Table Of Contents

THE ROLE OF IGAD IN PROMOTING COLLABORATION NETWORKS AMONG MEMBER COUNTRIES

ROSEMARIE R.N. KIGAME (MRS)
IGAD Desk
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources
P.O. Box 30126
Nairobi, Kenya.

Background

The Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGAD) sub-region has been in the limelight with problems associated with recurring droughts, internal and sub-regional conflicts, food insecurity and environmental degradation. In an attempt to address these problems, while also convinced that drought and desertification can be combated effectively through development, the Member States, (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda) established in 1986 the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD). In 1993, the State of Eritrea became the seventh member of the Authority.

At the beginning of 1995, it became clear that the original IGAD priorities and strategies required revisiting to enable the institution to respond to the emerging sub-regional challenges. The member states were convinced that the current economic problems as well as poverty can be addressed effectively through closer economic co-operation, infrastructure development, food security and environment protection and conflict prevention, management and resolution. As a result, a declaration to revitalise and expand the mandate of IGAD was signed in April 1995. The Declaration took into account the development issues. The Declaration which was signed by the Heads of State paved the way for the birth of a dynamic institution on development, ably revitalised in content, orientation and structure.

IGAD Priority areas

The IGAD strategy is based on its overall policy objectives which is sustainable economic development in which regional co-operation and integration is given special impetus and high priority to promote long-term collective self-sustaining and integrated social-cultural and economic development. However, due to its limited capacity, IGAD currently concentrates on its three priority areas which are Food, Security and Environment Protection, Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution as well as Humanitarian Affairs, and Infrastructure Development. IGAD’s vision is based on determination of the governments of the sub-region to pool resources and co-ordinate development activities thus enabling the sub-region to interact and compete in global economy on behalf of its inhabitants; this will eventually lead to regional integration.

Policy organs and function of the Authority

IGAD has three policy levels of operations namely the Heads of State and Government level, who are the ultimate decision makers for sanctioning and ratifying new initiatives and policies; the Council of Ministers, who administer the operation of the organisation at policy level and ensure that implementation at the national levels takes place; and the Committee of Ambassadors who work closely with the Secretariat on matters already approved by the Council but may need further clarification to put them into concrete programmes and plan of actions. The policy organs provide direction and advice to the executive secretariat as and when required.

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government meets once a year and at any time upon request of any member state if accepted by a two thirds majority. The Council of Ministers is composed of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and one other focal Minister designated by each member state. The Council may establish ad hoc sectoral ministerial committees to deal with issues in their respective sectors. The Council meets twice a year at any time upon request fro member state. The committees meet as often as is necessary for the attainment of their objective. The Committee of Ambassadors comprises member state Ambassador at the headquarters of the organisation (Djibouti) and in major partners’ capitals. The committee of Ambassadors holds meetings as and when necessary. These committees in donor capitals are chaired by the Ambassador representing the country chairing the Authority.

Project identification, formulation, implementation and resource mobilisation

In selecting projects, IGAD ensures that a project must fall under the IGAD priority areas; a project must be sub-regional in nature; there should be an expressed interest by at least two member states; the proposed project is manageable, has funding potentiality, is sustainable and economically feasible.

With the understanding that each project is a joint undertaking of two or more countries, and agreed upon by all member states, the project preparation is a joint responsibility of the IGAD secretariat and experts from member states. However, member states themselves are directly in charge of project implementation. The IGAD secretariat is involved in planning, fund mobilisation, monitoring and evaluation. IGAD’s structure includes a section specifically devoted to resource mobilisation. IGAD’s resource mobilisation has been further strengthened by the establishment of the IGAD Partners’ Forum (IPF). In the spirit of partnership building, the financing agencies (donors) and other relevant and interested institutions and NGOs can be involved in the appropriate states of the project development. For example, in order to enhance dialogue and transparency, IGAD partners in development can participate in technical committee meetings and contribute in discussing the programmes.

