanga

ground kernels eaten by Aborigines; good timber Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Lazarides et al., 1993
Beilschmiedia mannii

West Africa

  seed eaten Peters et al., 1992
Cryptocarya alba

Chile

peumo oily seed kernels cooked and eaten in times of scarcity; bark source of tannin; wood for firewood and charcoal Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Hoffman, 1978
Cryptocarya latifolia

South Africa

ntonga nuts fruit used locally for their oil; fatty kernels used by Zulus for flaying leather Howes, 1948; Mabberley, 1987 
Cryptocarya moschata 

Brazil

Brazilian nutmeg tree, pungent seed used as spice; timber hard, yellowish, esteemed Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Endiandra insignis

Queensland

Boomban roasted, pounded and leached kernel eaten by Aborigines Menninger, 1977
Endiandra palmerstonii

Queensland

Queensland walnut pounded kernel eaten by Aborigines Menninger, 1977; Lazarides et al., 1993
Umbellaria californica

S.W. USA

California laurel bay or olive; bay tree; bay laurel; Oregon, Pacific, black, white or yellow myrtle; Cocos cinnamon bush,  aromatic evergreen, drupe with 1 nut-like seed <2cm in diameter; fruit and seed eaten raw, roasted or ground to a flour and baked by native Americans; root bark used for beverage; aromatic dried leaves as flavouring; leaves used in internal and external medicines and flea control; good timber Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982; Mabberley, 1987

 

LECYTHIDACEAE; fruit a capsule, drupe or berry, seeds often nut-like
 
Barringtonia asiatica

Madagascar to Queensland; introduced Caribbean 

  fruits eaten as a vegetable; seeds oleaginous, toxic Payens, 1967; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Barringtonia edulis

Fiji; semi-cultivated

cut-nut fruit insipid, eaten raw or cooked; seeds eaten raw, flavour of raw peanuts Payens, 1967; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Barringtonia niedenzuana

Melanesia; semi-cultivated

cut-nut seeds eaten raw, flavour of raw peanuts Payens, 1967; Menninger, 1977
Barringtonia novae-hyberniae

Melanesia; semi-cultivated

cut-nut seeds eaten raw, flavour of raw peanuts Menninger, 1977
Barringtonia procera

New Guinea, Micronesia; planted

nua nut tree with ovoid drupes; seed eaten on Santa Cruz; young leaves eaten as a vegetable Payens, 1967; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Duke, 1989
Barringtonia scortechinii

Borneo

  seed used to flavour food Menninger, 1977
Bertholletia excelsa

South America

Brazil, Amazon or Pará nut; butternut; creamnut;  fruit a large woody capsule, seeds with hard, woody testa and oily endosperm, takes 14 months to mature; largely harvested from the wild, fruit being split open with an axe; seeds with hard woody testa, eaten as a dessert nut and in confectionary, also a source of commercial edible oil, also used in soap Howes, 1948; Hill, 1952; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982, 1986; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988; ; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Careya arborea

Sri Lanka

patana oak; slow match tree seeds edible; leaves used for silkworms Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Chydenanthus excelsus

New Guinea

  seeds eaten Menninger, 1977
Eschweilera grandiflora

Guyana

  seeds edible Hedrick, 1972
Eschweilera jarana

South America

  seeds edible; timber for sleepers Prance and Mori, 19979
Lecythis lanceolata

South America

  seeds edible Howes, 1948
Lecythis minor

New Granada

  seeds edible but contain toxic selenium analogue of the amino-cystathionine causing temporary loss of hair and nails and nausea when growing on soils high in selenium Hedrick, 1972; Prance and Mori, 1979; Mabberley, 1987
Lecythis ollaria

tropical America

pot nut seeds edible but contain toxic selenium analogue of the amino-cystathionine causing temporary loss of hair and nails and nausea when growing on soils high in selenium Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Prance and Mori, 1979; Mabberley, 1987
Lecythis usitata 

