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Programme 2.1.1 - Natural Resources

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000
Appropriation 16 775
Expenditure 15 700
Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (1 075)
Over/(Under) Spending, % (6%)
Field Programme   US$ `000
Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 43 847
Extra Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 4 303
TCP and SPFS Delivery 5 485
Total Field Programme Delivery 53 635
Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 3.4
Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 1 981
Technical Support Services, % of delivery 4%
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 44 (2) 10 34 30 4 77%
Information Systems 16 (7) 2 11 11   69%
Meetings 13 (6) 5 12 11 1 92%
Publications 16 (7) 18 27 25 2 169%
Direct Services to Countries 23 (6) 10 27 26 1 117%
Training 10 (3) 3 10 9 1 100%
Total 122 (49) 48 121 112 9 99%


77. The Programme continued to focus on optimum natural resources utilization, including policy and technical advisory services to countries and further methodological work and information support. During programme implementation the mix of output types was modified to respond to increased requests for direct assistance and reduce somewhat the emphasis on production of methodologies and guidelines.

78. Natural Resources Assessment and Planning. As part of a global survey on agricultural water use (Aquastat), volumes on irrigation in Africa, the Near East and the former Soviet Union respectively were produced and distributed in hard copy and electronically on the Internet. A survey on irrigation potential in Africa was conducted. A river basin model for the Niger was developed and tested. An updated land resource information database for Eastern and Southern Africa at 1:1 million scale and guidelines for quality management in soil and plant laboratories were developed, in collaboration with the International Soil Reference and Information Service (ISRIC).

79. Land Use and Land Use Planning. Reports on the application of the Land Resources Information and Evaluation System/Agro-ecological Zone (LRIS/AEZ) approach in the climate change studies for Kenya, Bangladesh, and Nigeria were prepared and training extended for in-country use and development of planning scenarios. Two LRIS/AEZ workshops were conducted in collaboration with RLC and RAP. Crop environmental requirements and yield modelling databases were established as tools for decision-makers. An expert consultation on land degradation and its bio-physical and socio-economic impacts in the South African sub-region resulted in a set of proposals for national, sub-regional and international cooperation for enhancing soil productivity in support of food security. The global AEZ land resource database and the Soil Map of the World were disseminated on CD-ROM. The Perspective Study on long-term scenarios of livestock-crop-land use interactions in developing countries was published. Approaches to land vulnerability assessment for food security in Asia were discussed at a regional workshop. Guidelines were developed for the preparation of Internet-based reports on the state (quantity, quality, sustainability, vulnerability and use) of land resources for food and agriculture in the world.

80. Plant Nutrition Development and Management. National Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems (IPNS) programmes were supported in India, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia through the Asian network on bio- and organic fertilizers. The IPNS data bank on local plant nutrients sources was established and computer programmes for IPNS were developed as an input for FAO perspective studies.

81. Reviews of rockphosphate sources and their suitability for agricultural use were conducted in four West African countries and a brochure issued on rural service centres and fertilizer logistics in the Sudan. Fertilizer strategies in support of crop production intensification for food security were formulated for the Philippines and Pakistan. A review of increased fertilizer efficiency and product development and an impact assessment of fertilizer subsidy elimination and privatization of fertilizer distribution in Ethiopia were completed. A collaborative programme was initiated with the African Centre for Fertilizer Development (ACFD) to study factors for fertilizer use adoption and intensity of use in the communal lands of Zimbabwe. Assistance was provided in developing the Soil Fertility Initiative for Sub-saharan Countries. The world fertilizer situation and outlook was prepared, in collaboration with the World Bank, UNIDO and the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA).

82. Water Development and Management. Computerized diagnostic tools for water use efficiency were developed in cooperation with Southampton University. Guidelines were developed on agricultural practices for increased water use efficiency in support of the SPFS and published in French, Spanish and Arabic. Training manuals on Irrigation Scheme Operation and Maintenance and Drainage of Irrigated Lands were issued and training material on water harvesting technologies reproduced on CD-ROM. Regional seminars on Valley Bottom Development in West and South Africa resulted in recommendations for sustainable wetland development in these sub-regions.