Depending on the nature and size of the project, two institutional approaches have been envisaged:-

Interaction of IGAD with the international community, other sub-regional, regional and international institutions, NGOs and the private sector

The role of the International Community is to actively support, individually or jointly, the efforts of IGAD in implementing its programmes by, inter alia, providing financial and technical means, promoting and facilitating access to appropriate technology, know-how and knowledge and capacity building. In implementing its mandate, IGAD finds itself performing similar activities in some areas with other organisations. Towards he spirit of co-operation and collaboration to avoid duplication of efforts and enhance synergy, IGAD endeavours to participate in joint programming with these organisations and indicate where joint action is possible. These institutions support the efforts of IGAD in the exchange of information and experience, capacity building, research and networking in different relevant fields. Some institutions sometimes may be or are contracted to do specific jobs for IGAD where the capacity within IGAD is limited. In preparation of projects/programmes, IGAD identifies collaborating institutions and agencies in all the projects within the three priority areas.

The Authority places a lot o importance on information generation and exchange among member states apart from other institutions/organisations as pointed out above. Information is crucial for policy co-ordination, harmonisation and co-operation. Due to this fact, IGAD makes use of different institutional arrangements developed and approved by its policy organs, in implementing its mandate. The mention but a few:-

Besides, IGAD has several information projects that are at different stages of implementation. These projects seek to promote collaboration among such networks as environmental information systems/networks, food security and early warning information systems, library and documentation networks, as well as improving member states’ communication via the internet.

Capacity building of member states’ institutions is another area where IGAD promotes regional collaboration and co-operation. This may be in form of provision of equipment and/or regional training seminars, or on the job backstopping. Currently, IGAD has two EU-funded projects aimed at training the government and Private Sector staff in grain marketing as well as artisanal fisheries. Training in water resource management is another priority area for which IGAD is soliciting donor support. However, to improve the internal IGAD operational capacity, the Secretariat continue to utilise in-house as well as external training.

Conclusion

IGAD activities are demand-driven, and the Secretariat is ready to work with any individuals to address development challenges of the sub-region.

 


ROLE OF NETWORKS IN ADVANCING NATURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH IN AFRICA: THE EXAMPLE OF NAPRECA

Ermias Dagne
Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University,
P.O. Box 30270,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction

Most natural products chemists in Africa, as is indeed the case with scientists in other fields are often forced to work with inadequate facilities, both in terms of appropriate infrastructure and modern equipment. The disadvantaged researcher is forced to send samples for analysis to laboratories in developed countries. It is difficult to conduct meaningful research under such circumstances as samples often get lost in the mail, decompose on long standing and the measurements sometimes do not come to the full satisfaction of the researcher. These problems coupled with lack of full access to the scientific literature and inadequate financial resources pose as serious stumbling blocks to the development of natural products research in Africa.

The establishment of networks with the aim of initiating, developing and promoting research in natural products is one way of accelerating the development of this science both at the local and regional levels.

An example of a network, with which the author is familiar, is the Natural Products Research Network for Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA), which was established in 1984 to promote the science of natural products in our sub-region. NAPRECA set out to achieve its goals not by attempting to build infrastructure of its own but instead to work towards strengthening capabilities through regional and international cooperation. It called for sharing of existing facilities and resources in the sub-region. This cooperation was accelerated through information dissemination and exchange of ideas, effected by means of publications, workshops, symposia, exchange visits and fellowship schemes.

This paper is an attempt to briefly present the efforts of NAPRECA in the past 13 years in promoting natural products research in the sub-region.

Historical Background and Basic Objectives

The main aim of NAPRECA as articulated in its constitution is to "initiate, develop and promote research in the area of natural products in the Eastern and Central African sub-region." Dissemination of information pertaining to natural products research is one of the major objectives of NAPRECA. The importance of establishing links with counterparts in other parts of the world was emphasised right from the outset, as one of the objectives of the network is to "foster and maintain links with such scientists who are actively working in specific areas of natural products that are pertinent to Africa." The sections that follow will attempt to show to what extent NAPRECA has been successful in putting these aims to practice.

The activities of the network fall under five main categories of :

Dissemination of Information

Much emphasis was given within the framework of NAPRECA to create a conducive atmosphere in the region for the exchange and wider dissemination of research results in the natural products field. This has been made possible in part through publication of the NAPRECA Newsletter. The first issue of the NAPRECA Newsletter was published in September 1984, immediately after founding NAPRECA in July the same year. One of the objectives of the Newsletter is to disseminate information on progress made in the natural products field of relevance to Africa. About 1000 copies of each issue of the Newsletter are published twice a year and are distributed free of charge to readers in various parts of the world.