South America; Amazon rain forest, cultivated

paradise or sapucaia nut tall tree; fruit woody, large, dehiscent; seeds (nuts) 30-40, irregularly oblong, resembling Brazil nuts but more rounded with thinner and softer shell, kernel white, creamy texture and superior sweet flavour, delicious; kernels eaten raw, roasted or in confectionary, highly nutritious, source of oil

62% fat, 20% protein

Howes, 1948; Hill, 1952; Prance and Mori, 1979; Rosengarten, 1984; Macrae et al., 1993
Lecythis zabucajo

Brazil, Guyana; cultivated

sapucaia nut oily seeds (sapucaia nuts) c 5 cm long, edible, with delicate flavour suitable for chocolates Howes, 1948; Hill, 1952; Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1987
Planchonia careya

Australia

cocky apple fruit large, with adherent calyx, eaten by Aborigines; source of fuel, toxins, medicines and fibre Hedrick, 19772; Lazarides and Hince, 1993

 

LEGUMINOSAE subfamily CAESALPINIOIDEAE; fruit usually a dry legume (pod), usually dehiscent
 
Cordeauxia edulis 

central Somalia, Ogaden 

ye-eb, yeheb or yehib seed eaten raw or boiled, potential as a dessert nut; source of a red dye; potential for development and commercial exploitation Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; National Academy of Sciences, 1979; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Lemuropisum edule

S.W. Madagascar

tara nut dehiscent legume with 6-12 sweet, starchy seeds which are eaten raw; shrub browsed by goats Willing, 1989
Tylosema esculentum

southern Africa

marama or maramba bean pod hard, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, seeds 1-6, eaten as a dessert nut, tuber also edible. Plant difficult to cultivate Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; National Academy of Sciences, 1979; Arnold et al., 1985; Peters et al., 1992

 

LEGUMINOSAE subfamily MIMOSOIDEAE; fruit usually a dry pod
 
     
Pithecellobium bubalinum MalaysiaPithecellobium dulce

Central America; naturalized throughout the tropics

Madras thorn; Manila tamarind armed shrub or tree; seed oil edible, aril edible, pulp made into a lemonade; seed oil used for making soap, seed meal fed to livestock; bark, leaves and seeds source of tannin; browsed by livestock; source of fuelwood, grown for shade and hedges Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Pithecellobium jiringa

Myanmar to W. Malesia

jering; ngapi nut seed marketed locally, with powerful smell and flavour which disappears on cooking. Eaten raw, salted, boiled or cooked in coconut milk or oil, surfeit can cause kidney damage due to presence of crystals; reputed good for diabetes; pod source of dye Howes, 1948; Whitmore, 1972; Menninger, 1977

 

LEGUMINOSAE subfamily PAPILIONOIDEAE; fruit usually a dry pod (legume) usually dehiscent
 
Apios americana

North America; occasionally cultivated

potato or wild bean, groundnut; Indian potato climber; sweet tubers boiled or roasted, an important Indian food and potato substitute; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; National Academy of Sciences, 1979; Mabberley, 1987
Arachis hypogaea 

South America; cultivated throughout the tropics

peanut, groundnut annual herb with indehiscent fruit with 1-6 seeds, gynophore lengthening, reflexing and stiffening to bury the fruit; seeds edible raw or roasted, widely used as a dessert nut and as source of groundnut oil used in margarine Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987

Arachis villosulicarpa

South America

  seeds edible, locally cultivated Rosengarten, 1984 
Castanospermum australe

N.E. Australia, New Caledonia, Vanuatu; cultivated elsewhere 

Australian or Morton Bay chestnut tree of coastal forests with indehiscent, fruit turgid, 2-valved, with 2-5 chestnut-like seeds; seeds (black beans) leached, roasted and eaten by Aborigines, toxic if eaten raw; decorative timber; street tree Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979; Mabberley, 1987
Glycine max 

E. Asia, now widely cultivated

soya bean or soybean annual herb bearing dehiscent, ca. 3-seeded pods containing 30-45% protein; newly germinated seeds used as "bean sprouts" in Chinese cooking; one of the world's most important legume crops, processed beans as soynuts for dessert and food industry; soya meal and protein used industrially for plastics, adhesives, waterproofing, synthetic fibre, fire-fighting foam, etc. Rosengarten, 1984; Menninger, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Inocarpus fagifer

