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The text of this publication is based on the following contributions: Acrisols - Schargel (Venezuela); Albeluvisols - Langohr (Belgium) and Targulian (Russia); Alisols - Delvaux (Belgium), Herbillon and Volkov (France) and Constantini (Italy); Andosols - Quantin (France) and Shoji (Japan); Anthrosols - Gong Zi-tong (China) and Kosse (USA); Arenosols-Remmelzwaal (FAO) and Laker (South Africa); Calcisols - Ruellan (France); Cambisols-Laker (South Africa) and Spaargaren (The Netherlands); Durisols - Ellis (South Africa); Ferralsols - Eswaran (USA) and Klamt (Brazil); Fluvisols - Creutzberg (The Netherlands); Gleysols - Blume (Germany) and Zaidelman (Russia); Gypsisols - Ilaiwi (Syria) and Boyadgiev (Bulgaria); Histosols - Driessen (The Netherlands) and Okruszko (Poland); Leptosols - Bridges (UK); Lixisols - Schargel (Venezuela); Luvisols - Deckers and Dudal (Belgium); Nitisols-Sombroek (FAO) and Muchena (Kenya); Planosols - Brinkman (FAO); Plinthosols - Sombroek (FAO); Podzols - Righi (France); Regosols - Arnold (USA); Solonchaks - Loyer (France); Solonetz - Tursina (Russia); Umbrisols - Hollis (UK) and Nemecek (Czechia); Vertisols-Seghal (India).
Two thematic groups have worked out more detailed definitions, descriptions and subdivisions of the Cryosols on one hand, and the Chernozems, Kastanozems and Phaeozems on the other. Cryosols were dealt with by Tarnocai and Smith (Canada), Jakobsen (Denmark), Gilichinsky, Konyushkov, Naumov and Sokolov (Russia), Blume and Broll (Germany), and Bockheim, Kimble, Ping, Sletten and Swanson (USA), whereas the working group on Chernozems, Kastanozems and Phaeozems comprised Bronger (Germany), Gerasimova, Lebedeva, Makeev, Rozanov, Shoba and Sotnikov (Russia) and Pazos (Argentina).
Through secondment to FAO, F.R. Berding reviewed the contributions and existing literature on the Andosols, Phaeozems and Podzols. Many of his suggestions, particularly on the lower level separations of the reference soil groups, have been incorporated.
Many others have contributed through written comments, or through active participation in the discussions during the WRB or past International Reference Base (IRB) meetings. All these contributions are gratefully acknowledged as they have helped to build, refine and actualize the present World Reference Base for Soil Resources.
Special thanks go to J. Lozet and J. Chapelle (Belgium) who went through the meticulous task of translating the WRB publications into French. The efforts of E.M. Bridges (UK) to review the texts are also gratefully acknowledged.
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