The suggestions and criticisms of NAPRECA readership greatly contributed to sustaining the Newsletter for 12 years (Vol. 1 to 12). The new NAPRECA Coordinating Office in Dar es Salaam under the leadership of the Executive Secretary, Prof M.H.H. Nkunya is successfully maintaining the momentum and has since published the subsequent issues of Vol. 13 and 14.

A popular column in the Newsletter, "African Plants in the Current Phytochemical Literature" lists reports on African plants that appeared in the three leading natural products journals namely: Phytochemistry, Journal of Natural Products and Planta Medica. The reason for selecting these journals lies in the fact that these are the leading fora for the publication of research results on the chemistry and biological activities of plants and their products originating from many parts of the world including Africa. The column serves to alert researchers to the appearance in the literature of articles in particular on African plants

Consequently, since a large body of information has accumulated over the years we felt that it should be treated systematically in a searchable format. For this reason the citations dealing with African plants that appeared in these three journals in the period 1984-1994 were entered in a computer using the commercially available Bibliographic Retrieval Program System known as "Reference Manager" developed by Research Information Systems Inc., USA. This helped us build a useful database of interest to phytochemists and other natural products researchers.

When the database had nearly 1000 entries, a NAPRECA Monograph Series No 8 (1995) was published showing the potential of the information it offered then. At the moment there are over 4000 records in the database and plans are under way to raise this to 6000 by June 1998 with support from the Network of Analytical and Biological Services (NABASA). The database has enabled us to render limited literature search for scientists in the region, with the result sent by ordinary or electronic mail.

The Table below shows the current number of papers available in the database on African plants indicating the country of origin of the plants.

Country Entries Country Entries Country Entries
Algeria 13 Ethiopia 213 Rwanda 29
Angola 7 Ivory Coast 34 Senegal 33
Benin 4 Kenya 153 Sierra Leone 9
Botswana 3 Lesotho 1 Somalia 24
Burkina Faso 3 Libya 8 South Africa 339
Burundi 2 Madagascar 95 Sudan 22
Cameroon 128 Malawi 30 Tanzania 56
Central Afr. Rep. 5 Mali 44 Togo 2
Chad 4 Mauritius 14 Tunisia 9
Congo 6 Morocco 36 Uganda 5
Gabon 15 Mozambique 6 Zaire 61
Ghana 68 Namibia 14 Zambia 6
Guinea 35 Niger 6 Zimbabwe 37
Egypt 325 Nigeria 233 Miscellaneous 1700

NAPRECA’s effort for dissemination of information has also included the publication of a series of monographs as shown below. Nine monographs have been published so far, the first one of which came out in 1992 and the ninth on March 1996. A summary is presented below.

Monographs published by NAPRECA in 1992-96

_____________________________________________________________________________

No. 1: Z. Asfaw (ed) 1992. NAPRECA Year Book: Eight Years of Existence and Four Years of Intensive Activities, 16 pp.

No. 2: S. Edwards and Z. Asfaw (eds) 1992. The Status of Some Plant Resources in Tropical Parts of Africa, 66 pp.

No. 3: N. Saleh (E. Dagne and W. Mammo, eds) 1992. Flavonoids in the African Flora, 85 pp.

No. 4: M.H.H. Nkunya (B.M. Abegaz and W. Mammo, eds) 1992. Progress in the Search for Antimalarials, 36 pp.

No. 5: S. Edwards and Z. Asfaw (eds) 1992. Plants used in Tropical Medicine as Practiced in Ethiopia and Uganda, 35 pp.

No. 6: NAPRECA 1993 Report, 14 pp.

No. 7: Proceedings of the DAAD-NAPRECA Follow-up Conference, Addis Ababa, Nov. 5-9, 1993, 65 pp

No. 8: African Plants in the Current Phytochemical Literature: List of Papers in Three Leading Phytochemical Journals, 1996, 103 pp.

No. 9: Remigius Bukenya-Ziraba (1996). The Non-cultivated edible plants of Uganda. 60 pp.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Exchange of Researchers Scheme

Under the Exchange Scheme, a selected fellow is granted the opportunity to spend a month or two in a laboratory within the sub-region. One consequence of exchange programs is that it encourages African researchers to cooperate with each other. It also helps to create an active research environment. The outcome of these efforts can be gauged by the increasing number of publications that are coming out with African researchers from different universities appearing as authors of scientific papers. The list below comprises some of the publications of our research group that resulted from the above mentioned exchange programmes with the country of the exchange fellow indicated in parenthesis.

