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4. Conclusions

Irrespective of the adoption of direct or indirect strategies to address the negative external effects of agricultural activities, all coastal area agricultural development plans should include standards and criteria related to the effects of agricultural activities on soil and water, for example, and should contain targets for reducing negative externalities. These standards and targets have to be backed up by monitoring, reporting and evaluation systems and by staff training to ensure that the control of negative externalities is given due emphasis throughout the planning, implementation and review process. Conversely, in the context of ICAM, agriculture is entitled to reciprocal protection against the negative impact on it of the activities of other sectors.

ICAM requires the coordinated allocation of resources to different activities to maximize their contribution to sustainable development. Decisions about individual activities must take account of both their direct costs and benefits and their effects on other activities.

Planning for the integrated management of a particular coastal area therefore requires:

This integration must be additional to, and coordinated with, existing sectoral and subsectoral planning.

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