Producir con ganancia en las actuales condiciones requiere inversiones en información, investigación y tecnología. Sin embargo, muchas pequeñas industrias, como las industrias para la producción de yeso, cal y ladrillo, no están en condiciones de financiar estas tareas. Las actividades de Energética (energía para el desarrollo), en cooperación con la Asociación Provincial de Productores de Estuco y Cal de Cochabamba (APYC), con el apoyo del fondo FONAMA (cuenta Iniciativa para las Américas) buscan desarrollar y proponer tecnologías que permitan obtener mayores ganancias al productor y al mismo tiempo evitar las emisiones de contaminantes. Bajo la premisa de incentivar el uso de tecnologías económicamente accesibles y ambientalmente viables, se han elaborado varias propuestas entre las que sobresale el diseño mejorado de hornos, que ofrece ventajas económicas y ambientales a bajo precio.
Es evidente que los hornos actuales de producción de cal, yeso y ladrillo son el mejor ejemplo de derroche de material, de energía y de producto: son ineficientes en todos estos aspectos. Por lo tanto, es necesario utilizar hornos eficientes que consuman menos combustible y permitan obtener los productos requeridos por el mercado. Con estas acciones se pretende cubrir las demandas apremiantes de las microempresas, además de fortalecer y asegurar su sostenibilidad. En el marco de este proyecto se ha preparado una carpeta, «Industria, energía y ambiente», que presenta las características básicas de hornos típicos para producción de yeso (25 m3 de capacidad), resultados de su evaluación de pérdidas energéticas y recomendaciones para su adecuada concepción y operación, garantizando la calidad del producto final. (Fuente: IEA, 3, nov. de 1997.)
Para más información, dirigirse a: Energética, Casilla 4964,
C/La Paz E 0626, Bolivia.
Fax: (+591 2) 53825;
correo electrónico: email@example.com
The Ministry of Mines and Energy of the Federal Government of Brazil has launched a new programme to promote small-scale bioenergy development in rural areas (PROMASE). The PROMASE programme will offer financial assistance for projects in the range of 75 to 200 kW that use vegetable oils, forest and agricultural residues and fuelwood and charcoal. The National BioEnergy Industries Association (NBIA) has offered to assist the ministry in identifying appropriate technology, and to serve as a conduit to United States system suppliers. (Source: Bio Bulletin, August 1997.)
One of the voluntary papers prepared for Topic 16 of the World Forestry Congress was "Gestion rationnelle des ressources forestières et approvisionnement des villes en bois de feu expérience du Burkina Faso", prepared by A. Thiam. [An extract of this paper can be found under Special Features.]
On 7 March 1998, the Ninth China National Peoples Congress approved the Institution Reform Plan of the State Council. According to the plan, the 43 commissions and ministries will be restructured to 29 commissions and ministries. The Ministry of Forestry is one of the bodies to be axed in the plan and will become the State Forestry Bureau under the direct jurisdiction of the State Council. The plan is now being implemented, although its impact on Chinas national forestry energy development is not yet clear.
Under the old system the main institutions related to forestry energy policy formulation at the central level were the State Planning Commission (SPC), the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC), the State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC), the Ministry of Finance (MOFin), the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), the Ministry of Forestry (MOF), the Ministry of Water Resources (MOWC), the State Land Administration, the State Bureau of Survey and Mapping, and others. SPC was the institution for medium- and long-term strategy formulation at the national level. SETC was the institution for short-term strategy and industrial policy formulation at the national level, especially for state-owned enterprises. SSTC was the institution for national science and technology strategy formulation. MOA was the institution for agriculture and rural development strategy formulation. MOF was the institution for national forestry strategy formulation. MOWC was the institution for national strategy formulation for water conservation and small hydropower development.
Under the new system the main institutions related to forestry energy policy formulation at the central level will be the State Development Planning Commission (SSPC), the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC), the Ministry of Science and Technology (MST), the Ministry of Finance (MOFin), the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), the Ministry of Water Resources (MOWC), the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources (MLNR), which is formed from the former Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, the State Land Administration, the State Oceanography Bureau, the State Bureau of Survey and Mapping, the State Forestry Bureau (SNF), and others. (Contributed by: Su Mingshan, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Costa Rica has taken the lead in devising a way carbon captured in tropical forests can be sold in the form of certifiable tradable offsets (CTOs or "carbon bonds"). In what is described as a "win-win" situation, industries manage to reduce the cost of meeting emission targets by "financing" forest conservation and reforestation projects in developing countries that help mitigate the pollution they produce.
