Annex 2.7 Reflecting the full value of forests in SEAFA

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1. Under the ISIC system, forestry, logging and related service activities belong to Division 02: "Growing of standing timber, logging, gathering of wild growing forest materials and service activities". As currently presented in the national accounts of many countries, information does not convey to policy-makers the full importance of forests in economic life. Forests offer a wide range of both material and non-material benefits, the value of which must be considered in making decisions on natural resource use, including land use.

2. Unlike agriculture, the value of forests is marked by the particularly high significance of intangible services and functions, many of them environmental, which do not enter the marketplace and therefore are not readily presented in monetary terms. Forests are also characterized by being a resource whose capital depletion is often ignored in calculations of the benefits of their exploitation. With little or no value being placed on forest stocks, decisions are often made in related sectors (such as agriculture) to displace forest cover in favour of alternative land uses without appreciation of the full costs of such actions. These and related considerations associated with forest values and how to reflect them adequately in national accounts are presented in greater detail in a companion booklet to this one. That booklet focuses on national accounting for forestry and presents techniques for more fully accounting for the value of forests and trees.

3. Forests are a standing resource that offer important benefits. For forest dwellers worldwide, a wide variety of nuts, berries, game, meat, fish, honey, other foodstuffs, medicines, green manure, biomass fuel, thatching materials, fodder for cattle, etc. are available. The values of these outputs are often severely underestimated, since they hardly ever register as market transactions and for the most part benefit cultural minorities or economically weak strata of society. But some resins, essential oils, medicinal substances, rattan, flowers and a wide variety of other products that flow from forests enter commercial channels. The aggregate value of these so called "minor products" is substantial but is often under-estimated or left unrecorded. More often, all that is reported is the value of commercially exploited timber.

4. In their search for both timber and non-timber goods and services, local populations increasingly face conflictual interaction with industrialists, loggers, naturalists, hikers and hunters who have divergent interests. Decisions on the management of forests and the use of their many products and services are driven by many different values. In many developing countries rural populations invade forests in search of land for their crops, fuel for cooking and fodder for their animals. Governments impelled to raise foreign exchange earnings and employment, and to finance economic development programmes, turn to forests as a resource that can readily be exploited. Private investors seeking profits also look to forests as an investment opportunity. Forests are thus often cleared and displaced by alternative land uses to meet a variety of pressing needs.

5. In richer countries, there is a high demand for timber and wood-based fibre products from both local and tropical forests. In these same countries, there is also a major increase in demands for a greener environment and for the amenity and recreation values of forests to be exploited. This has coincided with a desire to reduce farm surpluses in many wealthier countries and, accordingly, many of these countries are extending forest cover onto land formerly used for agriculture.

6. In both developing and developed countries, decisions on whether land should remain under forest or go to alternative uses need to take into consideration, among other aspects, the following:

· The yields of alternative uses of lands covered by forests have often been greatly overestimated and the sustainability of such land use options is often poor. For example, the soils underlying many humid tropical forests are infertile and, once opened up, are soon degraded through erosion, laterization or other processes. The value of forests relative to alternatives should be more carefully ascertained and the impact of change in use should be reflected in natural resource accounts.
· In situations such as those in many industrialised countries where much original forest has already been lost, residual primary forests are practically irreplaceable in terms of their ecological quality. Yet the value placed on them in land use or industrial conversion decisions is often too low and the more accessible among them continue to face the risk of being cleared.
· Forests are the origin of many of today's domesticated crops and livestock and they can contribute genetic material to plant and livestock breeders that confers disease and pest resistance, as well as other desirable properties, to important agricultural crops or animal breeds. Forests also contribute entirely new foods, such as mangosteen and the winged bean.
· Pyrethrin, retinitis and other insecticides and insect repellents evolved in tropical plants as a sort of self-defence, while insect predators and parasites that control at least 250 different agricultural pests have been found in forests. The pharmaceutical products from forests include alkaloids such as quinine and others used in drugs to treat malaria, hypertension, childhood leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease. Plant steroids, such as diosgenin (which comes from Mexican yams and West African calabar beans), are used in oral contraceptives. In certain cases, the economic benefits from genetic resources, medicinal and food products would, if fully counted, exceed those from timber harvests.
· Forests also have environmental protection functions: they reduce soil erosion which would soon lead to sedimentation of high-profile downstream hydroelectric schemes; they protect soils for agriculture in critical watersheds and water supply for downstream users; mangrove forests provide breeding and nesting grounds for many forms of marine life; and forest trees offer windbreak protection to crops. Forests are known to influence and stabilize the climate and recently the role of forests in sequestration of atmospheric carbon, thereby helping to avert global warming, has received growing attention.
· Apart from their direct values, forests and trees often have values transmitted through other sectors into which they provide essential inputs. Examples of this related to agriculture (other than their soil, water and nutrient roles) include: the supply of fuelwood for energy to cure or otherwise process many crops; the supply of rural construction materials for farm communities and livestock; and the provision of timber or paper/cardboard packaging for agricultural commodities. The value of these benefits is rarely adequately credited to the forestry sector.

