Asia-Pacific Forestry Towards 2010: Report of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study

Table of Contents




Forestry Policy and Planning Division, Rome
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok

Rome, 1998

Reprinted 1999

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Table of Contents

Abbreviations used in the report




Executive summary

Part I: Context and background

1. Introduction

Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission Mandate
Objectives of the study
Scope of the study
Study methods and approaches
Evolving perspectives on the value and use of forests

2. Social and economic background to the study


Trends and current status
Pressures on the land
Future population projections

Economic development

Trends and current status
The foundations for economic growth
Future economic projections
Resilience of economies

The economic importance of forestry in the region

Part II: Sector status and trends

3. The demands placed upon forests

Introduction and overview
Services of forests

Types of services of forests
Socio-cultural roles and nature-based ecotourism
Agricultural services of forests and trees
Watershed services of forests
Carbon sequestration
Conservation of wildlife habitats and biological diversity values
Services of mangrove ecosystems
A setting for the future

Non-wood forest products

Types of non-wood forest products
Trends in consumption, production and trade of NWFPs
Issues and possible responses
A setting for the future

Woodfuels and energy

Status and trends
Demand for woodfuels
Woodfuels supply
Potential demand and supply balance of woodfuels
Selected policy challenges
A setting for the future

Industrial wood products

Trends in production and consumption
Demands on resources and possible responses

4. Forest resources and land use

Asia-Pacific forest resources in world perspective
Historical patterns of land-use change
Deforestation and changes in forest type and quality

Causes of deforestation and forest degradation
Effects of deforestation and forest degradation

Status and trends in forest resources

Distribution of forest resources within the region
Importance of forest resources to individual countries
Current uses of forest resources within the region
Status and trends related to protected areas
The increasing importance of plantations in the region
Status and trends related to trees outside forests

Current status of forest management

Forest management objectives
Management of natural forests
Management of plantations
Management of non-wood forest products (NWFPs)
Efforts to achieve sustainable forest management

Potential for supplying forest products and services

Current potential wood and fibre supplies from natural forests
Current potential wood and fibre supplies from industrial forest plantations
Current potential wood and fibre supplies from trees outside forests
Potential wood and fibre supplies in comparison with current demand
Current potential for supplying non-wood forest products and services

5. Trade

Trade conditions

Significant features of international trade

Important influences on trade

Developments related to tariffs
Non-tariff barriers (NTBs)
Impediments to trade

Non-wood forest products (NWFPs)

6. People and forests

The nature of people/forest relationships
Common considerations
Forests central to livelihoods

Old and new forest dwellers
How forests support forest dwellers

Forests as a complementary basis for livelihood

Collaborative approaches to forest management
Growing trees outside the forest

Forests and urban people

Context and definitions
Status of urban forestry in the region
Issues facing future urban forestry development in the region

7. Policies and institutions

The policy environment

A time of change
Factors influencing policy changes
Policy reform in the forestry sector
Major policy challenges

Institutions for forestry

Relevance of a wide range of institutions
Current government roles in forestry
The commercial private sector
Institutions for community-level popular participation
Industry/community partnerships
Major institutional challenges

8. A summary of the present - a setting for the future

From the past - the future
Key forestry themes in the Asia-Pacific region

Increase in demand for forest products and services
Increasing restrictions on access to forests
Growing pressures for sustainable forest management
Greater attention to multiple roles of forests
Trade will remain important
Increasing globalisation and regionalisation in forestry industry
Demands for social equity will continue and increase
New roles for all sector participants

Part III: The outlook

9. Major driving forces and challenges for the future

Driving forces for change

Summary of key driving forces
Selected major driving forces influencing the future

What are the challenges and potentials?

Broad challenge - achieving appropriate leadership
Services of forests
Non-wood forest products
Wood energy
Industrial wood products
Challenges related to people and forests
Challenges related to forest and tree resources
Challenges related to policies and institutions

10. The outlook for Asia-pacific forestry

Outlook for the demands placed on forests

Outlook for services of forests and for non-wood forest products
Outlook for consumption, production and trade for wood-based forest products
The impacts of the current economic downturn

Outlook for forest resources and land use

Prospective land-use evolution
Outlook for the area of natural forests
Outlook for protected areas
Outlook for the area of plantations
Outlook for trees outside the forest
Potential wood and fibre supply prospects for the region

The setting for policy choices

Wood and fibre supply/demand matching

11. Implications and choices

Policy implications and choices

The scope of policy choices
Policy options

Summary of implications
Alternative scenarios for future forestry policies

Background to the policy analysis
Options for the future
Synthesis and common themes for future policy development

Indicative implications for investment

Investments needs in maintenance and general protection of forests
Investment needs for rehabilitation of degraded natural forests
Investment needs for development and maintenance of protected area systems
Investment needs for forest plantation development
Investment needs for non-forest sources of wood products
Investment needs in wood harvesting capacity
Investment needs in sawmilling capacity
Investment needs in the wood-based panels industry
Investment needs in the paper and paperboard sector
Investment needs for non-wood forest products and services
Total indicative average annual investment needs in Asia-pacific forestry

Implications and choices for regional co-operation

Annex: APFSOS working paper series