83. A regional seminar on irrigation management transfer from public sector to water users' associations was organized in the Asia region, in collaboration with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI). RAP organized a workshop on modernization of irrigation systems and RNE conducted a regional seminar on the information and decision support system for irrigation system managers to help disseminate this management tool. RNE also organized a regional workshop to assess the potential for use of laser land levelling technology. Roving seminars on crop water use were held in China, Senegal, Nepal, and Central Asia in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

84. Contributions were made to the Global Freshwater Assessment submitted to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development Sub-Committee on Water. Regional seminars on water policy reforms were held in Africa, Central America, the Baltic and the Near East in cooperation with the World Bank and UNDP and national water sector policy reviews were carried out in several countries. An electronic conference on Water Scarcity Management and River Basin Management attracted wide participation.

85. A consultation was held on salinity control and drainage in irrigated lands and a manual produced on methods for rapid assessment of salinity at farm, project and regional levels. Collaboration with the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) resulted in a publication on management of agricultural drainage water quality and collaboration with the Canadian National Water Research Institute led to development of a decision support system to predict down-stream water pollution from agricultural activities. Advice was provided to Egypt and Yemen on policy and technology aspects of wastewater reuse.

86. Within the Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control (PEEM), training materials were developed on the control of vector-borne disease in agricultural development projects and a training course held on health opportunities in water development projects. Assistance was provided to Senegal to control environmental and water related health problems in the Senegal Valley and a Sub-regional Workshop on Irrigation Technology Transfer in Support of Food Security in East and South African countries was organized. As a follow-up to this workshop, pedal pumps and other low-cost equipment were introduced in several FAO projects and a programme was initiated for irrigation technology transfer in West Africa. A manual on low-cost, high frequency, low volume irrigation was completed.

SPFS - Irrigation Extension and Capacity Building

Initiated under the SPFS in Nepal and Zambia an innovative approach has been developed relating to Irrigation Extension and Capacity Building which has proved particularly successful in introducing water use efficient irrigation technologies and in intensifying irrigated crop production. Concepts of participatory training and integrated farmers field school are introduced through multilevel in-service training programmes for irrigation technicians and extension field staff. The approach is now being expanded through multi-lateral investment programmes in Nepal and Zambia and through FAO technical assistance to several countries in Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Bangladesh) and Africa (Ghana, Malawi).

87. Soil Management, Conservation and Reclamation. Support was provided to the Global Network on Integrated Soil Management for Sustainable Use of Salt-Affected Soils. National institutes in 15 countries participating in the Network received assistance to strengthen their programmes on integrated soil management for sustainable agriculture and food security. Support was also extended to the Latin American Conservation Tillage Network (RELACO) and the Asian Soil Conservation Network for the Humid Tropics. Technical contributions were made to the Regional Meeting on Desertification for Latin America and the Caribbean, organized by the Convention for Combating Desertification. A common erosion mapping methodology for coastal areas in the Mediterranean was developed and case studies on improved soil management in Asia were completed.

88. RAF conducted an expert consultation on management of organic material in the Sahel and a workshop on the consolidation and coordination of the International Scheme for the Conservation and Reclamation of African Lands (ISCRAL) was conducted in collaboration with RNE. The expert system for integrating information from a network of developing country institutes on productivity losses caused by soil erosion was further developed.

Programme 2.1.2 - Crops

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 26 062  
  Expenditure 22 248  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (3 814)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (15%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 61 040  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 44 585  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 21 493  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 127 118  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 5.7  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 1 887  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 2%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 51 (15) 5 41 21 20 80%
Information Systems 21 (6) 3 18 18   86%
Meetings 24 (6) 2 20 15 5 83%
Publications 2 (1) 4 5 5   250%
Direct Services to Countries 35 (5) 2 32 29 3 91%
Training 15 (4)   11 8 3 73%
Total 148 (37) 16 127 96 31 86%


89. The overall objective of the Programme is to assist countries in establishing sustainable agricultural systems, improving crop and grassland productivity and creating conditions for enhanced food security and general economic development.

90. Plant Genetic Resources. The main event was the Fourth International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) held in Leipzig (see box). Support was also provided to the Intergovernmental Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) in its efforts to revise the International Undertaking on PGR, in harmony with the Convention of Biological Diversity.

91. In support of the FAO World Information and Early Warning System on Plant Genetic Resources (WIEWS), regional meetings were held in Europe, Africa and Asia and a global network on PGR information was constituted. In addition, the International Mushroom Germplasm Conservation Network, the Global Network on Genetic Resource Conservation and Utilization of Citrus and Citrus Relatives, the Global Network on Tropical and Sub-Tropical Fruit Genetic Resource Conservation and Utilization, and the Global Olive Genetic Diversity Network, were established under the aegis of FAO to facilitate inter-country and inter-regional scientific collaboration on genetic resources conservation evaluation and use.