Malesia to Pacific Islands, occasionally cultivated elsewhere

Tahiti chestnut medium sized forest tree with kidney shaped, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit borne in terminal clusters; chestnut flavoured, fleshy seeds eaten raw, boiled or roasted when nearly ripe, moderately nutritious, palatable but sometimes hard to digest, known as aila or lala in Neo-melanesian, staple food for some islanders; wood used for mouldings and interior finishing seeds 80% carbohydrates (starch), 10% protein, 7% fat Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Verdcourt, 1979; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987; Macrae et al., 1993

Macrotyloma geocarpum

West Africa; cultivated

Hausa or Kersting's groundnut annual herb with geocarpic fruit; seeds eaten; mainly cultivated in West Africa; potential for further research and development Menninger, 1977; National Academy of Sciences, 1979; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Vigna subterranea

tropical Africa; cultivated 

Bambara groundnut annual herb with geocarpic fruit; seed eaten green and raw or mature and cooked; widely cultivated Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; National Academy of Sciences, 1979; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al. 1992 

 

MONIMIACEAE; fruit a head of drupes or nuts
 
Laurelia sempervirens

Peru and Chile

Peruvian nutmeg, tepa aromatic seeds used as a spice Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1987

 

MORACEAE; fruit a drupe
 
Artocarpus altilis

Pacific, widely cultivated

breadfruit; breadnut; pana de pepita evergreen, monoecious tree; seeds (fruits from female trees) roasted or boiled and eaten, fruit pulp cooked and eaten; staple food in Polynesia, sliced fruit fermented under storage and baked; browsed by livestock; bark fibre and latex used for caulking; wood used for canoes, surfboards, crates, light construction; cultivated for windbreaks, shade and as ornamental Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Artocarpus elasticus

W. Malesia

  ripe seeds roasted and eaten, seeds source of small quantities of a solid oil; source of bark cloth Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1977; Purseglove, 1987
Artocarpus heterophyllus

Western Ghats, India; widely cultivated in the tropics

jack or jak nut; jak fruit large evergreen, monoecious tree, seeds (jak nuts) eaten raw, grilled or boiled, pulp eaten raw or variously preserved, young fruit pulp boiled as a vegetable, pickled or canned; browsed by livestock; good timber, bark source of tannin and yellow dye; grown as shade tree in coffee and areca plantations; various uses in local medicine Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991 
Artocarpus integer

Myanmar, Malesia; cultivated

champedak evergreen, monoecious tree; fruit pulp disgusting stench, immature fruits used in soups, pulp of ripe fruits eaten; seeds eaten roasted or boiled; young leaves eaten; wood used for building, furniture and boats; bark used for cordage; latex used in preparation of lime Menninger, 1977; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Artocarpus odoratissimus

Borneo, cultivated in the Philippines

marang evergreen tree; seeds eaten roasted or boiled, pulp eaten fresh, cooked as a vegetable or in cakes Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Artocarpus ovatus

Philippines

anubing tree; roasted seeds eaten; timber strong and durable, used for construction FAO, 1984; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Brosimum alicastrum 

central America

breadnut; alicastrun; snakewood evergreen tree, seeds (bread nuts) boiled eaten in times of scarcity or roasted for a beverage; latex potable; leaves and fruit for fodder; wood for crates, tool handles and fuel; browse; various local medicinal applications Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Treculia africana 

tropical Africa

African breadfruit; mozinda numerous small seeds embedded pulp of massive fruit; roasted, fried or boiled seeds eaten as dessert nut; seed embryo ground to meal and eaten Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

 

OLACACEAE; fruit usually a 1-seeded drupe or nut
 
Anacolosa frutescens

India to Philippines

galo nut tree; nut resembling a filbert, kernel eaten fresh or roasted, of good flavour and quality; pulp eaten fresh or boiled; potential for domestication; wood for house posts Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Coula edulis 

tropical West Africa; cultivated in plantations

Gabon nut, African walnut tree; drup 3-4 cm long; seeds (Gabon nuts) eaten raw, cooked or fermented, marketed locally, seeds source of edible oil; timber a commercial mahogany substitute, used for construction and charcoal Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992; Macrae et al., 1993
Heisteria parvifolia