7. Governments adopt policies for worthy objectives, such as industrial or agricultural growth, regional development, job creation or poverty alleviation. It is recognized that such objectives, even when realized, may attained only at excessive cost and sometimes the adverse impacts of land use conversion outweigh the benefits of retaining the forests.
Government policies, whether directly for forestry or impinging on the forestry sector from outside, may result in financial profits, but the cost in terms of value of depleted forest resources is often ignored or underestimated. Very often, valuation overemphasizes the timber harvest at the expense of other potential benefits. In managing forests on public lands and in creating incentives for the use of private forests, policies often sacrifice a broader range of benefits and potential long-term gains from forests in favour of the lesser, transitory gains derived from timber or wood fibre.

8. Threats to the world's forests are evoking responses at all levels, from villagers organizing to protect their woods to international summit meetings of world leaders. Increased attention, investment and research are being directed or advocated for the solution of forest problems. Two underlying areas of research that deserve effective support are: the identification of policies that can encourage the sustainable management of forests without sacrificing economic or livelihood objectives; and the development of valuation methodologies that can adequately reflect not only the goods and services (marketed and non marketed) produced by forests but also the economic worth of stock depletion when forest resources are destroyed or qualitatively degraded.

9. A proper system of national accounts should provide policy-makers with information that gives a more complete picture of the net benefits derived from forests than is the case at present. Such information should include wood as well as non-wood products; goods as well as services or functions; and benefits from marketed as well as non-marketed goods and services. While developing the system it may be kept in mind that a clear boundary line between forestry practices and agricultural or horticultural practices is essential in accounting, while the value of forests to agriculture should be adequately credited to the proper sector.

10. With regard to forest-based industries, decisions will need to be made on whether they are to be reported under agro-processing ISIC categories or elsewhere. In any case, it will be essential that forest-based industries and artisanal manufacturing activities are not allowed to fall into a grey area where they are not recorded under either agro-industry or some other appropriate category and where their economic contribution is thereby undervalued.

11. In the accounts for forestry, output of both natural and plantation forests and trees may include all the basic amenities relating to food, fuel, fodder, shelter, fibre, medicines and recreation, in value terms along with prices used for valuation of the product, area under forest, royalties collected, taxes, the expenditure incurred on maintenance and research, etc. It is also essential in maintaining such data to classify the forest areas by type of management practices required for their maintenance. The information system may also include some imputed outputs on the basis of shadow prices, such information to be shown separately along with the underlying assumptions. The creation of data banks of this nature will have some overlap with the agriculture sector and, therefore, it is proposed to prepare Satellite Accounts for the forestry sector also. These Satellite Accounts would be in addition to the Satellite Accounts recommended by SNA for monitoring environmental aspects.


1. FAO, 1994 - Forest development and policy dilemmas. Special chapter of The State of Food and Agriculture, Rome.

2. Gregersen, H.M, 1995 et. al. - Valuing forests: context, issues and guidelines. FAO Forestry Paper 127, Rome.

3. Repetto, R.,, 1988 - The Forest for the Trees? Government Policies and the misuse of forest resources, World Resources Institute.

4. Repetto, R., 1988 - Public Policies and the Misuse of Forest Resources, A World Resources Institute Book edited by Robert Repetto and Malcolm Gillis.