92. Global and regional crop-related networks on conservation and Utilization of crop genetic resources continued to be developed. International cooperation was sought to update the Report on the State of the World's PGR and the rolling Global Plan of Action on PGR. A handbook on Regeneration of Accessions in Seed Collections: a Decision Guide was jointly published with the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) and the System-wide Genetic Resources Programme (SGRP). Support was provided for establishment of a base collection for tea germplasm in India and kiwi germplasm in China.

Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources

In June 1996 the Fourth International Technical Conference on Plant Genetic Resources which was attended by 150 countries and 54 inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, met in Leipzig, Germany. The Conference adopted a Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources and the Leipzig Declaration and also considered the first Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources. The Global Plan of Action was prepared through a participatory, country-driven process, involving a wide variety of stakeholders: Governments, non-governmental and industry organizations, and individual scientists. A total of 158 Governments prepared Country Reports, assessing the status of their plant genetic resources, as well as their capacity to care for and utilize these resources. Twelve regional and sub-regional meetings were held, where Governments considered regional problems and opportunities, and made recommendations for the Plan. The Report on the State of the World's Plant Genetic Resources is the first comprehensive world-wide assessment of the state of plant genetic resources conservation and use, which identifies the urgent priorities for action which are addressed in the Global Plan of Action. The Report and the Plan are now two major elements of the FAO Global System for the Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources.

93. Crop Management and Diversification. Work continued on the development of inland swamps in Sub-saharan Africa for rice-based food production systems. Reports on oil palm and cotton/cowpea mixed cropping systems were produced. Assistance was provided to the Tropical Asian Maize Network and the Barley Working Group for South America. The Plant Breeding Newsletter covering the economically important crops, was inaugurated through Cornell University and the multidisciplinary CROPINFO database was developed in cooperation with Programme 2.1.1.

94. RLC continued its support to the biotechnology network REDBIO. Inter-regional networks on rice research under Mediterranean climate areas, and the Hybrid Rice Working Group in Latin America and the Caribbean were established. A regional network, was also instituted on the Identification, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild Plants in the Mediterranean. A document on the iso-potential zones of vegetable varieties in the Sahel was published in conjunction with the African Network for Vegetable Research and Development.

95. FAO's Partnership Programmes were used for eight regional expert consultations on industrial crops, the Second World Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare and the First International Sweet Sorghum Conference held in collaboration with Beijing Botanical Garden.

96. Work on horticulture concentrated on technology development and capacity building of National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and NGOs. Expert consultations and sub-regional workshops were held on sector planning and diversification of key commodities, the intensification and diversification of greenhouse crops production in the Mediterranean, and on quality requirements for vegetable crops under protected cultivation in the Mediterranean and Middle East region.

97. Studies on the evolution of irrigated rice yields were carried out with selected NARS in Asia and Africa. The Executive Secretariat of the International Rice Commission continued to be provided and the International Task Force on Hybrid Rice was established jointly with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and NARS.

98. Seed Production and Plant Improvement. Support was provided to member countries to define and strengthen seed policies and programmes and establish systems of seed and planting material production and supply, and seed security. Seed assessments were carried out in all developing regions to elaborate a comprehensive policy approach for seed production development and improvement. A computerized version of the World List of Seed Sources was developed.

99. A Seed Security Network for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) was established and a meeting organized on Seed Security for Food Security to develop regional seed security strategies and coordinated schemes for the rehabilitation of agriculture in disaster prone regions. A Regional Workshop for Training-of-Trainers for Women in Seed and Planting Material Production was held for selected central African countries.

100. Crop Protection. Primary attention was given to achieving consensus on international action to prevent the spread and introduction of plant pests which culminated in the amendment of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) by the Twenty-ninth FAO Conference and establishment of the Secretariat of the Convention (see box). Efforts were also made to widen the scope of phytosanitary measures for plant quarantine and regulated non-quarantine pests. RAP organized expert consultations on strengthening plant quarantine facilities. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures on Surveillance and on Export Certification Systems were endorsed by the Conference.

The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

The IPPC was adopted by the FAO Conference in 1951, amended in 1979 and 1997, and is currently subscribed to by 106 countries. The purpose is to secure common action to prevent the spread and introduction of pests of plants and plant products, and to promote appropriate measures for their control. International trade requires phytosanitary measures that are transparent and non-arbitrary and that do not result in unjustified discriminations or disguised restrictions. This is recognized in the revised Convention text of 1997, which established the Convention as a standard setting Organization. This function is also recognized in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement concluded under the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations. Through a Resolution on interim measures, the FAO Conference decided that the measures identified in the new text of the Convention should be implemented immediately.