West Africa

  shrub; kernels eaten Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992
Ongokea gore

West Africa

  tree; fruit an offensive smelling drupe; ripe flesh eaten; seed kernels little eaten; seed yields a drying oil - isano oil Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Scorodocarpus borneensis

Malesia

kulim fruit edible; hard, onion-scented wood used for construction Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Strombosia grandifolia

West Africa

  kernels roasted and eaten Menninger, 1977
Strombosia pustulata

West Africa

  evergreen tree; seed kernel eaten as famine food Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992
Strombosia scheffleri

tropical Africa

  kernels eaten in small quantities in times of scarcity as they can cause vomiting Menninger, 1977
Ximenia americana 

pantropical

tallow nut; wild, beach, hog, tallowwood or wild plum; wild olive densely branched, spinose shrub;, usually deciduous; drupe ovoid, juicy, 1-seeded; raw or cooked pulp eaten, kernels white, palatability varies, purgative, eaten raw or roasted, seed oil used for cooking and as cosmetic; timber substitute for white sandalwood, used for fuel Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1983; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; 

Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Peters et al., 1992; Macrae et al., 1993


 

PROTEACEAE; fruit a follicle, nut, achene or drupe
 
Brabejum stellatifolium

South Africa; cultivated

wild, Hottentots or bitter almond kernels require leaching before eating, formerly used as a coffee substitute; grown as hedges, noteworthy as first indigenous tree to be cultivated in South Africa Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Palmer and Pitman, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Finschia carrii

W. Pacific

  kernels eaten Menninger, 1977
Finschia chloroxantha

Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands

  tree; kernels eaten, locally important food; timber for cabinet work; potential ornamental Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Finschia ferruginiflora

New Guinea

  kernels cooked and eaten Menninger, 1977
Finschia rufa

W.Pacific

  kernels eaten Menninger, 1977
Finschia sp.

W. Pacific

  nuts eaten in Vanuatu  
Gevuina avellana

Chile

Chilean wild nut; gevuina nut; Chile nut; avellano evergreen tree, hazel-flavoured seeds eaten fresh or roasted; wood for furniture, picture frames, roof shingles, grown as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Grevillea annulifera

W. Australia

  shrub; seeds hard-shelled, kernel edible Menninger, 1977
Grevillea elaeocarpifolia

Micronesia

  kernels eaten Menninger, 1977
Helicia cochinchinensis

Indo-China, China, Japan

  seeds edible; wood used for fuel Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Helicia diversifolia

Queensland

  source of "helicia nuts" Mabberley, 1987
Hicksbeachia pinnatifolia N. Australia monkey, rose or red bopple nut tree, seed eaten; potential as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Kermadecia leptophylla   nuts require lengthy washing and cooking before eating Menninger, 1977
Macadamia integrifolia 

Queensland; rainforest, cultivated

macadamia (smooth, thin-shell type); Queensland nut; Australian bush nut seeds edible - "macadamia" or "Queensland nut", taste like hazel nuts, sold either in endocarp and then cracked like almonds or shelled, roasted and salted Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Tow, 1989; Verheij and Coronel, 1991; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Macadamia ternifolia

Queensland

macadamia (thick-shell) seeds edible Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove,1987; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Macadamia tetraphylla 

Queensland, New South Wales

macadamia (rough-shell type) fruit dehiscing on tree, seeds edible, roasted and eaten in Tonga Thaman, 1976; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Panopsis suaveolens

Costa Rica

palo de papa; palon de la montañas nuts very hard, kernels edible Menninger, 1977

 

ROSACEAE; fruit a head of follicles or achenes in swollen hypanthium or a pome, rarely a capsule
 
Prinsepia utilis

Himalayas

  deciduous thorny shrub; kernel source of an edible oil, also used as an illuminant Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Prunus armeniaca

