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FOREWORD

The idea of publishing The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture was conceived in 1995 in recognition of the growing demand for reliable information on the subject. Since there was no periodical providing a global and comprehensive view of the sector and covering policy issues, the FAO Fisheries Department decided to publish such a report every two years. The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1996 serves as a benchmark document, as it provides an initial overview of world fisheries and aquaculture and places the sector in a longer-term perspective by examining trends from 1950 to the present, while also looking ahead to the year 2010.

While providing a similar overview, this issue of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture examines developments in the sector from the perspective of sustainability in fisheries and aquaculture. The report aims to shed light on the need for and effects of good governance in fisheries and aquaculture, while also highlighting two closely related issues: the establishment of an enabling environment for aquaculture activity and the integration of fisheries into coastal zone management.

With regard to capture fisheries, matching fishing capacity with available resources and managing by-catch and discards are the main points considered. Several other questions are posed on a more general level. Are fisheries and aquaculture any closer to being sustainably managed as a result of current changes in approach? Do these changes increase the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to sustainable development? Are international initiatives to support this process helping to head the sector in the right direction?

The need to promote implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, especially in relation to the allocation of fishing rights, is made evident throughout The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1998, which discusses existing practices in the management of fishing capacity as well as new approaches being adopted by some countries, such as individual transferable quotas (ITQs). A review of patterns in the employment of fishers and an analysis of trends in the world fishing fleet add to the report's value.

Updated information on past and present trends and expected future developments in fisheries resources, production, utilization and trade is complemented by discussions of major issues facing fishers and aquaculturists and a report on the most recent actions taken in the area of fisheries.

The principal purpose of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture is to inform policy-makers, participants in fisheries and civil society in an accurate and objective manner. Furthermore, by generating awareness of the global interaction inherent to the sector, it seeks to encourage managers and other decision-makers to learn from the experience of others. By doing so, we trust our report will contribute to national, regional and global efforts in ensuring responsible practices and sustainable development in fisheries and aquaculture.

Moritaka Hayashi
Assistant Director-General
Fisheries Department

 

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1998 was prepared by FAO Fisheries Department staff, led by a team comprising U. Wijkstr÷m, A. Gumy and R. Grainger. General direction was provided by the department's management staff, including: J. Caddy; I. Feidi; S. Garcia; M. Hayashi; J. Jia; B. Satia; J. Valdemarsen; G. Valdimarsson.

Texts for the first section of Part 1, The state of fishery resources: trends in production, utilization and trade, were provided by J. Csirke (resources), R. Grainger (production, capture fisheries), K. Rana (production, aquaculture) and H. Josupeit (trade).

Contributors to Part 2, Selected issues facing fishers and aquaculturists, included D. Doulman (governance), R. Willmann (integrating fisheries), D. Greboval (fishing capacity), G. Everett (by-catch and discards) and Z. Shehadeh (sustainable aquaculture), whose original texts were coordinated by consultant M. Sanders.

In Part 3, Inland fisheries resources: their status and use was written by J. Kapetsky. Texts for the section Fishers and fishing fleets were contributed by A. Crispoldi, R. Grainger and A. Smith.

Part 4, Outlook: expected trends in supply and demand, was written by U. Wijkstr÷m. Part 5, Fishery activities of country groupings, was written by A. Gumy.

Several staff as well as non-FAO authors have contributed texts on specific issues, and they are cited in the relevant boxes throughout the publication. Data for the original version of graphics were provided by S. Montanaro.

Most staff members of the FAO Fisheries Department have contributed in one way or another to this year's report. Many, including staff in FAO Regional and Subregional Offices, provided valuable input in the form of critical text reviews.

The Editorial Group of the FAO Information Division was responsible for the editing, design and desktop publishing of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 1998.

 

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GLOSSARY

AFFP
Arab Federation of Fish Producers

AFMA
Australian Fisheries Management Authority

AFTA
ASEAN Free Trade Area

AIS
automatic identification systems

ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations

CAC
Codex Alimentarius Commission

CAP
Common Agricultural Policy (EC)

CARICOM
Caribbean Community and Common Market

CECAF
Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic

CEPT
Common Effective Preferential Tariff (ASEAN)

CET
common external tariff

CFP
Common Fisheries Policy (EC)

CFRAMP
CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Program

CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency

CIDA
Inter-American Committee for Agricultural Development

CITES
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

COFI
Committee on Fisheries (FAO)

COMESA
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

CPUE
catch per unit effort

DWFN
Distant-Water Fishing Nations

EC
European Community

EEZ
exclusve economic zone

EIA
environmental impact assessment

EIFAC
European Inland Fisheries Advisory Committee

EPIRB
emergency position-indicating radio beacon

EU
European Union

FFA
South Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency

FIFG
Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (EC)

FRDC
Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia)

GAA
Global Aquaculture Alliance

GEF
Global Environment Facility

GESAMP
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection
(IMO/FAO/UNESCO - IOC/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP)

GIS
geographic information system

GMDSS
Global Maritime Distress Safety System

GPS
global positioning system

GRT
gross registered ton

GT
gross tonnage or tonnage (abbrev.)

HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (system)

HP
horsepower

IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency

IATTC
Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

ICCAT
International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

ICLARM
International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management

ICM
integrated coastal management

IMO
International Maritime Organization

INMARSAT
International Maritime Satellite Organization

IOC
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

ITQ
individual transferable quota

IUCN
World Conservation Union

LAES
Latin American Economic System

LIFDC
low-income food-deficit country

MAC
Management Advisory Committee (Australia)

MAGP
Multi-Annual Guidance Programme (EC)

MCS
monitoring, control and surveillance

MLS
minimum landing size

MPN
most probable number

MSY
maximum sustainable yield

MTNs
multilateral trade negotiations

NACA
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific

NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement

NEI
not elsewhere indicated

NGO
non-governmental organization

OIE
International Office of Epizootics

OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OLDEPESCA
Latin American Organization for Fisheries Development

PRA
participatory rural appraisal

RRA
rapid rural appraisal

SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

SCRS
Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (ICCAT)

SEAFDEC
Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre

SPC
Secretariat of the Pacific Community

SPF
South Pacific Forum

SPS Agreement
Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

TAC
total allowable catch

TBT
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade

TURFS
territorial use rights in fisheries

UNCED
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNCLOS
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme

VMS
vessel monitoring system

WECAFC
Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission

WHO
World Health Organization

WMO
World Meteorological Organization

WRI
World Resources Institute

WTO
World Trade Organization

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