101. Field activities in IPM continued to focus on farmer empowerment in rice-based cropping systems in Asia and IPM in vegetables and cotton. National IPM programmes were initiated in Western and Southern Africa. The Global IPM Facility, sponsored together with UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank became fully operational and attracted contributions from bilateral donors. IPM supported networks on weed management, and formulated recommendations on the application of biotechnology in pest management in Asia. A feasibility study on the development of an information system on plant pests (the Global Plant Protection Information System) was completed aiming at a participatory approach to information exchange.

102. Joint UNEP/FAO support continued for the voluntary implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) clause of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides and the London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade. The number of countries having nominated Designated National Authorities for PIC reached 154. Twenty-two pesticides and five industrial chemicals have now been included. UNEP and FAO jointly provided the Secretariat to the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) for the development of an international legally binding instrument for the application of the PIC procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade.

103. New Specifications for Plant Protection Products were published and the FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) in Food and the Environment made recommendations to Codex on Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) in food. Pesticide disposal operations were concluded in Yemen, Zambia and the Seychelles funded by the Netherlands, Germany and TCP.

104. Desert Locust Bulletins and the Atlas on Desert Locust Breeding Habitats were published and a study on the Economics of Desert Locust Control was completed. The EMPRES Programme on Desert Locust became fully operational in the countries around the Red Sea. The EMPRES programme in West Africa continued to be developed and assisted Sahelian countries with surveys in locust recession areas.

105. Grassland and Pastures. Training was organized on grazing and feed resources and expert consultations were held on pastoral systems and mobility rangeland inventory and monitoring. Publications were produced on pastures and livestock under coconuts and the use of shade tolerant forages for tree crop plantations in Asia. A training manual was prepared on range-dependent small ruminant systems in the Near East, where improvement of degraded rangelands through re-seeding, enclosure and the establishment of grazing committees with a participatory approach through local herders was supported.

106. FAO assisted the UN Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Desertification with materials on food security in arid rangelands. Assistance to the development of appropriate hay production systems in cool temperate Asian areas continued and work initiated on a number of high altitude transhumant systems, as well as several forage databases.

Programme 2.1.3 - Livestock

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 17 667  
  Expenditure 16 072  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (1 595)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (9%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 26 392  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 1 112  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 9 988  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 37 492  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 2.3  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 2 170  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery


Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 40 (13) 5 32 25 7 80%
Information Systems 9 (1) 2 10 9 1 111%
Meetings 8 (1)   7 7   88%
Publications 2   5 7 6 1 350%
Direct Services to Countries 13 (3)   10 9 1 77%
Training 23 (5) 1 19 19   83%
Total 95 (23) 13 85 75 10 89%


107. The Programme concentrates on optimum utilization of the diverse and essential contributions of livestock to food security and sustainable agricultural development.

108. Livestock Information Systems, Policy and Planning. Data banks and information systems were further developed, with the Animal Health Yearbook available both in printed form and on the Internet. An Animal Health Information System was developed for the Pacific Island Countries. The global information network on feed and feeding systems was established and a database on livestock production systems completed. General livestock resource intelligence was enhanced through the application of Geographical Information Systems, and predictive modelling and multivariate analysis.

109. An evaluation of the prototype Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) was conducted by targeted users in 90 countries, providing guidance on how countries can benefit from designing and implementing strategies for managing animal genetic resources. Workshops in the use of the System at country level were held for national co-ordinators in each region. Development of DAD-IS as a WAICENT module was delayed due to the unavailability of extra-budgetary support.

110. The second edition of the World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity was issued in French and Spanish. Personal computer-based Livestock Development Planning Systems were developed as tools for decision-makers at regional and sector level. An expert consultation was conducted in RLC on non-tariff trade barriers, resulting in the establishment of regional information and capacity building networks.

111. A global multi-donor study on livestock-environment interactions was completed. It included an electronic conference, and face-to-face consultations in 16 developing countries. Strategy development was initiated for countries affected by recurrent droughts to redefine policies and contingency plans for coping with the livestock related aspects. Support was provided to the Commission for Livestock Development in Latin America and the Caribbean and to the Animal Production and Health Commission in Asia and the Pacific. A new and innovative Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) became operational (see box).

The Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT)

PAAT is a concerted effort by FAO, the IAEA, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and WHO, major donor groupings, research entities world-wide and the network of liaison officers and field programme staff across the tsetse infested subcontinent with a view to:

  • addressing the distorted distribution of livestock and, thereby the development of mixed crop-livestock farming systems, in the subhumid ecozone; and
  • containing Sleeping Sickness in areas where it has recently assumed epidemic proportions, in particular Sudan, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola.

Under this Programme, meetings of their various statutory and coordinating bodies have been put under the common umbrella of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control (ISCTRC), thereby facilitating decision-making and programme implementation.
Support to PAAT has been confirmed by representatives of all the major donor countries and international funding and technical assistance agencies.

112. An electronic conference on Principles for Rational Delivery of Public and Private Veterinary Services for Africa, resulted in the formulation of general guidelines for the organization of veterinary services and improved sharing of responsibilities between the national public veterinary services, the private veterinary sector and the livestock producers and their organizations.

113. Peri-urban and Intensive Production and Supply Systems. Characterization of the urban and peri-urban production systems in different geographic areas of the world was completed. It included waste disposal and utilization from production units and processing facilities. Analysis of the animal health situation and veterinary services and of the veterinary public health status was completed in various cities, with special emphasis on the potential transmission of zoonotic diseases from animals, animal products and waste.

114. Mixed Farming Systems. Priority was placed upon integrated crop-livestock and supply system development in the Asian and African Regions. A GIS based information and decision support system on livestock and related resources and services was initiated to maximize impact at country level.

115. Resource constraints resulted in reduction of activities in milk and meat technology, and delays in the production of some publications.

116. Pastoral and Extensive Grazing Systems. Technical reviews of newer forage crops (Opuntia, Prosopis) and regional workshops focused attention on the positive environmental effects and potential for sustainable forage-livestock production in sylvo-pastoral systems. A series of technical manuals on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Africa was published with extra-budgetary support. The promotion and dissemination of information on sylvo-pastoral systems in Latin America and the development of a rational balance between private and public delivery of veterinary services, particularly in Africa were also actively supported. Several activities relating to meat preservation could not be completed.

117. Domestic Animal Genetic Diversity. The Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources was formulated to spearhead national actions. Technical focal points were identified in 73 countries and a range of field activities carried out. Collaboration continued with the CGIAR, UNEP and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Secretariat. Extra-budgetary funding was sought for the cost-effective development and implementation of the Global Strategy. The primary guidelines for assisting countries to develop national action strategies were completed and the preparation of secondary guidelines commenced. An ad hoc Group of Experts met to assist in development of the intergovernmental mechanism for animal genetic resources within the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

118. Technical assistance was provided to countries to survey and characterize their animal genetic resources, for ex situ and in situ conservation and for the better utilization of adapted animal genetic resources. The second edition of the World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity was issued in French and Spanish. A technical symposium focused on actions required for the sustainable development of farm animal genetic resources.

119. Transboundary Animal Diseases. The scope of the EMPRES programme was further refined through Technical and Expert Consultations. A paper was prepared on the epidemiological determinants of rinderpest disease events and was presented to the Technical Consultation Meeting on the Global Rinderpest Education Programme (GREP) held in Rome in 1996. It facilitated strategy development for each country in Africa, West and South Asia to attain internationally verifiable freedom from rinderpest infection. Assistance was provided to national veterinary authorities enabling them to successfully contain and control the rinderpest emergency in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

120. Support continued to be provided to the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, in collaboration with the European Commission for the Control of FMD and the Office international des épizooties (OIE). A Joint Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)/OIE/FAO international conference at the ministerial level was convened in Brasilia, Brazil, and resulted in the Brasilia Declaration which committed member countries to the objective of foot-and-mouth disease eradication from the Americas by the year 2009. An IFAD funded project for developing national early warning systems for rinderpest, FMD, PPR and brucellosis through epidemiological surveillance in countries of North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Middle East was implemented. RLC convened expert group meetings on ticks and hemiparasites.

Programme 2.1.4 - Agricultural Support Systems

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 15 987  
  Expenditure 14 973  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 (1 014)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (6%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 22 588  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 21  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 5 612  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 28 211  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 1.9  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 1 931  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery


Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 24 (8) 6 22 19 3 92%
Information Systems 20 (6) 7 21 20 1 105%
Meetings 17 (2) 3 18 18   106%
Publications 30 (2) 12 40 39 1 133%
Direct Services to Countries 14 (4) 1 11 11   79%
Training 18 (4) 2 16 14 2 89%
Total 123 (26) 31 128 121 7 104%


121. The Programme covers the application of resource economics principles to enhance household food security, promotion and dissemination of value added transformation technologies in food processing and agro-industries, market reform and rural finance policies and services, and improved efficiency in farm power, storage and post harvest technologies.