N. China; widely cultivated in Eurasia and America

apricot, Chinese almond cultivated in N. China for its edible kernels, where it has been grown since 2000 BC, kernels smaller than the almond but used in similar ways; fruit pulp the apricot of commerce Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Prunus bucharica

Central Asia

  suffructose, exceptionally drought resistant, 98.5% bitter kernels, 1,5% sweet kernels; kernels source of edible oil; root bark yields yellow dye and tanning Kovalev, 1941
Prunus dulcis 

W. Asia; cultivated

almond kernel eaten as a dessert nut, used in confectionery and as almond butter; seed oil used medicinally; cultivated as an ornamental Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Bianchini et al., 1988;
Prunus fasciculata

S.W. USA

desert or wild almond; wild peach kernels baked and eaten; browsed Kearney and Peebles, 1951; Hedrick, 1972; Krochmal, 1982 
Prunus ulmifolia

Turkestan

  kernels edible; attractive, early flowering tree Kovalev, 1941

 

RUTACEAE; fruit schizocarp, berry or drupe
 
Calodendrum capensis

East Africa to Cape

Cape chestnut nuts eaten; seeds source of an oil used in cosmetics; timber useful; cultivated as an ornamental Mabberley, 1987; Martin et al., 1988

 

SANTALACEAE; fruit a nut or drupe, 1-seeded
 
Santalum acuminata

Australia; cultivated

quandong; native peach root parasitic tree; fruit globose, flesh eaten raw or cooked; seed shell hard, kernel oily, nutritious, usually eaten roasted, flavour harsh; nuts as necklaces, etc.; timber for cabinet making and engraving; kernel 60% fat, 25% protein Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Macrae et al., 1993
Santalum spicatum

W. Australia

sandalwood parasitic tree; fruit pulp thin, seed shell thin, crushed by hand, kernels eaten; timber, fuelwood Menninger, 1977

 

SAPINDACEAE Fruit fleshy or dry, dehiscent or indehiscent, seeds with arils or sarcotestas
 
Alectryon macrococcus

Hawaii

mahoe aril and kernel eaten Menninger, 1977
Blighia sapida

West Africa; cultivated

akee evergreen tree; ripe fruit pulp eaten fried or boiled, toxic if green or overripe, seed coat toxic but fine flavour when cooked and roasted with the fleshy aril Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1972
Cubilia cubili

central Malesia

kubili nut seeds eaten boiled or roasted, leaves used as vegetable; cultivated in Java Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Cupania americana

Mexico

  seeds sweet, chestnut-like, eaten in the Caribbean, also source of fermented liquor Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Deinbollia grandifolia

West Africa

  fruit pulp edible, seeds slightly oily and eaten Menninger, 1977
Glenniea penangensis

Malesia

  kernel boiled and eaten Menninger, 1977
Lepisanthes fruticosa 

Malesia (not in New Guinea); cultivated

lunan nut fruit with edible flesh and kernel, the latter roasted and chestnut flavoured; root used in traditional medicine Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Magonia pubescens

Paraguay, Brazil

tingui seed oil used for cooking and soap making Menninger, 1977
Melicoccus bijugatus

Caribbean

Spanish lime; honney berry; genip; mamoncillo fruit pulp eaten, seeds usually eaten after roasting Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Nephelium lappaceum

Malesia; widely cultivated in the humid tropics

rambutan; rampostan evergreen tree; fruit pulp edible, seeds bitter and narcotic, sometimes roasted and eaten, source of an edible cocoa-butter; fruit and seeds source of dyes; wood used in general construction; fruit used in traditional medicine

Seed contains up to 31% dry weight of fat

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Nephelium ramboutan-ake

Philippines; cultivated

pulasan fruit pulp edible; seeds boiled or roasted for a cocoa-like beverage, also source of an edible cocoa-butter, also used as an illuminant Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Paullinia cupana