Annex 2.8 Fisheries in SEAFA

1. A proper system of accounts should provide policy-makers with a reliable measure of the contribution of the fisheries industry to the national well-being. Thus accounts should value the cost of the efforts put into the fisheries sector (vessels and other fishing inputs, government administration including resource management and research, land and water, the workforce, establishments etc.) and the value of what is obtained in exchange for the resources spent (fish for human consumption and other uses, employment, export earnings, fees collected from a foreign country for the granting of fishing rights in the home country's Exclusive Economic Zone, etc.).

2. There is a range of social factors that should also be considered in policy-making. Some governments regard the fisheries sector as providing other services, in addition to making a contribution to economic growth. Fisheries may provide employment in rural areas or may play a strategic role especially if the industry is located in border or remote areas; it may provide employment for a particular religious or cultural group, be an important source of female income and employment and an important food source for indigenous people. The role of the sector in providing food and food security may be an important concern to some Governments.

3. A major concern is overfishing. There is already evidence of declining stocks in many of the traditional marine fishing grounds and declines of freshwater fish catches caused by the loss of viable habitats, environmental degradation, pollution of water resources and overfishing. Additional fishing effort may result in longer-term damage to the capacity of the sector to contribute sustainability to economic welfare.

4. In a country that grant other countries fishing rights in its Exclusive Economic Zone, it may be relevant for perspective planning to find out what would be the costs and benefits if all fishing activity in the zone were undertaken entirely by the home country itself.

5. For the fisheries sector SEAFA may be regarded as a framework for analyzing the mutual relationship among production activity, income originating from production and the use of income for consumption and capital accumulation. SEAFA, while including this sector, should address all such issues listed above. While doing so it is necessary to look into the special characteristics of the sector and this Annex presents a summary view of these characteristics .

6. Under the ISIC system, the fisheries sector includes all activities related to fishing and service activities that support fishing activities, as well as the operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms (often referred to as aquaculture, Division 05). ISIC stipulates some exclusions from fishing activity including those operations that are more akin to hunting, etc. such as the capture of sea mammals, except whales (included in ISIC class 0150: Hunting, trapping and game propagation including related service activities); frog farming which is classified in class 0122 (Other animal farming, production of animal products n.e.c.); processing of fish, crustaceans and molluscs not connected to fishing, i.e. on vessels or in factories ashore, which is classified in class 1512 (processing and preserving of fish and fish products); net making and mending, classified in class 1723 (Manufacturing of cordage, rope, twine and netting); fishing boat repairing, classified in class 3511 (Building and repair of ships); service activities related to fishing practiced for sport or recreation (classified in class 9249 'Other recreational activities').

7. Any definition of the fisheries sector is arbitrary as the industry may be fragmented in many ways. While the fishing activity itself is the essence of the industry, it is possible to justify the inclusion in the accounts of various onshore processes. Fish go through many processes before being consumed and to place the boundary of the industry at the point of any one transaction is difficult. The operations may be divided into major categories, for instance catching/exploitation, processing, distribution and final consumption, but these divisions cannot always be precise. They can only indicate a possible boundary of vertical division between fisheries and other industries. Although it is statistically more convenient to adopt an industry definition (e.g. all operations directly connected with the actual catching/exploitation process), it is less useful for policy purposes than would be a more disaggregated approach.

8. Capture fisheries are essentially different from farming in that for much of the output the individual farming household may still be considered as one productive unit, whereas this is not generally true of fishing. The household is important in some types of fishing in certain countries, but generally some members of fishing households have other occupations while not all members of fishing unit belong to one household. The characteristic fishing unit may catch more than one species of fish but does not catch anything other then fish. Hence, in this sector, it is essential to investigate all types of institutional units.

9. In fishing there may be differences at the regional level; inshore and distant waters fishing are very different from one another in their techniques and in the economic and social benefits each may generate. It would be desirable to disaggregate the accounts by classifying fishing establishments by type of water bodies at all levels for planning purposes.

10. The seasonal nature of fishing can result in a dual use of resources; it is not uncommon for inshore boats to substitute pleasure trips for fishing at certain times of year. Ideally items such as capital depreciation should be reduced to exclude the time spent in non-fishing activities, but the statistical assessment of such minor items is difficult.

11. The international character of fishing industries throughout the world presents certain problems when ensuring that accounts are comparable. For many countries direct foreign landings from their fishing vessels and inputs from foreign ports are difficult to identify. When a fishing fleet is multinational the treatment of inputs and outputs in the economic accounts poses additional problems.

