GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

 
abscision scar  adhesion scar
accrescent  inflated
achene  1-seeded, coriaceous (q.v.) fruit
acuminate (of a leaf)  apex tapering gradually or abruptly into a narrow point
acute  pointed
adaxial (of a leaf)  upper surface
adventitious roots  roots arising from an organ other than the root
aflatoxins  group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. 
  commonly growing on stored food and often highly toxic
alternate (of leaves)  inserted at different levels along the stem or branch, i.e., not opposite 
androecium  male component, i.e., stamens (q.v.) of an angiosperm flower
annual  plant completing its life cycle within a year
apetalous  without petals
aril (of a seed)  an appendage covering or partly enclosing the seed and arising from 
  the funicle (q.v.)
armed  equipped with spines
axil  the angle between the leaf and branch
axillary  arising from the axil (q.v.)
beaked  terminating gradually in a hard, long, straight point
berry  a juicy fruit with seeds immersed in pulp
bipinnate (of a leaf)  where the primary divisions of a leaf (leaflets) of a pinnate leaf (q.v.
  are themselves pinnate
bony  hard and very close textured and only cut with difficulty
bract  a small leaf subtending a flower or flower stalk
bur, burr  a rough, prickly or spiny husk (q.v.), also commonly applied to the 
  entire fruit 
buttress  a plank-like outgrowth of the lower trunk and providing support
caducous  falling early
calcifuge  a plant that grows in calcium deficient soils
calyx  collective term for the sepals (q.v.)
carpel  a simple pistil formed by a fruit-leaf folded lengthwise and united by 
  its edges (suture, q.v.), or one of several such united to form the 
  ovary
cartilaginous  flexible but firm and tough
cathartic  purgative
catkin  a closely packed, bracteate, pendulous spike (q.v.), usually composed 
  of small, inconspicuous unisexual flowers
chartaceous  papery
compound leaf  leaf divided to the midrib or petiole to form leaflets (q.v.)
coriaceous  leathery
corm  a short, swollen, perennating, underground stem
corolla  collective term for the petals (q.v.)
cotyledon  first leaf or leaves of the angiosperm embryo
cupule  cup-shaped structure partially or completely enclosing the fruit in the 
  Fagaceae formed from the fused extensions of the pedicel (q.v.
cyme  a type of inflorescence (q.v.) in which each axis ends in a flower
cypsela  a fruit similar to an achene (q.v.) but develops from an inferior ovary 
  and consequently includes non-carpellary tissue. Typical of the 
  Compositae, where the fruit is surrounded by hairs, pappus, (q.v.), 
  derived from the calyx
deciduous  eventually falling; not evergreen
dehiscent  opening spontaneously when ripe
determinate  growth ending in a bud
dioecious  with unisexual flowers (c.f. monoecious)
disc  a circular enlargement of the receptacle (q.v.)
dorsal  lower surface, side facing away from the main axis
drupe  a fleshy, indehiscent fruit in which the seed or seeds are surrounded by 
  a hardened, sclerochymatous endocarp (q.v.)
dry  not fleshy
ellipsoid  an elliptic solid
elliptic  oval shaped, broadest in the middle
endocarp  innermost layer of the pericarp (q.v.)
endosperm  the nutritive material stored within the seed 
epicarp  see exocarp
etiology  the study of the casual agents of a disease
exocarp  the outer layer of the pericarp (q.v.)
exfoliate  peeling off
fan palm  palm with fan or wedge-shaped leaves
fastigiate  a tree in which the branches grow almost vertically
feather palm  palm with pinnate leaves
FOB  free on board
foliate  leaves divided into leaflets (q.v.)
follicle  a pod (q.v.) consisting of a single carpel (q.v.) usually opening along 
  the inner suture (q.v.) to which the seeds are attached
funicle  the stalk attaching the ovule and later the seed to the ovary wall
gametophyte  the haploid generation in the life-cycle of a plant
geocarpic  where the fruit are pushed into the soil by the gynophore (q.v.) and 
  mature
glabrescent  becoming glabrous (q.v.) or nearly so
glabrous  devoid of hairs
gourd  fruits of the Curcurbitaceae with a hard rind (c.f. pepo)
gynoecium  female component, i.e., carpels (q.v.), of an angiosperm flower
gynophore  an extension of the receptacle (q.v.) which bears the ovary (q.v.)