With industrialized countries needing to spend an estimated US$30 billion to $45 billion per year to meet greenhouse emissions reduction targets by 2012, the race is now on to be the first to tap into this lucrative market. The climate change summit in Kyoto not only produced the first binding agreement on emission cuts but, in a coup for Costa Rica, also paved the way for the sale of pollution mitigation services to countries bound by the agreement. In fact, it was the Costa Rican Minister for the Environment, René Castro, and the technical team he took with him to Kyoto who, against all odds, pushed through a proposal at the summit to allow carbon trading between industrialized and developing nations. Called the Clean Development Mechanism, the proposal creates an open market in which, according to Castro, "each country will be able to choose its own way of trading" under a universal set of "game rules". While admitting that obstacles may still be placed in the way of carbon trading in future climate-change talks, he added: "There is a potential gain for those who dare jump into the market now, since they can get a head-start over the competition, and it will be increasingly harder for the others to catch up." (Source: The Tico Times, San José, Costa Rica, 30 January 1998.)
The Government of Costa Rica has achieved, through the Costa Rican Office of Joint Implementation, the first sale on a world scale of 200 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Norwegian Government, representing an income of US$2 million, to be invested in protection and renewal of natural resources programmes. (Source: Un caso de éxito en el uso de incentivos forestales y pago de servicios ambientales en Costa Rica, MINAE/FONAFIFO/ACCVC/FUNDECOR.)
El Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal (FONAFIFO) es una institución creada por la Ley forestal 7575, publicada el 16 de abril de 1996, y cuyo objetivo es financiar mediante créditos u otros mecanismos de fomento el manejo del bosque, intervenido o no, los procesos de reforestación, recuperación de áreas denudadas, los cambios tecnológicos en aprovechamiento e industrialización de los recursos forestales.
FONAFIFO cuenta con personería jurídica instrumental, además capta recursos para financiar el pago de los servicios ambientales que brindan los bosques, las plantaciones forestales y otras actividades necesarias para fortalecer el desarrollo del sector de los recursos naturales.
La Ley forestal provee una importante fuente de ingresos para el fondo proveniente de un impuesto que pagan todos los ciudadanos al comprar combustibles derivados del petróleo. FONAFIFO invierte estos recursos en programas forestales tendientes a disminuir o mitigar los gases de efecto invernadero. (Fuente: Un caso de éxito en el uso de incentivos forestales y pago de servicios ambientales en Costa Rica, MINAE/FONAFIFO/ACCVC/FUNDECOR.)
Para más información, dirigirse a: FONAFIFO, Apdo. 594-2120, San José, Costa Rica.
Fax: (+506) 257 9695;
correo electrónico: email@example.com
The technology of briquetting is relatively new in Malaysia. The first briquetting plant in the country was fully operational in 1985 and was sited in Klang, about 30 km from Kuala Lumpur. Subsequently, five other companies were set up to manufacture charcoal briquettes for export.
Generally, three types of briquette are produced in Malaysia: i) rice husk briquettes; ii) wood charcoal briquettes with a binder; and iii) wood charcoal briquettes without a binder.
However, the use of briquettes in Malaysia is very low; in addition, although charcoal briquettes are of superior quality, they are not widely used. In rural areas, charcoal briquettes cannot compete with the availability of cheap fuels such as wood residues, charcoal, kerosene and diesel. As an illustration, the market value for charcoal is about $M 0.30/kg, while the cheapest charcoal briquettes available cost $M 1.20/kg. In urban areas, the low usage of charcoal briquettes is mainly due to a lack of market promotion rather than pricing. A random survey of 50 restaurants in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur indicated that they had no knowledge of charcoal briquettes for barbecuing. However, they would be willing to pay a higher premium for a better, cleaner and more convenient product.
Almost 100 percent of the briquettes produced are for export to the Republic of Korea, Japan and Taiwan Province of China. As a result, 90 percent of the briquettes are charcoal since they are preferred over wood briquettes in terms of cost savings in transportation and storage. The rapid development in the wood briquetting industry in the country over the past few years has indicated that there might be a reasonable economic return for the production and sale of carbonized briquettes.
The financial analysis of the briquetting industry in Malaysia indicated that the industry is very attractive to new investors. However, the healthy development of the industry will be dependent on the following factors.
(Extracted from: The development of the wood and charcoal briquettes industry in Malaysia, by Dr Hoi Why Kong.)
For more information, please contact: Dr Hoi Why Kong, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Fax: (+60 3) 6367753.
Le bassin charbonnier de Bamako, défini géographiquement dans le cadre de la mise en uvre de la Stratégie énergie domestique (SED), comporte: 106 villages, 27 arrondissements et
13 cercles répartis sur quatre régions administratives: Koulikoro, Ségou, Sikasso et Kayes.