12. Some of the fishing activity is carried out outside the zone of national jurisdiction where there are no property rights. In such cases the basic resource has no price. It may also happen that the fisheries management practices of one country or region benefit another country or region. In such instances it is not easy either to impute a true cost or prepare an information base for perspective planning. Thus, this class also requires a separate presentation.

13. The industry approach reduces the statistical problems of recording the transactions for an industry that is disaggregated horizontally at all levels. The commercial structure of the fisheries sector ranges from commercial to private non-commercial activity. The contribution of the non-commercial (i.e. subsistence fisheries) or quasi-commercial sector is of some importance in parts of the industry, but to adopt an industry approach and exclude such activity is not likely to alter significantly the commodity product.

14. For recreational fisheries there is a need to quantify their value including the real value of angling and "angling tourism". Their economic importance and value, both absolute and relative to local communities, and their linkage to other sectors should form an integral part of decision-making in freshwater and marine catchment or river basin development plans.

15. SEAFA presents the different parts of the economic process in a form appropriate to the specific sector or economic activity, without losing a clear view of the macro-economic relationships and without imposing special rules on parts of the system. These advantages are secured by placing the detailed sub-accounts, with their varying systems of classification, into a general macro-framework. Hence the accounts for fisheries may be designed according to the particular economic features of the industry while being compatible with the national accounts.

16. In order to evaluate appropriately all the externalities originating from within the sector and those originating outside that have an impact on the sector, it may also be desirable to construct Satellite Accounts in addition to the usual set of accounts.

17. For capture fisheries the establishment of environmental accounting is highly desirable. Ideally the natural resource -- the fish stock -- should have a value attached to it according to the catches it can sustain. Overfishing reduces the capability of the stocks and, consequently, the sustainable catch to regenerate themselves and depletes the value of the resource. This should be considered as a cost of production in the national account. Theoretically a "global community" environmental account may also be established for high seas fisheries. The value of the natural resource will have to be recalculated annually because of the natural changes in recruitment of juveniles to the stock and in market value, but, since this stock level should be calculated for management purposes anyway, this requirement should not present any problems.

Annex 2.9 List of supporting statements

A. Illustrative List for Agriculture and Hunting


1. Area, Production and Productivity for principal crops;
2. Number of Livestock by category;
3. Domestic Production of Fertilizers by Product;
4. Rate of Fertilizer Use by Season and Crop;


1. Total Crop Production (including by-products)

(a) by crop
(b) by principal crops and region
(c) by principal crops and agro-climatic zones

2. Livestock Products

(a) Livestock products (including animals sold for slaughter, transport industry, etc.)
(b) Increment in livestock (total, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories) by categories

3. Other Production

(a) Agricultural Services
(b) Output of secondary activities

4. Intermediate Consumption

(a) For crop production
(b) For livestock production
(c) Others for agricultural services and secondary activities
(d) By regions (total and main items only)

5. External Trade

(a) Import of agricultural goods (total and principal) (b) Import of intermediate goods for agriculture (c) Export of agricultural goods (total and principal)

6. Capital Formation for Agriculture

(a) Gross fixed capital formation by type of assets
(b) Increase in inventories by type (finished products, work-in-progress and others)
(c) Gross capital formation in the Public Sector by type of assets

7. Prices

(a) Producer prices of principal agricultural goods
(b) Purchaser prices of fertilizer, feed, pesticide, agricultural machinery, etc.

8. Others

(a) Total agricultural production by end use (intra-farm, inter-farm, own account consumption, sale for final consumption, sale for intermediate consumption and capital formation) by principal goods
(b) Distribution of total production by size of landholding
(c) Key economic indicators for the country (such as total GDP at current and constant prices, population, etc.)