hapaxanthic (palms)  a plant which flowers only once and then dies (c.f. pleonanthic)
hastula  a small flange of tissue at the junction of lamina (q.v.) and petiole 
  (q.v.) of most palm leaves
haustorium  a nutrient absorbing organ, often produced by a plant parasite
hermaphrodite  male and female organs present in the same flower
herbaceous  soft, not hard or woody
hull  lay term for skin of kernel
husk  lay term rather loosely applied for the fleshy or fibrous outer cover of 
  a fruit
hypanthium  a flat or cup-shaped receptacle (q.v.) on which the ovary is either 
  immersed or on the same level as the calyx and corolla
imparipinnate(of a leaf) leaf pinnate (q.v.) with an odd terminal leaflet (c.f. paripinnate)
indehiscent(of a fruit)  not opening when ripe
Indo-China  region of Southeast Asia which includes Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, 
  Cambodia and Viet Nam and the Malay Peninsula
inflorescence  the arrangement of the flowers on a plant
infructescence  fruiting inflorescence
involucre  a number of bracts (q.v.) surrounding the base of a flower-head, 
  sometimes persisting in fruit
kernel  the inner, usually edible part of a nut (q.v.) or stone (q.v.)
lamina  leaf blade
lanceolate  lance-shaped
leaf  leaf blade plus petiole (q.v.)
leaf sheath  basal part of a leaf surrounding the stem
leaflet  a leaf-like unit of a compound leaf (q.v.)
legume  the fruit-pod of the Leguminosae, consisting of a single carpel, usually 
  opening along both sutures (q.v.) into two halves
locule  cavity of ovary or fruit
loculicidal  opening into the cells, when a ripe capsule splits along the back
Malaysia  Federation which includes Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Sabah 
  and Sarawak
Malesia  bio-geographical region which includes Malaysia (q.v.), Indonesia, the 
  Philippines, Singapore, Brunei and Papua New Guinea
mastic  resin
mericarp  one of the separate halves or parts of a fruit
mesocarp  the often fleshy or succulent middle layer of the pericarp (q.v.)
monoecious  where the male and female flowers are separate but on the same plant 
  (c.f. dioecious)
mucilaginous  a substance that swells with water to form a slimy solution
muricate  with a surface covered by sharp points or prickles or hard, sharp 
  projections 
mycoplasma  small, parasitic microorganisms that lack rigid cell wall; they are 
  believed to be responsible for certain yellow diseases of plants
nut  1-seeded, indehiscent (q.v.), fruit with a hard, dry pericarp (q.v.)
nutlet  a small nut (q.v.)
oblong  oval (q.v.) with parallel sides
obovate  ovate (q.v.) with the broadest part farthest from the petiole
oleaginous  oily
operculum  lid of a pyxidium (q.v.)
ovate  egg-shaped with the broadest part nearest to the petiole
ovoid  solid form of oval
oval  broadly elliptic
ovary  the swollen, basal part of a carpel (q.v.) containing the ovule (q.v.) or 
  ovules
ovule  the immature seed before fertilization
panicle  inflorescence in which the axis is divided into branches bearing several 
  flowers
pappus  rig of hairs or scales round the top of Compositae fruit
paripinnate  pinnate leaf (q.v.) without an odd terminal leaflet (c.f. imparipinnate)
pedicel the stalk attaching a flower to the main axis of an inflorescence
peduncle  general name for a flower stalk bearing either a solitary flower or a 
  cluster of flowers
peltate (of a leaf)  petiole attached to the undersurface instead of the margin
pepo  a type of berry (q.v.) with a hard exterior derived either from the 
  epicarp (q.v.), or, in the Cucurbitaceae, from the receptacle (q.v.)