La première enquête-diagnostic de compréhension de la problématique charbonnière sur le terrain au niveau des régions de Koulikoro, Ségou et Sikasso a permis dobtenir une situation densemble de la filière. Cette situation se traduit par une pression anarchique sur les ressources, une production artisanale du charbon, une mauvaise organisation de la commercialisation et un manque de formation des producteurs ruraux.
Les solutions aux problèmes ainsi évoqués ne sont-elles pas dordre organisationnel, technique et pédagogique? En tout cas, la SED envisage la fermeture des zones de production déficitaires en ressources, lorganisation en association des producteurs ruraux, la formation à lorganisation de la commercialisation, la diffusion des réchauds à pétrole et des fourneaux améliorés à charbon de bois et lappui à la mise sur les marchés urbains des briquettes de charbon issues de résidus agro-industriels. (Source: Le bulletin dinformation sur lénergie domestique au Mali, no 3.)
Pour plus de détails, veuillez contacter: Stratégie énergie domestique, DNHE-Square Patrice Lumumba, B.P. 66, Bamako, Mali.
Télécopie: (+223) 23 4830.
Through the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem), the Netherlands Government pursues an active policy on energy conservation and environmental protection. To achieve its goals, Novem is playing an important role in the areas of technological innovation and energy conservation, managing many programmes aimed at environmental protection and improving energy efficiency. In doing so it acts on behalf of several Netherlands Government departments, as well as international organizations such as the International Energy Agency and the European Union, and supports the development and application of new technologies, techniques and instruments.
Novem has the financial resources to undertake projects, and the knowledge and expertise required to support them, and brings together government policy and market developments to bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and its practical application.
The Novem Energy Guide 1998 presents general information on a range of issues related to energy consumption, energy production and environmental impact. The graphs, figures, charts and diagrams provide information about current trends and forecasts of the energy situation in the Netherlands, the European Union and other regions.
For more information, please contact: Mr Theo van Rossum, International Director, NOVEM, Swentiboldstraat 21, Postbus 17, 6130 AA Sittard,
Fax: (+31 464) 528 260;
The Energy from Waste and Biomass (EWAB) Programme, which is managed by Novem, was established to promote the use of waste materials and biomass as energy sources for power generation which should reduce the use of fossil fuels and help to create a sustainable energy supply. Recent publications of EWAB are: Overview of current projects and reports published within the Energy from Waste and Biomass Programme. Status 1 January 1997 and Energy production from waste and biomass.
For more information on the EWAB Programme, please contact: Mr G.J.J. Smakman, Novem, Catherijnesingel 59, PO Box 8242, 3503 RE Utrecht,
Fax: (+31 30) 2316491;
Australasias first wood-pellet fuel plant has been opened in Methven, New Zealand, by the Prime Minister and Rakaia MP Jenny Shipley. Pellet Heating New Zealand Ltds $750 000 [$NZ 1 = US$0.58] plant was ready for the coming heating season, general manager Peter Mony said. The pellets are made from dried and compressed untreated wood waste, such as sawdust or shavings. The finished product resembles chicken feed. The clean-burning pellets have been designed for the companys pellet burners, imported from Canada. The fires have received Canterbury Regional Council clean air approval. Both pellets and burners will carry the Ecoheat trademark.
Mr Mony said the pellet burners were extremely efficient, cost-effective and clean. "Using the wood pellets Ecoheat fires are up to 96 percent heat-energy efficient converting mass to heat energy compared with 50 to 55 percent for a wood burner and 15 to 20 percent for an open fire." He also said that emissions over 24 hours could be as low as one-fifth of those from a traditional log burner. Waste from nearby sawmills will be used in the production of the pellets at Methven. At almost $3 000, the installation costs of the burners were higher than some other options. The pellets would sell for about $5.40 for a 20-kg bag, which should provide up to 40 hours of heating. (Source: Internet.)
Pourquoi le monde rural reste-t-il fermé à la butanisation?
Malgré de fortes subventions, le gaz butane et les équipements restent très onéreux, alors que le bois est une denrée quasiment gratuite. Autre raison, le prix nest pas uniforme sur lensemble du territoire: plus on séloigne de Dakar, plus le prix est élevé, compte tenu du coût du transport. La péréquation serait une solution. Mais elle nemporte pas ladhésion de toutes les parties concernées. Précision importante: il ne sagit pas à moyen terme de remplacer complètement les combustibles ligneux par le butane ou le kérosène. La biomasse est une ressource nationale dont nous devons tirer parti, tout en protégeant lécosystème.
En 1987, vous avez décidé de libéraliser progressivement le transport des produits pétroliers, afin daméliorer la sécurité et lefficacité de la distribution. Est-ce effectif aujourdhui?