Dagne, E., Mammo, W., Bekele, A., Odyek , O. (Uganda), and Byaruhanga, M.A. Flavonoids of Millettia dura. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop, 5: (2). 81-86(1991).

Dagne, E., Yenesew, A., Asmellash, S., Demisseew, S. and Mavi, S. (Zimbabawe), Anthraquinones, pre-anthraquinones and isoeleutherol in the roots of Aloe species, Phytochemistry 35, 401-406 (1994).

Midiwo, J.O. , Owino, N.O. (Kenya) and Dagne, E. (1994). Flavonoids of Polygonum senegalense part III: Isolation of dihydrochalcone glucoside and quercetin glycosides. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 8, 79-84.

Mirghani, M.E.S. (Sudan), I.H. Hussein , E. Dagne and T. Bekele, A comparative study of seedoils of Chrozophora brochiana and Guizotia abyssinica, Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 10, 161-164 (1996).

Muchori, P. (Kenya), Manguro, L., Chikamai, B., Dagne, E. and Bekele, T. (1997). Essential oils of five Eucalyptus species grown in Kenya,. Sinet: Ethiop. J. Sci., 20, 139-143.

Nkengfack, A. E. (Cameroon), Kouam, J. , Vouffo, W. T. Fomum, Z. T., Dagne, E., Sterner, O., Browne, L. M.and Ji, G. Further flavonoids from Erythrina species, Phytochemistry, 32, 1305-11 (1993).

Noamesi, B.K. (Ghana), Bogale, M. and Dagne, E. Intestinal smooth muscle spasmolytic actions of the aqueous extract of the roots of Taverniera abyssinica, J. Ethnopharmacol. 30, 107-113 (1990).

Van Wyk, B.E., (South Africa), Yenesew, A. and Dagne, E. (1995) Chemotaxonomic survey of anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones in roots of Aloe species. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 23, 267-275.

Yankep, E. (Cameroon), Fomum, Z.T. and Dagne, E. (1997). An O-geranylated isoflavone from Millettia griffoniana, Phytochemistry, 46, 591-593.

Natural Products Summer Schools and Workshops

A regular activity of NAPRECA is the organisation of Natural Products Summer Schools. The main aim of the Summer School is to enhance the research capabilities of participants, in particular in chromatographic, spectroscopic, and bioassay techniques. Seven such programmes have been organised so far. Research scientists and technical assistants working for various institutions in the region have used the opportunity to improve upon their laboratory skills. Usually about 12 participants take part in the Summer School, half of which come from outside the country where the programme takes place.

Likewise workshops are organised from time to time to upgrade skills of researchers. Among the successful workshops mention could be made of:

Natural Products Symposia

As the NAPRECA concept got off the ground in an IUPAC Symposium on Natural Products, it is only natural for the network to pay special attention to organising similar conferences in Africa. So far seven natural products symposia have been organised in five member countries. The first symposium was indeed a modest one, convened immediately after the first meeting of the NAPRECA Coordinating Board in March 1988. No book of abstracts came out of that event, the second was held quickly thereafter in Nairobi in September 1988. Sixteen participants came from outside Kenya to this symposium.

The third symposium was held in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 1989 followed by the fourth symposium in Addis Ababa, in December 1991. The increased number of papers required for the first time, the holding of parallel sessions. The fifth symposium held in Antananarivo, Madagascar, in September 1993, enabled a large number of researchers from South Africa to participate in a NAPRECA activity for the first time. The sixth symposium that took place in Kampala, Uganda, in September 1995 attracted about 80 participants who came from various countries in Africa, Europe and North America. Three pre-symposium short courses on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Mass Spectrometry, and Organic Synthesis were held at the same venue. The 7th NAPRECA Symposium was successfully organised in August 1997 in Dar es Salaam by the new Coordinating Office of the Network based in Tanzania.

Post Graduate Scholarship Programme

In the DAAD-NAPRECA scholarship programme NAPRECA is responsible for selecting candidates, who must enroll in a post-graduate programme in a university outside their own country. DAAD scholarships cover tuition, research costs, and subsistence allowances of the fellows in universities in the sub-region. The first beneficiaries were two Ethiopians who, in September 1988, joined the MSc programme of the University of Nairobi and three Kenyans who came to Addis Ababa to join postgraduate programmes in biology and chemistry. Since then nearly 50 post graduate students have benefited from the scheme.