122. Farm Management and Economics. Assistance was provided to ten countries in West Africa for developing national action plans for sustainable settlement of high-potential zones freed from Onchocerciasis (river blindness). In Asia and Africa, critical factors affecting sustainable intensification of production systems were identified through case studies undertaken in 12 countries. Additional case studies provided information on the economics of water harvesting in Africa. Support for the institutionalization of the farming systems approach included development of extension guidelines and curricula review, assistance to regional farming systems associations, and publication of an electronic newsletter.

123. A regional workshop was held in Eastern Europe on the use of farm data and farm business management and an expert consultation was organized in the Asia and the Pacific region on methodologies for generating cost-of-production data. Training guidelines were developed for use of farm data in policy analysis and planning. Farmers' responses to adjustment were assessed in two African countries. A global needs assessment was carried out on country requirements for farm data and data analysis support.

124. Agricultural Engineering. Guidelines on Strategy Formulation were finalized and a regional workshop was organized in southern Africa. Guidelines and International Standards on Pesticide Application Equipment were drafted, and discussed with working groups and a panel of experts was held in collaboration with Programme 2.1.2 to discuss and approve the Standards. Assistance was provided to the founding of the Association for Pesticide Application Technology in MERCOSUR countries. A regional workshop on conservation tillage was held at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in West Africa. Support was given to the Latin America Conservation Tillage Network. A regional seminar on Gender Issues related to agricultural mechanization was organized in Zimbabwe and a Gender Awareness package was prepared. A study on the Potential for the Improvement of Production Tools for Women Farmers in Africa was undertaken in cooperation with IFAD. An electronic version of the International Directory of Agricultural Engineering Institutions was disseminated. Regional networks on Agricultural Engineering and Animal Traction were supported in Africa. A global assessment of farm power was undertaken in support of the study Agriculture Towards 2015. A workshop on the Testing and Evaluation of Agricultural Machinery was held in West Africa. Technical backstopping of emergency project remained an ongoing activity. Three regional studies on International Trade in Used Machinery were carried out and two seminars held on Draft Animal Technology.

125. Post-Harvest Management. Studies were made concerning gender and the role of children in the post-harvest sector, and the economic impact of improved horticultural varieties on post harvest operations. Field studies were undertaken to evaluate a new Post-Harvest Framework, a methodology to determine the key constraints which occur throughout the post-production sector. It was not possible to complete a number of technical leaflets on the prevention of food losses in specific commodity areas and a study on the financial impact of the post harvest sector in national economies, due to vacant posts.

126. Agro-Industries. Guidelines were prepared and assistance provided, particularly through TCDC arrangements to assist small-scale entrepreneurs to improve processing of fruits and vegetables, handling practices and small-scale sugar processing techniques. Assistance was also given to small-scale entrepreneurs on development of food and beverage products that could be commercially viable in local and regional markets. Work continued on the application of food irradiation for insect disinfestation and food safety. The elaboration of the functional properties of starches from developing countries was initiated in collaboration with institutions in Latin America. RAP convened an expert consultation on the processing of by-products from paddy rice.

Coconut Water Process

While many developing countries can grow large quantities of coconuts, the markets for this basic commodity have suffered a decline. FAO has received a number of requests for technical assistance in this sector, particularly related to diversifying and expanding the range of processed coconut products. Currently, coconut water is being manufactured using the same pasteurization equipment used for UHT (Ultra High Temperature) milk and juices. Unfortunately, fresh coconut water is an extremely sensitive product and loses its unique delicate flavour when subjected to heat treatment of any kind. This severely limits the marketability of the product.
In order to overcome this problem, FAO developed a new method for processing coconut water which can be sterilized without the use of any heat and will thus retain the delicate flavour and the nutritional benefits of the original, fresh product. This will, in turn, encourage the increased consumption of this product and realize the economic potential for those countries utilizing this technology.
FAO took out a patent on the coconut water process, initially in the US, UK and Japan and it will be expanded world-wide.

127. Work in the non-food area such as fibres (cotton, sisal and jute) and in the establishment of germplasm banks for silkworm and mulberry was limited by resource constraints.