South America; cultivated

guarana climbing shrub; whole roasted seeds source of commercial "guarana", containing 4.2% caffeine; seeds pounded for a bread, seeds with cassava and water source of alcoholic beverage; used in local medicine as stimulant and digestive Hedrick, 1973; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1978
Paullinia subrotunda

Asia

  aril and seeds eaten Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Pometia pinnata

Malesia

Fijian longan; langsir; malugai raw fruit eaten; oily seeds boiled or roasted and eaten; timber used locally for construction purposes

4.4% fat, 4.4% protein, 39.9% fibre

Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
Sapindus indicum

Asia

soapberry fruit latex caustic, ripe seed eaten, contain 50% oil Menninger, 1977
Schleichera oleosa

Indo-Malesia

lac tree; Ceylon oak; kussum; kosumba; gum lac unripe fruit pickled; aril eaten; seeds commercial source of the edible "Macassar oil", used for candles, hair dressing, batik work, soap and illuminant; leaves edible; timber hard, used for mortars; bark for tanning; host of lac insects Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987

 

SAPOTACEAE; fruit fleshy, indehiscent
 
Argania spinosa

Morocco; cultivated

argan tree seed oil used for cooking and illuminant; drupe eaten by livestock Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Baillonella toxisperma

Nigeria to Zaire

djave; false shea butternut; African pearwood forest tree; fruits source of edible seed oil; good timber Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Falconer, 1990; Peters et al. 1992
Diploknema butyracea

India

Indian butter tree; pholwara deciduous tree; kernel source of an edible phulwara butter; seed cake edible, source of fat used in soap; durable timber used for cabinet work, construction and fuel

kernel contains 60-67% fat

Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987
Madhuca longifolia

India

illipe nut; mahua kernel commercial source of "illipe butter" used in margarine and soap; seed-cake, "mahua meal", used as worm-killer on lawns; flowers edible Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Madhuca motleyana

Malesia

  seed source of edible oil Menninger, 1977
Palaquium amboinense 

S.E. Asia

  seed source of fat Menninger, 1977
Palaquium gutta 

Malaysia

gutta-percha evergreen tree; seed source of fat; latex commercial source of "gutta-percha" Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Palaquium hexandrum

Sumatra

  fruit sour, edible, seed source of fat, used for food Menninger, 1977
Palaquium philippense

Philippines

  seed source of fat, used for food and as an illuminant Menninger, 1977
Palaquium rostratum   fruit green, sweet and edible, seed source of a bitter oil Menninger, 1977
Pouteria caimito

Peru; cultivated

egg fruit; abiu evergreen tree; fruit 4-12 cm in diameter, seeds 1-5, edible, fresh mucilaginous pulp eaten  Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986
Pouteria campechiana

Central America, Caribbean

canistel; egg-fruit; yellow sapote fruit pulp edible, dehydrated, powdered and used as food additive; seed edible Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Pouteria glomerata

Central America

  seed edible Menninger, 1977
Pouteria obovata

Peru

lucuma seed edible; fruit pulp edible, dehydrated, powdered and used as food additive Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Pouteria sapota

Central America; cultivated

sapote; mammee zapote; marmalade plum fruit pulp edible, kernel large, oily, finely ground for a confection, also boiled, roasted, ground and mixed with cocoa; seed oil potential in soap, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries; wood used in construction, for carts and furniture  Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Pouteria viridis green apote    
Tieghemella heckelii

West Africa

makore; cherry mahogany; bacu, baku fleshy fruit; kernels source of cooking oil, also used for soap and medicine; timber a mahogany substitute Menninger, 1977; Peters et al., 1992
Vitellaria paradoxa 

N. tropical Africa

shea nut; shea butternut tree; fruit source of edible seed oil, shea butter, used in food and illumination, the fractionated shea oil commercial source of cocoa butter equivalents used in chocolate formulations; melliferous. Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

 

SIMMONDSIACEAE; fruit a loculicidal capsule, 2 empty locules
 
Simmondsia chinensis

S. California, Arizona and northern Mexico

jojoba; jajoba; goat, sheep or deer nut; wild hazel dioecious, evergreen shrub bearing 1-seeded, acorn-like capsules; seeds readily eaten by children, native Americans and caprivores, ground as a coffee substitute; seed oil substitute for spermwhale oil, widely used in cosmetics and industry Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Saunders, 1976; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984;