It may be fitting to conclude this brief presentation by stating that NAPRECA has helped natural products researchers in the region to get to know each other and assist one another.


Reference

Dagne, E. (1996). NAPRECA and its Role in the Dissemination of Information in Africa. In: Bridge Builders, African Experiences with Information and Communication Technology. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. p. 217-231.

 


GARA AND ITS INITIATIVES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT GUMS AND RESINS IN KENYA

A. K. HASSAN and V. A. ODIPO,
AfriGums,
P. O. Box 71968, Nairobi, Kenya.

Abstract

Gum Arabic and Resins Association (GARA) was founded out of the desire by various stakeholders to have a coordinating body/organisation with the responsibility of promoting and developing gum arabic and resins in Kenya. The overall aim is to improve production and quality of the product. This is expected to result in increased income to rural communities where the resources are found while meeting the specifications for international trade. GARA is a non-profit making organisation with membership that includes gum/resin farmers, traders/merchants, government and non-governmental organisations, development agencies, manufacturing industry; exporters and importers. It is already registered and has technical and financial assistance from research institutions and development agencies respectively. It has embarked on a programme of enlightening the communities and traders in sound production practices. However, being at an infant stage it requires more support. This brief paper presents the aspirations and initiatives of the association.

Introduction

Gum Arabic and Resins Association (GARA) is a non-profit making organisation with the responsibility of promoting and developing gum arabic and resins in Kenya. It brings together members from varied fields, including farmers/collectors, traders, government and non-governmental organisations, exporters and importers who have a common interest to improve the production and quality of locally produced gum arabic and resins (myrrh and frankincense) for the domestic and export markets.

GARA's Activities and Organisation

Since its formation over a year ago, GARA has been at the fore front of highlighting critical issues affecting the gum and resin industry in the country. It operates in the form of consultative meetings where pertinent issues are discussed. During the early meetings, two workshops were organised to identify and prioritise problems affecting production and marketing. The outcome of the workshops were:

The research group attempts to answer questions from collectors, traders, exporters and importers concerning the new sources of gum and resin species, potential quantities, appropriate harvesting times, storage and quality through generation of data. The information generated is made into user-friendly packages by the extension group and relayed to the relevant stakeholder group such as collectors. For example, a simple field manual is being elaborated by the extension group from information generated by the research group.

One of the significant achievements made by the organisation is removing suspicion between collectors and traders/merchants. This has been done by explaining the trend in market prices and how this affects purchase price at farmer/collector level and reasons that lead to low prices or rejection of gum from farmers/collectors. Building confidence between the two groups eliminates cheating and leads to willingness to accept introduction of new ideas at the grassroots without resentment. The organisation has also established a continuous purchase programme of gums and resins through its members. In this way, it will be solving problems facing the industry, in promoting better management and handling of the product so as to meet export quality requirements. Meanwhile, GARA is working on a policy framework for adoption by the government which will create an enabling environment supportive of the industry.

GARA is still a young organisation very much dependent on the goodwill of her members for operation. It has todate received facilitational support from Integration of Tree Crops into Farming Systems Project (ITFSP), technical input from the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) and some financial assistance from Mennonite Central Committee among others. To make it self-sustaining and more focused, a project has been drawn up to elaborate the organisation's operational mechanisms. It is hoped that a strong self-sustaining GARA will result in a viable gum and resin industry in the country.


PART III:

List of Participants



1.0 RESOURCE PERSONS / PARTICIPANTS

 