Pas encore. Nous nous sommes heurtés à de fortes réticences de la part du syndicat des transporteurs. A notre actif cependant, un aménagement du système daffectation des agréments pour la distribution des produits pétroliers: de nouveaux opérateurs peuvent investir dans ce créneau, sans être bloqués par les anciens. Mais nous devons aller plus loin pour supprimer le monopole de fait et gagner réellement en efficacité.
(Source: Message de la Direction de lénergie, Ministère de lénergie, des mines et de lindustrie.)
Pour plus de détails, veuillez contacter: Direction de lénergie, Ministère de lénergie, des mines et de lindustrie, B.P. 4037, Dakar, Sénégal.
Télécopie: (+221) 32 2400;
Accurate statistics about the supply of and demand for fuelwood are hard to come by, partly because substantial amounts of fuelwood are obtained informally, but also because fuelwood use varies greatly around the country owing to widely differing climatic conditions. In addition, there have been changes in the units of measurement of fuelwood, which have varied for steres and volumetric measures to weight measures, with varying conversion methods.
In 1987, an estimated 12.5 million steres of fuelwood were produced by the state, while recorded production from both public and private sectors was estimated at about 14.2 million steres with an additional 14.2 million steres from undeclared production. In other words, approximately half of the total demand for fuelwood is met by informal cutting in state forests and other sources of fuelwood in agricultural areas.
Figures for fuelwood consumption are also hard to establish.
One estimate gives around 7 m3 (or 4 tonnes, or 9
steres) as the annual energy requirements in terms of
cooking and heating of an "average" rural
household. The Ministry of Forestry supplies large quantities of
fuelwood at highly concessional prices to forest villagers under
the provisions of Articles 31, 32 and 34 of Law No. 6831. These
programmes represent a considerable loss to government revenue,
but are maintained as a social service for remote and low-income
9 796 000 m3
|Consumption/1 000 capita||
|Percentage of total energy||
|Estimated consumption (2010)||
14 118 000 m3
In spite of concessionary arrangements, it is obvious that many villagers have difficulty in obtaining sufficient fuelwood and have to resort to informal collection and the use of various agricultural wastes as fuel. A few households use coal for heating and bottled gas for cooking, but there is a recognized need for more efficient stoves, better insulation, solar panels and more communal laundries, etc. On the other hand, better management of oak coppices, for example, could increase the yield of fuelwood.
Recent work in some forest villages has demonstrated that at least 50 percent of the fuelwood consumed for the washing of clothes can be saved by more efficient heating and washing facilities, and by the use of solar-heated water. Similarly, the productivity of energy forests can be increased from virtually zero to at least 4 m3 of fuelwood/ha/year using simple silvicultural methods, if forest villagers are encouraged and assisted appropriately. (Source: Forests and forestry in Turkey, by Maharaj K. Muthoo.)
For more information and for copies of the publication, please contact: Mr M.K. Muthoo, FAO Representative, Atatürk Bulvari 197, 06680 Ankara, Turkey.
Fax: (+90 312) 4274852;
Agricultural expansion and an ever increasing demand for timber, biomass energy and poles have put undue pressure on our environment. Wood fuel scarcities, especially in high- density population areas, are being felt seriously. The combined effect on the resource base is not good news for Uganda. Until recently, there have been no empirical data on our vegetation and land use for rational plans for sustainable use of the environment. Fortunately for Uganda, this information gap has been closed by the National Biomass Study.
The National Biomass Study project, which has been in operation since 1989, has been assessing and mapping Ugandas woody biomass resources. The main goal of the project is to promote economic, environmentally sound and sustainable management and development of natural resources in Uganda, while simultaneously providing the knowledge, information and data sets necessary to increase the resource base. The project is intended to provide knowledge, information, data sets, analyses and scientific and political scenarios to all relevant users within and outside Uganda, and in particular to the Forest Department and other actors in the forestry sector. (Source: Farmers Digest, No. 2.)
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued new standards for ozone and particulate matters. To address regional sources of pollution, EPA, in cooperation with 37 states, is developing an emissions trading plan for electric power utilities; the plan seeks to place the onus for emissions reduction on major polluters so that small businesses will not be overly burdened with high attainment costs. Areas that achieve early reduction will receive credit towards future emissions. While the new standards are set to take effect in 2004 for ozone and 2005 for particulate matter, EPA will not begin to enforce compliance until 2007 and 2008, respectively, in order to give polluters ample time to comply with the new regulations. (Source: Bio Bulletin, August 1997.)
Green-e the Renewable Electricity Branding Program is the countrys first voluntary certification programme for renewable energy-based electricity products. The Green-e brand is designed to help consumers easily identify certified products having at least 50 percent renewable energy content. (Source: Bio Bulletin, October 1997.)
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