Mabberley, 1987


 

STAPHYLEACEAE; fruit a head of follicles, drupe or berry or inflated capsule
 
Staphylea bolanderi

California

California bladdernut shrub or tree; inflated capsule with edible seeds, seed oil sweet, used for cooking Krochmal, 1982
Staphylea pinnata

Europe

European bladder nut kernels taste of pistachio, eaten by children; cultivated as an ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Staphylea trifolia

N.E. USA

American bladdernut shrub or tree, inflated capsule with edible seeds; seeds sometimes eaten like a dessert nut, seed oil sweet, used for cooking; cultivated as an ornamental Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Krochmal, 1982

 

STERCULIACEAE; fruit dehiscent or indehiscent, fleshy to leathery or woody, often separating into mericarps
 
Brachychiton acerifolius

E. Australia

bottle tree, kurrajong deciduous tree; roasted seeds eaten; timber; Aborigine source of fibre; cultivated as an ornamental Tow, 1989; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Cola acuminata

West Africa to Angola, introduced in America; cultivated

Abatacola, kola or bata nut  evergreen tree, fruit edible, "nut" (seed) chewed as a masticatory and stimulant to promote digestion; used in cola drink; sun-dried seeds formerly exported as a source of caffeine; used in local medicine Dalziel, 1937; Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Cola anomala

Cameroon

Bamenda cola "nut" (seed) chewed as a masticatory to promote digestion; used in cola drink; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Cola caricaefolia

West Africa

false or monkey cola seed kernel eaten Dalziel, 1937; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Peters et al., 1992
Cola heterophylla

West Africa

monkey cola seed kernel eaten Menninger, 1977
Cola millenii

West Africa

false or monkey cola whole seed eaten Dalziel, 1937; Menninger, 1977
Cola nitida

West Africa; cultivated

kola nut; gbanja kola evergreen tree; fruit eaten as a masticatory and stimulant, used as an ingredient or flavouring in beverages and mineral waters Howes, 1948; Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1982; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1992
Cola rostrata

West Africa

  seed eaten Dalziel, 1937; Peters et al., 1992
Cola verticillata

West Africa

Owé kola, slippery cola kernel eaten, also chewed as a masticatory to promote digestion; used in cola drink; caffeine present Dalziel, 1937; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987
Heritiera fomes

Indo-Malesia

  starchy seeds eaten as famine food after leaching tannins Menninger, 1977
Heritiera littoralia

coasts of Indian and Pacific Oceans

  seeds eaten with fish; timber for dhow masts Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Pterygota alata

India

Buddha's coconut seeds winged eaten; reputedly used as opium substitute; grown as a street tree Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 19987
Sterculia apetala

Central America

Panama tree oily seeds eaten raw, roasted or fried Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Sterculia balanghas

tropical E. Asia

  seeds roasted, chestnut flavour Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Sterculia chicha

N.E. South America

maranhao nut seeds eaten; seed oil used for lubrication, etc. Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987
Sterculia diversifolia

Australia

bottle tree seeds and young taproots eaten by Aborigines Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977
Sterculia foetida

Old World tropics

Java olive, sterculia nuts seeds eaten raw or roasted, taste like filberts, source of oil Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972;

Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

Sterculia guttata

tropical India

  seeds eaten Hedrick, 1972
Sterculia oblongata

Philippines

malaboho seeds eaten raw or roasted; root edible; bark fibre for cordage, wood for light carpentry and matches Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1984; Guzman et al., 1986; Verheij and Coronel, 1991
Sterculia quadrifida

Australia

peanut tree; gorarbar deciduous tree; roasted seeds eaten by Aborigines; also source of medicine and fibre Menninger, 1977;Tow, 1989; Lazarides and Hince, 1993
Sterculia rupestris

Australia

narrow leaved bottle tree roasted seeds eaten Menninger, 1977
Sterculia setigera

tropical Africa

  seeds eaten as famine food; source of a gum exudate Dalziel, 1937; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Purseglove, 1987; Peters et al., 1993
Sterculia treubii