   
BARROW, Edmund (Mr.)
African Wildlife Foundation,
P.O. Box 48177, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 710367
Fax: 254 2 710372
Email: Ebarrow@awfke.org
LADIPO, David (Dr.)
CENRAD, 5 Akinola Maja Avenue,
P.M.B. 5052, Jericho, Ibadan,
NIGERIA.
Tel: 234 2 241 2694
Fax: 234 2 241 3839
Email: cenrad@ibadan.skannet.com
CASADEI, Enrico (Dr.)
FAO - Food & Nutrition Div.,
Via Terme di Caracallo, 00 100 Rome,
ITALY
Tel: 396 570 54794
Email: enrico.casadei@fao.org
MAKONDA, F.B.S. (Mr.)
Sokoine University - Wood Utilisation Dept.,
P.O. Box 3014, Morogoro, TANZANIA.
Tel: 255 56 3694 / 4648:
Fax: 255 56 4648
E-mail: forestry@sua.ac.tz
CHIKAMAI, Ben (Dr.)
Kenya Forestry Research Insti.(KEFRI)
P.O. Box 30241, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 761063 / 761246 / 764726
Fax: 254 2 760034
Email: fhc@tt.sasa.unep.no
MHINZI, Gaspar (Dr.)
University of Dar-es-Salaam,
Chemistry Department,
P.O.Box 35061, Dar-es-Salaam,
TANZANIA
Tel: 255 51 43038
Fax: 255 51 43038
Email: Mhinzi@chem.udsm.ac.tz
DAGNE, Ermais (Dr.)
Addis Ababa University,
Dept. of Chemistry,
P.O.Box 30270, Addis Ababa,
ETHIOPIA
Tel: 251 1 114854 / 126276
Fax: 251 1 551244
Email: eda@telecom.net.et
MULLER, Didier (Mr.)
Applications Techniques Forestieres
1, Rue des gentes, 33980, Audege,
FRANCE
Tel: 33 1 56 26 8415
Fax: 33 1 56 26 8584
GACHATHI, Norman (Mr.)
Kenya Forestry Research Insti. (KEFRI),
P.O. Box 20412, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 154 32891 /32892 /32893
Fax: 254 154 32844
Email: kefri@arcc.or.ke
NG'ETHE, Robinson (Mr.)
Applied Research Unit - Laikipia
P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, KENYA
Tel: 254 176 22574 / 32527 / 31854
Fax: 254 176 22201
HASSAN, A. (Mr.)
AFRI GUMS,
P.O. Box 71968, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 725931
NOUR, Hassan Abdel (Prof.)
Minister of State, Agriculture and Forestry,
P.O. Box 285, Khartoum, SUDAN
Tel: 249 11 780359
Fax: 249 11 770586:
HERSI, Ali (Mr.)
SALTLICK,
P.O. Box 301, Isiolo, KENYA
Tel: 254 165 2350
Fax: 254 165 2414
OCHIENG, George (Mr.)
Chief Conservator of Forests,
Forest Department,
P.O.Box 30513, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 764288 / 764249
HOLMES, Ivans (Mr.)
AGRILAB, Tylas, Rievaulx, York ,
North Yorkshire YO6 5LH,
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: 1439 798308
Fax: 1439 798308
OSMAN, M.E. (Dr.)
The Gum Arabic Company
P.O. Box 857, Khartoum, SUDAN
KARAMALLAH, A. K. (Prof.)
University of Khartoum,
P.O. Box 857, Khartoum, SUDAN
Fax: 249 11 774852
PHILLIPS, G.O. (Prof.)
New Tech Innovation Centre
Wrexham, Clywdd LL13 7YP, UK
Tel: 44 1222 843298
Fax: 44 1222 843298
KATZ, Ester (Dr.)
CIFOR, P.O.Box 6596,
JKPWB, Jarkarta 10065, INDONESIA
Tel: 62 251 622622
Fax: 62 251 622 100
Email: e.katz@cgnet.com
WASON, Rajiv (Mr.)
Rosin Kenya Ltd
P.O.Box 3126, Nakuru, KENYA
Tel: 254 37 43939 / 212387
KIGAME, Rosemary (Mrs)
IGAD,
Ministry of Environment and Natural
Resources,
P.O.Box 30126, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 229261

2.0 PARTICIPANTS

 