perennial  a plant that survives for several years
perianth  floral envelope consisting of sepals (q.v.) and petals (q.v.)
pericarp  fruit wall derived from the ovary; in fleshy fruits the pericarp is 
  divided into an outer, toughened epicarp (q.v.), a fleshy mesocarp 
  (q.v.), and an inner, variously thickened or membraneous endocarp 
  (q.v.)
petal  an individual unit of the corolla (q.v.), interior to the calyx (q.v.), 
  usually coloured
petiole  stalk attaching the leaf blade to the branch or stem
pinnate  a leaf divided along a common axis into leaflets (q.v.)
pinnatisect  a leaf almost divided to the axis into segments (c.f. pinnate)
piscicide  fish poison
pleonanthic (of palms)  method of flowering in which the stem does not die after flowering 
  (c.f. hapaxanthic)
pod  a dry, indehiscent (q.v.) fruit
pome  a fleshy fruit where the succulent tissues are developed from the 
  receptacle (q.v.)
pubescent  covered with short hairs
pyrene  a nutlet (q.v.) or kernel (q.v.), the stone of a drupe (q.v.) or similar 
  fruit
pyxidium  seed capsule having a circular lid (operculum q.v.) which falls off to 
  release the seeds
raceme  an inflorescence (q.v.) in which the flowers are borne on pedicels 
  along an individual axis or peduncle (q.v.)
rachis  main axis of a compound leaf (q.v.) or inflorescence (q.v.)
receptacle  the extremity of a peduncle (q.v.) or pedicel (q.v.) on which the floral 
  parts are borne
reniform  kidney-shaped
root tuber  a swollen root or branch of a root acting as a food reserve
samara  an indehiscent (q.v.), 1-seeded, winged fruit
samaroid  like a samara (q.v.)
sarcotesta (of palms)  outer seed coat developed as a fleshy layer surrounding the rest of the 
  seed
schizocarp  a dry fruit derived from two or more 1-seeded carpels which divided 
  into 1-seeded units at maturity
sclerenchymatous  composed of strengthening tissues
seed  the product of a fertilized ovule
sepal  an individual unit of the calyx (q.v.) exterior to the corolla (q.v.), 
  usually green
septum (pl. septa)  dividing wall
septicidal  divided into compartments
serrate  with regular, saw-like, teeth
sessile  stalkless
shell  hard, dry pericarp (q.v.) of a nut (q.v.)
simple (of a leaf)  not divided into leaflets (q.v.)
solitary palm  stem not suckering 
spike  inflorescence with sessile (q.v.) flowers along a simple, undivided 
  rachis (q.v.)
stamen  male reproductive organ of a flowering plant
staminode  sterile or rudimentary stamen (q.v.)
stigma  receptive tip of the style (q.v.) or, where absent, carpel (q.v.) where 
  the pollen is received at pollination
stipule  leaf-like or scale-like appendages , usually at the base of the petiole 
  (q.v.)
stolon  a runner that roots
stoloniferous  with stolons (q.v.)
stone  woody endocarp (q.v.) of a drupe (q.v.)
strobili  pine cone
style  sterile portion of the carpel between the ovary (q.v.) and stigma (q.v.)
suture  line of union (and eventual opening) of a carpel (q.v.)
subcordate (of a leaf)  leaf base rounded and slightly notched
tendril  a coiling, modified plant organ used for climbing 
terminal  at the end of
testa  outer seed coat
tomentose  densely covered with short, soft hairs
ton  long ton, equivalent to 1.016 tonnes
tonne  metric tonne (one thousand kilogrammes), equivalent to 0.984 tons
toothed (of a leaf)  variously and regularly indented (c.f. serrate)
trigonous  obtusely 3-angled
turgid  swollen
unarmed  without spines
valve (of fruit)  one of the segments produced by the splitting of a ripe capsule (q.v.)
ventral  upper surface, side facing the main axis
vermifuge  expels or destroys intestinal worms