Lesser Sunda Islands

  seeds eaten, also source of oil Menninger, 1977
Sterculia trichosiphon broad leaved bottle tree  roasted seeds eaten Menninger, 1977
Sterculia urceolata

Lesser Sunda Islands

  seeds eaten, also source of oil Menninger, 1977
Sterculia urens

India

  seeds roasted and eaten, also used as coffee substitute; source of "karaya gum" or "Indian tragacanth"  Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972;

Menninger, 1977; Mabberley, 1987

Theobroma bicolor

tropical central and South America

patashte evergreen tree; fruit 10-15 x 6-18 cm, seeds numerous, 1.6-3 x 0.8-1.3 cm; pulp eaten raw, seeds eaten cooked toasted or made into inferior chocolate; cocoa butter of good quality; pericarp used for containers FAO, 1986
Theobroma cacao

tropical South America; widely cultivated

cocoa tree; fruit 10-30 x 5-12 cm, seeds numerous; pulp eaten raw, made into jams or jellies, or fermented for alcohol or vinegar; seeds commercial source of cocoa butter for chocolate, contains stimulant theobromine, also used in cosmetics and industry; widely cultivated in the tropics Menninger, 1977; FAO, 1986; Mabberley, 1987; Purseglove, 1987

 

STYLOBASIACEAE; nut-like
 
Stylobasium spathulatum

Australia

nut bush nut eaten by Australian aborigines Brand and Cherikoff, 1985 

 

TILIACEAE; fruit a dry or not, dehiscent or indehiscent
 
Diplodiscus paniculatus

Philippines

baroba nut tree; starchy seeds boiled and eaten; bark used for cordage; wood for light construction and domestic utensils  Howes, 1948; Mabberley, 1987; Verheij and Coronel. 1991

 

TRAPACEAE; fruit indehiscent, persistent stony endocarp, one cotyledon retained in fruit
 
Trapa bicornis

S.E. Asia; cultivated 

ling nut annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten boiled, preserved, candied or ground into flour for baking; fruits make a bitter medicine for treating stomach complaints, spleen and ulcers; widely cultivated in China, Japan and Korea Howes, 1948; Rosengarten, 1984; Anderson, 1986; Mabberley, 1987
Trapa cochinchinensis

S.E. Asia

  annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten Hedrick, 1972
Trapa incisa

Japan, cultivated

  annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten Hedrick, 1972
Trapa natans

var. natans Eurasia, Africa, naturalized North America; cultivated
 
 

var. bispinosa

tropical Asia; cultivated
 
 
 
 
 
 

var. africana

Lake Victoria

European water chestnut, horn nut; Jesuit's nut, saligot, water calthrops

singhara nut

annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten, ground to flour or boiled, staple food in Neolithic
 
 
 
 
 
 

annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten raw, boiled, roasted, fried or ground into flour for baking, staple food for Hindus
 
 
 
 
 
 

annual aquatic herb; fruit eaten by the Waganda

Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987
 
 

Howes, 1948; Hedrick, 1972; Menninger, 1977; Rosengarten, 1984; Mabberley, 1987; Peters et al., 1992

Menninger, 1977


 

UMBELLIFERAE; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps facially united
 
Conopodium majus

W.Europe

earth or pig nut; arnut; jurnut; earth chestnut annual herb; globose root tubers eaten boiled or roasted Hedrick, 1972; Mabberley, 1977

 

VOCHYSIACEAE; fruit a loculicidal capsule or winged samara with accrescent calyx
 
Erisma japura

Amazonia

japurá; quaruba branca evergreen tree; indehiscent fruit 12-13 x 4 cm, seeds 1, 3-4 cm long; seeds a famine food, eaten raw, roasted or boiled, source of a vile-smelling edible oil, also used for candles, etc. Hedrick, 1972; FAO, 1986; Mabberley, 1987

Continue appendix A Species with edible "nuts" listed by families