   
ADAN, Bika (Dr.)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
MURRER, Erik
Monosato Company
307 West Burbank Street
Harvard, IL 60033
United States of America
ALI, Ahmed (Mr.)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
MWASARU, P. (Mr.)
AFRI GUMS,
P.O. Box 71968, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 725931
ANGWENYI, Joe (Mr.)
KAKUZI Ltd.,
P.O. Box 24, Thika, KENYA
Tel: 254 151 64620
Fax: 254 151 64240
ODIPO, V. (Mr.)
G.A.R.A.
P.O.Box 50803
Nairobi, KENYA
BII, William (Mr)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute, KEFRI
P.O.Box 468
Lodwar, KENYA
ONDACHI, P. (Mrs.)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute
P.O.Box 20412, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 154 32891 / 32892 /32893
Fax: 254 154 32844
CURRY, Particia (Ms.)
SALTLICK,
P.O. Box 301, Isiolo, KENYA
Tel: 254 165 2350
Fax: 254 165 2414
Nationality : British
MUNG’ALA, P. (Mr.)
National Council of Science and Technology
P.O. Box 30623, Nairobi, KENYA.
Tel: 254 2 221918 / 221516
DISTRICT FOREST OFFICER, Isiolo,
NJOKA, S. N. (Mr.)
P.O. Box 141, Isiolo, KENYA
MWANGI, Joe (Prof.)
Moi University - Wood Sc. & Tech. Dept.
P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret, KENYA
Tel: 254 321 63105 / 63197
Fax: 254 321 63257
DISTRICT FOREST OFFICER, Kwale,
NJUGUNA, F. N. (Mr.)
P.O. Box 5, Kwale, KENYA
NGIMOR, Daniel (Mr.)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
DISTRICT FOREST OFFICER, Turkana,
KARUIKI, F. K. (Mr.)
P.O. Box 39,Lodwar, KENYA
NJENGA, Hellen (Dr.)
University of Nairobi - Chemistry Dept.
P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 745055
ELOKAOKICH, Paul (Mr.)
Minstry of Natural Resources - Forest Dept.,
P.O. Box 7124, Kampala, UGANDA
Tel: 256 41 251917
Fax: 256 41 251918
NOVARLY, John (Mr.)
School of Forestry, University of Canterbury
Private Bag 4800, Christ Church,
NEWZEALAND
Tel: 64 3 3482727
Fax: 64 3 3432148
E-mail: j.novarly@fore.canterbury.ac.nz
EYAPAN, James (Mr)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
ODERA J. (Dr.)
National Museums of Kenya
P.O.Box 40658, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 742161 / 751319
Fax: 254 2 751319 / 741424
FARAH, Ahmed (Mr)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
OPONDO, C. (Mr.)
Applied Research Unit - Laikipia,
P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, KENYA
Tel: 254 176 22574 / 32527 / 31854
Fax: 254 176 22201
HALAKHE, M. (Mr.)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
OSMAN, Abdisemet (Mr.)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
KARIUKI, A. (Mr.)
Applied Research Unit - Laikipia
P.O. Box 144, Nanyuki, KENYA
Tel: 254 176 22574 / 32527 / 31854
Fax: 254 176 22201
SHAH, Kamel (Mr.)
Twiga Chemicals
P.O.Box 30712, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 338333 /338334
Fax: 254 2 223167
KONUCHE, Paul (Dr.)
Director
Kenya Forestry Research Institute
P.O.Box 20412, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 154 32891 / 32892 /32893
Fax: 254 154 32844
WATA, Issoufou (Mr.)
Direction des Etudes, de la Programmation et
l’Intergration regional au Ministere de l’Hydraulique
et de l’environment
B.P. 10252, Naimey, NIGER
LELEI, V. K. (Mr.)
Arid Lands Resource Management Project,
P.O.Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227627 / 227496
WATAI, K. (Mr.)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute
P.O.Box 20412, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 154 32891 / 32892 /32893
Fax: 254 154 32844
LEMPUSHUNA, Mungoni (Mr)
Arid Lands Project
P. O. Box 53547, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 227496 /227627
Fax: 254 2 227982
WAWERU, S (Mr.)
Kenya Forestry College,
P.O. Box 8, Londiani, KENYA
Tel: 254 362 64043
MILIMO, P. (Dr.)
African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS)
P.O.Box 45917, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 565173 / 569986
Fax: 254 2 57300

3.0 SECRETARIAT

 

  
CHIKAMAI, Ben (Dr.)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI),
P.O. Box 30241, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 761063 / 761246 / 764726
Fax: 254 2 760034
Email: fhc@tt.sasa.unep.no
NJAGI, T. K. (Mr.)
Laision Co-ordinator FD / KEFRI
Forest Department
P.O.Box 30513, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 764288 / 764249
NDEGWA, Nellie (Ms.)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI),
P.O. Box 30241, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 761063 / 761246 / 764726
Fax: 254 2 760034
Email: fhc@tt.sasa.unep.no
TEMU, August (Prof.)
ICRAF,
P.O.Box 30677, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 521450
Fax: 254 2 521001
Email: A.Temu@cgnet.com
MBIRU, Sheila (Mrs.)
Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI),
P.O. Box 30241, Nairobi, KENYA
Tel: 254 2 761063 / 761246 / 764726
Fax: 254 2 760034
Email: fhc@tt.sasa.unep.no

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