1. Total Crop Production (including by-products)

(a) by crop
(b) by principal crop and region
(c) by principal crop and agro-climatic zones

2. Livestock and Livestock Products

(a) Livestock (including animals sold for slaughter, transport industry, etc.) and livestock products
(b) Increment in livestock (total, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories) by categories

3. Other Production

(a) Agricultural Services
(b) Output of secondary activities

4. Intermediate Consumption

(a) For crop production
(b) For livestock production
(c) Others for agricultural services and secondary activities
(d) By regions (total and main items only)

5. External Trade

(a) Import of agricultural goods (total and principal)
(b) Import of intermediate goods for agriculture
(c) Export of agricultural goods (total and principal)

6. Capital Formation for Agriculture

(a) Gross fixed capital formation by type of assets
(b) Increase in inventories by type (finished products, work-in-progress and others)

B. Illustrative List for Food and Nutrition

1. Total and per caput domestic food supply and utilization by products and by type of flow in quantity terms
2. Per caput per day domestic food utilization by products in terms of calories (number), protein (grams) and fats (grams)
3. Total domestic food supply and utilization by products at current prices
4. Total domestic food supply and utilization by products at constant prices
5. Producer or consumer prices of selected items of food products
6. Content in calories (number), protein (grams) and fats (grams) of selected food products.

Annex 4.1 An overview of sector models appearing in the FAO's publication agricultural sector analysis and models in developing countries

FAO's Agricultural sector analysis and models in developing contains four types of agricultural sector analyses (ASAs) and models: non-formal, general equilibrium consistency approaches (Chapter II); general, system-simulation models (Chapter III); linear programming models (Chapter IV); and, multi-level planning models (Chapter V). In addition, two Chapters are devoted to, respectively, issues in planning rural development (Chapter VI) and the operational usefulness of sector analysis and models to users (Chapter VII). The final Chapter (VIII) undertakes a critical evaluation of agricultural sector analysis.

The first type of ASA appearing in the volume is of a qualitative and multidisciplinary nature and consists of the non-formal, general equilibrium consistency frameworks represented in the papers by Vercueil, Fletcher and Alexandratos, et. al. The methodology employed relies on undertaking a consistent set of projections for key variables of policy interest, such as the supply and demand of agricultural commodities, within a general equilibrium context. The long-term trends of agricultural development and the determinants of these trends are analyzed. On this basis, development targets, options and possible bottlenecks can be formulated.

The consistency analyses are often designed to address policy questions of immediate interest to planners and questions of priorities for government investment programmes and projects, and have been most heavily used by organizations such as the World Bank, FAO and the Agency for International Development (AID) for short-term aid and lending programme needs as well as for the purpose of improving a country's long-term agricultural planning capacity. Vercueil (Chapter II. D' describes the general methodology employed by FAO for its perspective agricultural development country studies, using as examples those developed for Egypt and the Sudan. Fletcher (Chapter II.2) discusses sector studies applied to Guatemala and Panama, which attempted to determine agriculture's contribution to economic development and the priority policies and programmes that would enhance this contribution, particularly on the part of traditional agriculture. The last study that is included as a consistency framework is a forestry sector planning model developed for Peninsular Malaysia and described by Alexandratos, et. al. (Chapter II.3). Alternative forestry sector development strategies are analyzed by simulation of forestry output, location, revenues and costs consistent with alternative land conversion, cutting and harvesting variables.

The general, systems science simulation approach developed by analysts at Michigan State University, United States, formalizes and quantifies many aspects of consistency framework; while retaining their multidisciplinary content. By doing so, a variety of policy instruments are defined and simulation techniques utilized for forecasting and policy planning purposes, exploring the sectoral and economywide impacts of changes in the policy instruments.

The conceptual problems involved in the development and use of the systems science methodology, including problem-definition, the generality of approach and the importance of interaction and credibility with decision-makers, are discussed by Johnson (Chapter III. 1). The paper by Rossmiller (Chapter III.2) describes the Korean agricultural sector study, perhaps the prototype for the systems simulation approach, in terms of specific model characteristics and the Korean experience of the institutionalization of a sector analytical capacity.

The linear programming (LP) approaches to modelling the agricultural sector, which form the next organizational category, perhaps need less introduction for social scientists. The underlying specifications and solution algorithms of this type of model are well-known and their capacity for testing hypotheses well-developed. The models discussed in the FAO publications, however, expand on the well-known linear programming methodology through their more extensive disaggregation -- of labour, land, regions, consumption groups and technologies -- in order better to determine the impact of various policies, and through their development of the important linkages within the agricultural sector and other sectors of the economy. Three country case-studies are presented as examples of LP models in Chapter IV. Condos (Chapter IV. 1) reports on the formulation and results of a linear programming model for the Tunisian agricultural sector. The model was built under FAO's direction and used to investigate the optimality of government investment programmes and development plans. A model of the Thai agricultural sector is reviewed and discussed by Stoecker, et. al. (Chapter IV.2) who focus on and compare the effects of alternative development scenarios by region and by land zone to yield alternative income distributional implications. Finally, the linear programming methodology forms the basis of a highly disaggregated (set of) studies of the Colombian agricultural sector and its interrelationship with the general economy by Daines, et. al. (Chapter IV.3). Among others, an analysis of nutrition is undertaken in that chapter.

