Renewable biological systems for alternative sustainable energy production (FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin - 128)

Table of Contents

Edited by
Kazuhisa Miyamoto
Osaka University
Osaka, Japan

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

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ISBN 92-5-104059-1

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Table of Contents





Chapter 1 - Biological energy production

1.1 Energy and environmental issues
1.2 Photosynthesis and biomass

1.2.1 Photosynthetic efficiency
1.2.2 Biomass wastes and their conversion
1.2.3 Fuel production via microalgal CO2 fixation

1.3 General problems

Chapter 2 - Energy conversion by photosynthetic organisms

2.1 Photosynthetic capture of solar energy

2.1.1 Solar energy
2.1.2 Why is biotechnology now applied to energy technology?

2.2 Photosynthesis mechanisms

2.2.1 Plant photosynthesis
2.2.2 Bacterial photosynthesis

2.3 Hydrogen production through solar energy conversions

2.3.1 Cyanobacterial hydrogen production (plant-type photosynthesis)
2.3.2 Bacterial hydrogen production (bacterial-type photosynthesis)
2.3.3 Use of photosynthesized proteins in photoelectric conversion elements


Chapter 3 - Production of fuel alcohol from cellulosic biomass

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Cellulase production

3.2.1 Cellulase
3.2.2 Screening of cellulase-producing microorganisms
3.2.3 Strain improvement for cellulase production Development of a process for high-titer cellulase production Cellulase production at low cost Potential for mass production of cellulase

3.3 Saccharification of cellulosic waste materials

3.3.1 Pre-treatment of cellulosic waste
3.3.2 Saccharification of cellulosic waste Saccharification Recovery and re-use of cellulase Sugar concentration using reverse osmosis

3.4 Use of immobilized yeast cells in alcohol fermentation's

3.4.1 Preparation of immobilized yeast cells
3.4.2 Continuous plant operation using immobilized yeast cells
3.4.3 Fermentation processes used in ethanol production
3.4.4 Flash fermentation using immobilized yeast cells

3.5 Alcohol production using an integrated pilot plant

3.5.1 Outline
3.5.2 Pre-treatment of cellulosic biomass
3.5.3 Cellulase production
3.5.4 Saccharification of biomass
3.5.5 Enzyme recovery from biomass
3.5.6 Concentration of sugar solutions
3.5.7 Alcohol fermentation
3.5.8 Alcohol recovery

3.6 Feasibility study

3.7 Conclusion


Chapter 4 - Methane production

4.1 Microbial consortia and biological aspects of methane fermentation

4.1.1 Hydrolysis and acidogenesis
4.1.2 Acetogenesis and dehydrogenation
4.1.3 Methanogenesis

4.2 Molecular biology of methanogens

4.2.1 Genetic markers
4.2.2 Molecular cloning of methanogenic genes
4.2.3 Genetic transformations

4.3 Developments in bioreactor technology

4.3.1 Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)
4.3.2 Upflow anaerobic filter process (UAFP)
4.3.3 Anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor (AFBR)
4.3.4 Two-phase methane fermentation processes


Chapter 5 - Hydrogen production

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Biophotolysis of water by microalgae and cyanobacteria

5.2.1 Hydrogenase-dependent hydrogen production
5.2.2 Nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production

5.3 Hydrogen from organic compounds

5.3.1 Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria
5.3.2 Combined photosynthetic and anaerobic and bacterial hydrogen production

5.4 Enhancement of hydrogen-producing capabilities through genetic engineering
5.5 Research and development on biological hydrogen production
5.6 Future prospects

Chapter 6 - Oil production

6.1 Oil substitutes from biomass
6.2 Microalgae as biological sources of lipids and hydrocarbons
6.3 Thermochemical liquefaction of microalgae

6.3.1 Liquid fuels from microalgal biomass
6.3.2 Cultivation of microalgae
6.3.3 Liquefaction of microalgae

6.4 Algal hydrogenation
6.5 Future prospects

Chapter 7 - The future of renewable biological energy systems

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Biomass production potential and efficiencies
7.3 Fuel alcohol production from biomass
7.4 Methane fermentations
7.5 Fuels derived from microalgae
7.6 Conclusions

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