128. Marketing. Promotion of efficient facilitating services by Governments in the context of market liberalization and support to the private sector continued. Improved marketing information systems were supported through field projects in Cambodia, Zambia, Tanzania, Bhutan, the publication of guidelines and the development of a new software package. The programme on Food into Cities organized a seminar for Francophone West Africa on the impact of rapid urbanization on urban food marketing systems and strengthening rural-urban linkages (see box).

129. Studies were undertaken on legislative constraints to agricultural marketing liberalization and export crop marketing liberalization issues in Africa. Assistance was provided to four regional TCDC marketing associations on Inventory Credit Schemes (Near East), Strategic Grain Reserves (Africa), Marketing Planning (Latin America) and Urban Food Marketing and Wholesale Markets (Asia). Four Marketing and Agribusiness Training textbooks and teachers' manuals to support Universities and Colleges in improving their training capabilities were published.

Food Supply and Distribution

Due attention is being given to the consequences of rapid urbanization on the efficiency and dynamism of private-sector driven food marketing systems and consequently, on the food security of urban areas. In April 1997, a sub-regional seminar Food Supply and Distribution to Francophone African Cities, organized by FAO and the Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA) in Dakar, was attended by over 100 participants, including Mayors of African cities.

The seminar stressed the need to reduce the cost of food supply and distribution by interventions to rationalize and modernize food marketing systems; to develop technical specialization at all levels, and particularly at municipal level; and to strengthen the capacity to identify and formulate appropriate development and investment programmes which take increasing food distribution requirements into account.

Following the seminar, the African Mayors released a declaration in which they affirmed the importance of the role of local authorities in the enhancement of the food security of urban populations in Africa.

As a result, a global programme entitled Food into Cities has been launched, to increase awareness of the relationship between urbanization, food marketing and food security issues; to strengthen technical skills at central and local levels in understanding private food marketing systems; and to promote the incorporation of food marketing development in investment programmes at municipal, city and regional levels.

130. Rural Finance. A major initiative was launched in collaboration with the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) called Agricultural Finance Revisited, with the major issues being tested in the Scheme for Agricultural Credit Development (SACRED) Consultations. In this regard, policy issues were discussed at the Seventh Technical Consultation on SACRED, held in conjunction with the General Assembly of the Asia and Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA). Support was given to information exchange on rural financial markets, within the framework of SACRED and the four Regional Associations (RACAs). The work on collateral issues and guarantee funds led to a video on Safeguarding Savings, in collaboration with the World Savings Banks Institute. Development and promotion of the FAO MicroBanking System software continued. Direct support was provided to several countries on crop insurance and rural banking services.

Programme 2.1.5 - Agricultural Applications of Isotopes and Biotechnology

Programme Outcome

Regular Programme   US$ `000  
  Appropriation 4 998  
  Expenditure 4 722  
  Over/(Under) Spending, US$ `000 ( 276)  
  Over/(Under) Spending, % (6%)  
Field Programme   US$ `000  
  Extra-Budgetary TF and UNDP Delivery 10 342  
  Extra-Budgetary Emergency Project Delivery 354  
  TCP and SPFS Delivery 2 035  
  Total Field Programme Delivery 12 731  
  Ratio of Field to Regular Programme 2.7  
  Technical Support Services, Prof. Staff Cost 390  
  Technical Support Services, % of delivery 3%  
Programme Outputs
  Approved in PWB Cancelled/Postponed Unplanned Delivered Total Delivered


Percent Delivered
Unmodified Modified
Methodologies and Guidelines 10 (1)   9 9   90%
Information Systems       0      
Meetings 2   4 6 6   300%
Publications       0     %
Direct Services to Countries 12   3 15 14 1 125%
Training 7 (1) 1 7 7   100%
Total 31 (2) 8 37 36 1 119%


131. The Programme, which is implemented jointly with IAEA, focuses on the use of nuclear techniques and biotechnology with emphasis on strengthening national capabilities to develop and disseminate appropriate technologies for increasing food production, controlling crop pests and animal diseases, reducing food losses and protecting consumers and the environment.

132. Assistance was provided to the agricultural research and regulatory systems in member countries through 42 thematic research networks, 56 training courses and workshops and over 200 field projects.

133. Contribution to Improvement of Crop and Livestock Productivity. Technical and managerial options for using water and nutrients efficiently and sustainably in cropping systems were field tested with the help of soil moisture probes and labelled fertilizers. This included evaluation of the CERES-wheat model in 18 countries in cooperation with the International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) and the U.S. International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC) and Nitrogen fertilizer application practices and Rhizobium inoculant quality in several African countries participating in the SPFS.

