Guidelines for small-scale fruit and vegetable processors. (FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin - 127)

Table of Contents

Peter Fellows
Midway Technology Ltd
St Oswalds Barn, Clifford
Hay on Wye, Hereford
United Kingdom

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Rome, 1997

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ISBN 92-5-104041-9

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© FAO 1997

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Table of Contents

Preface and acknowledgements

Glossary and abbreviations


I. General introduction

Part 1 - Processing for home consumption

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Food security, nutrition and health

1.2.1. Improvements to home processing and storage

Concentration by boiling

1.2.2. Home processing to earn extra family income

Part 2 - Processing for sale

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Selecting products and production methods

2.2.1. Fried products

Additional processing notes

2.2.2. Bottled and canned products

Additional processing notes

2.2.3. Dried fruits and vegetables

Additional processing notes
Syrup pre-treatment
Types of dryers

2.2.4. Chutneys, pickles and salted vegetables

Additional processing notes
Salted vegetables
Additional processing notes

2.2.5. Pectin and papain


2.2.6. Sauces

Additional processing notes

2.2.7. Juices

Additional processing notes

2.2.8. Squashes, cordials and syrups

Squashes and cordials

2.2.9. Preserves (jams, jellies, marmalades, pastes, purees and fruit cheeses)

Jams, jellies and marmalades
Pastes and purees
Fruit 'cheeses'
Additional processing notes

2.2.10. Wines, vinegars and spirits

Additional processing notes

2.3. Conducting a feasibility study

2.3.1. Introduction
2.3.2. Market analysis

Product quality survey
Survey of market size and value
Market share and competition

2.3.3. Technical feasibility

Production planning
Weights of raw materials and ingredients
Equipment required
Staffing levels

2.3.4. Financial feasibility

Start-up costs
Operating costs
Income and profit
Financial planning
Preparing a business plan

2.4. Legal aspects

2.4.1. Registration of the enterprise
2.4.2. Food related laws

Food composition
Food labelling
Hygiene and sanitation
Weights and measures

2.5. Establishing production facilities

2.5.1. Introduction
2.5.2. The site
2.5.3. Design and construction of the building

Roofs and ceilings
Windows and doors
Lighting and power
Water supply and sanitation
Layout of equipment and facilities

2.5.4. Equipment

Dried products
Boiled, concentrated and pasteurised products
Fermented and distilled products
Packaging, filling and sealing equipment

2.5.5. Packaging materials

2.6. Contracts with suppliers and retailers

2.6.1. Securing raw materials
2.6.2. Agreements with retailers and other sellers

2.7. Managing production and quality assurance

2.7.1. Managing production

Production planning
Scheduling inputs
Staff management
Health and safety

2.7.2. Managing quality assurance

Safety of products
Product quality
Raw materials and ingredients
Packaging, storage and distribution
Hygiene and sanitation

2.8. Marketing

2.8.1. Identification of markets

Market segments
Distribution and promotion

2.8.2. Developing a marketing strategy
2.8.3. Packaging and brand image

2.9. Record keeping

2.9.1. Financial and sales records
2.9.2. Production records


Appendix I - Basic rules for hygiene, sanitation and safety
Appendix II - Checklist of entrepreneurial characteristics
Appendix III - Feasibility study checklist
Appendix IV - Institutions that support small scale food processing


FAO technical papers