Multilevel planning models emphasize the upward linkages between agriculture and the overall economy and the downward linkages within agriculture. The methodology consists of constructing a system of connected models at different levels of aggregation and solving iteratively with a large-scale optimizing model. In this way, alternative policies can be traced and their impact assessed at different levels in the system. More specifically the effects of certain types of policy instruments can be estimated. While being relatively complex and quantitative multilevel models are able to utilize a priori knowledge of the specific nature of the decision-making process (which varies from country to country) in establishing the linkages between the models.

The multilevel approach has been developed mainly under the sponsorship of the World Bank and used to some extent for policy planning in Mexico and the Côte d'Ivoire. The specification, results and operational usefulness of the model developed for Mexico (CHAC) are described in the papers by Duloy and Norton (Chapter V.1) and Bassoco and Norton (Chapter V.2). Goreux (Chapter V.3) discusses a model applied to the Côte d'Ivoire and compares it with CHAC as to linkage formulation and submodel specification.

The final example of an agricultural sector model relying on the multilevel approach is the model of agricultural production and trade in Central America (MOCA), described in the paper by Cappi, et. al. (Chapter V.4). MOCA is a spatial equilibrium model, the central focus of which is the linkage of five national agricultural sector models through international trade to assess the effects of national policies on the Central American Common Market.

A last issue is to be examined in this volume is that of the operational usefulness of the sector analytic capacities that have so far been built. The question is addressed in the papers by McGaughey (Chapter VI.1) and Fletcher (Chapter VI.2), the former reporting from the perspective of the Inter-American Development Bank and the latter from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In both papers, the strengths and limitations of agricultural sector analysis are brought out and the importance of an analysis being broad enough to answer questions relating to rural development reiterated.

The trade-offs between the more qualitative and less formal analyses and those that are more formal and quantitative are discussed; the more qualitative analyses being perhaps more immediately applicable and less of a drain on local resources and talent, and the more formal analyses offering the basis for a stronger, long-term decision-making and planning capacity.

The last chapter, by Thorbecke and Hall (Chapter VII), undertakes a critical evaluation of agricultural sector analyses and models with special reference to those appearing in the volume. Three sets of evaluation criteria are used in comparing the various ASAs: coverage and complexity; explanatory power and realism; and, comprehensibility and operational usefulness.

Annex 5.1 List of important FAO publications

"Programme for the World Census of Agriculture 2000", FAO Statistical Development Series, 5, Rome, 1995.

Definition and Classification of Commodities (Draft) FAO, 1994.

"Collecting Data on Livestock", FAO Statistical Development Series 4, Rome, 1992.

"Methodological Review" 1980 World Census of Agriculture, Rome, 1992.

"Food Balance Sheets - 1984-86 Average", Rome, 1991.

"Manual on Fertilizer Statistics", FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 102, Rome, 1991.

"Sampling Methods for Agricultural Surveys", FAO Statistical Development Series, 3, Rome, 1989.

"Manual on Agricultural Price Index Numbers" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 74, Rome, 1988.

"Food and Agricultural Statistics in the Context of a National Information System, FAO Statistical Development Series, 1, Rome, 1986.

"National Methods of Agricultural Price Data Collection" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 58, Rome, 1986.

"Socio-Economic Indicators relating to Agricultural Sector and Rural Development" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 40, Rome, 1984.

"Use of Household Surveys for Collection of Food and Agricultural Statistics" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 35/Prov., Rome, 1983.

"Estimation of Crop Areas and Yields in Agricultural Statistics" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 22, Rome, 1982.

"Farm and Input Prices: Collection and Compilation" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 16, Rome, 1980.

"Assessment and Collection of Data on post-harvest Foodgrain Losses" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 13, Rome, 1980.

"Taking Agricultural Censuses" FAO Economic and Social Development Paper, No. 1, Rome, 1978.

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