134. Concerning induced mutation techniques in combination with modern biotechnology, support was provided to countries on the identification of new gene sources for plant characters which limit traditional crop production, with success being reported in the development of non-shattering sesame, fast-cooking cassava with improved starch quality, white-grain African rice and early, lodging-resistant sorghum. Improvement of rice adaptability to adverse conditions has led to large scale trials in Latin America where promising mutants developed under national programmes are being agronomically evaluated in 8 countries.

135. Efforts to establish in vitro culture and molecular genetics facilities, and to train national counterparts continued in many countries. In this regard, an important breakthrough was achieved in breeding for Bayoud disease resistance in date palm which was disseminated through projects in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and a monograph produced entitled Bayoud Disease of Date Palm. A free distribution service was provided to member countries for DNA probes to facilitate the application of molecular marker technology in evaluating genetic biodiversity and controlled gene transfer in breeding programmes.

136. Contribution to Crop Protection and Control of Livestock Diseases. A major achievement in utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT) for managing insect pests was the eradication of the tsetse fly from Zanzibar Island (see box). Substantial progress was also made towards eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Latin American countries where a successful eradication project in Chile was expanded into southern Peru and negotiations were initiated to achieve fly-free status for commercial fruit production in the Mendoza Province of Argentina. A generic model was developed to permit detailed economic assessments of alternative area wide options for controlling or eradicating medflies, and its use was instrumental in establishing a SIT project between Israel and Jordan to support horticultural development.

Tsetse fly eradicated on the Island of Zanzibar

A four-year campaign on the island of Zanzibar has achieved a historic breakthrough in the battle against the tsetse fly - an insect that causes hundreds of millions of dollars of damage every year and has forced farmers and herdspeople to abandon wide areas of land across Africa. Using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), the campaign succeeded in completely ridding the island of the flies that carry the parasitic cattle disease of trypanosomiasis. FAO and IAEA cooperated with the Government of Tanzania, supported by IFAD, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Fund and the Governments of Belgium, Canada, China, Sweden, the United Kingdom and USA. The campaign was the last step in a ten-year battle to rid the island of the tsetse fly. FAO/UNDP control activities, by using conventional methods - such as treating cattle with pesticides - first brought tsetse populations down to levels that made eradication using the SIT, a viable option.

Tsetse mass-breeding technology and procedures were developed at the FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, and transferred to the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (TTRI) in Tanga, Tanzania. Eight million sterile male flies were released during the eradication campaign. At the end of 1997, an independent expert group confirmed that, since September 1996, no wild flies had been captured. In addition to monitoring the presence of the fly, which is small and difficult to find, routine blood samples are being taken from cattle to be tested for trypanosomes.

137. Support was provided to national, regional and global initiatives to eradicate or control transboundary animal diseases (rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), FMD and CBPP) within the frameworks of GREP and EMPRES and in close coordination with OIE and donors. Using immunoassay and molecular-based diagnostic tests for seromonitoring of vaccination programmes and disease surveillance, national authorities were able to identify and remove remaining pockets of infection in a number of countries.

138. Contribution to Consumer and Environmental Protection and Reduction of Food Losses. Expanded support was given to Codex Standards and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement, relating to food irradiation, pesticide residues and radionuclide contaminants. As a result, the North American Plant Protection Organization issued a Regional Standard recognizing the effectiveness of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables against fruit fly infestation. ASEAN and a number of countries in Africa and Latin America agreed to adopt a common regulation on food irradiation comparable to the Codex Standard. A regional seminar on food irradiation was held in Morocco, cosponsored by WHO, the International Trade Centre (ITC) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa. Assistance was also provided to 8 countries in conducting feasibility studies to establish commercial food irradiation facilities. Also, a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Study Group investigating the hygiene quality of food irradiation with doses above the Codex Standard concluded that food was wholesome and nutritionally adequate, regardless of absorbed dose.

139. Construction commenced on a 250 m2 expansion to the existing laboratories for the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre for Food and Pesticide Control at Seibersdorf in Austria. A comprehensive implementation plan was prepared to assist countries in complying with Codex Standards and the International Code of Conduct on Pesticides. Russia, Belarus and Ukraine were assisted in harmonizing their food control regulations in line with the Codex Standard and in developing effective milk and meat radionuclide decontamination measures, leading to renewed marketing and trade of these products following the Chernobyl accident.

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