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3. Households woodfuel current consumption for 1994


3. Households woodfuel current consumption for 1994

This section of the report, using the 1994 consumption survey and the consumption patterns discussed in chapter 2 will review total woodfuel consumption in N. Sudan.

Total consumption analysis will be attempted in aggregate (national) and desegregate (state level) terms. The national picture will be presented using the parameters of urbanization, ecological zone, income level and education. At the state level only urbanization will be considered.

3.1 National perspective

3.1.1 Firewood consumption

(a) Rural and urban consumption of firewood

The current firewood consumption in Northern Sudan is estimated to be 5.9 million cubic meters in 1994. Of this total amount 14.5% (0.86 million M3 is consumed by urban households, while the remaining 85.5% is consumed by rural households. This distribution pattern is consistent with the higher rural per capita and the population density - which comprise according to 1994 census about 66% of the total population in N. Sudan.

Table 3.1

Firewood Consumption in N. Sudan 1994

Households

Per Capita M3

Consumption in M3

Consumption in Tons

Urban

0.14

856727

616843

Rural

0.46

5045204

3632547

N. Sudan

0.36

5901930

4249390

Source: Wood Consumption Survey, 1994.

(b) Firewood Consumption by Ecological Zone

The low rainfall zone ranks the highest in firewood consumption (73.1%), followed by the semi-desert zone (23.4%), the desert zone (3.2%) and the high rainfall zones consuming the lowest firewood quantities (0.3%). This distribution pattern is due mainly to population density and per capita annual consumption in each zone.

Table 3.2

Annual Firewood Consumption by Ecological Zone, 1994

Ecological Zone

Per Capita

Consumption in M3

% of total

Desert

0.43

189973.64

3.2 %

Semi-desert

0.20

1381599.9

23.4%

Low rainfall

0.47

43125012

73.1

High rainfall

0.32

17855.67

0.3%

N. Sudan

0.36

5901930

100

Source: Wood Consumption Survey 1994

(c) Firewood Consumption by Income Level

The overall analysis of firewood consumption by household income for 1994 shows that 42.4%, 34.8% and 22.8% of the firewood is consumed by low, medium and high income households respectively. This is consistent with per capita and distribution of population among the different income levels.

Table 3.3

Annual Household Firewood Consumption by Income Level, 1994

Income Group

Rural M3

Urban M3

Total M3

% of total

Low

2386124

134899

2521023

42.7 %

Medium

1735625

316142

2051767

34.8%

High

923455

405765

1329220

22.5 %

N. Sudan

5045204

856726

5901930

100

Source: Wood Consumption Survey, 1994

When viewed in rural and urban contexts, rural consumption by income group is consistent with the overall trend with low, medium and high income households consuming 48.9%, 34.4% and 18.5% of the 1994 consumption respectively.

The case for urban households, however, tends to be inconsistent with the per capita pattern with income (decreasing with income). Both medium and high income groups total consumption is higher than low income households. This reflects the distribution of households among the different income levels. The levels as determined in the survey analysis tend to accumulate most of the urban households in the bigger (62.8%) and medium (28.8%) income bracket. This need to be reviewed on the basis of expenditure figures to allow for a more realistic distribution of urban households by income level.

(d) Firewood Consumption by level of education of head of households

Consumption by level of education (head of household only) is presented in table 3-4 and is generally in line with per capita consumption pattern and distribution of households among the different education levels

Table 3.4

Annual Firewood Consumption by level of education of heads of households, 1994

Education level

Rural M3

Urban M3

Total M3

%

Illiterate

2402989

282389

2685378

45.5 %

Khalwa

1580730

189849

1770579

30.0 %

Preliminary

679445

211746

891191

15.1

Intermediate

189152

82337

271489

4.6 %

Secondary

132845

61919

194764

3.3 %

University

38036

26885

64921

1.1 %

Not stated

22007

1601

23608

0.4

N. Sudan

5045204

856726

5901930

100

Source: wood product survey, 1994.

3.1.2 Charcoal Consumption

(a) Rural and urban charcoal consumption

N. Sudan consumed in 1994 a total of 32.779 million 40 Kg sacks. This is equivalent to 1.3 million tons of charcoal. Urban households consumed 59.6% (19.5 million sacks) while rural households consumed the remaining 40.4% (13.2 million sacks). This distribution is consistent with per capita patterns and population density in urban and rural areas.

Table 3.5

Annual charcoal Household Consumption in N. Sudan. 1994

Household percent

Sacks 000

Tons 000

% of total

Urban

19546

781.84

59.6%

Rural

132333

529.32

40.4 %

N. Sudan

32779

1311.16

100%

Source: Wood Consumption Survey, l 994.

(b) Charcoal Consumption by Ecological zone

Like firewood due mainly to population density and woodfuel consumption pattern (per capita) the semi-desert and low rainfall areas together consume the bulk of the charcoal in N. Sudan - (98.6) The other two zones (desert and high rainfall areas) consume only, 1.4% of the charcoal consumed in N. Sudan. While desert areas depend mainly on firewood produced from horticultural tree branches, the high rainfall depend on firewood abundantly available in the area.

Table 3.6

Annual Household charcoal Consumption by Ecological zone' 1994

Ecological Zone

per capita kg

Sacks

Tons

% total

Desert

149

343825

13753

1.0%

Semi desert

531

18752475

75099

57.2%

Low rainfall

270

13569400

542776

41.4 %

High rainfall

519

113425

4537

0.4%

N. Sudan

372

32779125

1311165

100

Source: Wood Products Con gumption survey, 1994

(c) Charcoal consumption by income level

In contrast to firewood high income households consume 58.6% of the charcoal consumed. Low and medium income households consume 8.6% and 32.9% respectively. This is consistent with per capita consumption patterns for charcoal which increases with income.

Table 3.7

Annual households charcoal consumption by income group, 1994

Income group

000 sacks

Tons "000"

% Total

 

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

 

Low

1444

1366

2810

57.77

54.61

112.38

8.6%

Medium

5075

2699

10774

203.00

227.97

430.97

32.9 %

High

6714

12481

19195

268.56

499.25

767.81

58.6

Total

13233

19546

32779

529.33

781.83

1311.16

100.1

Source: Wood consumption survey, 1994

(d) Charcoal consumed by level of education of head of households

Charcoal consumption by level of education of head of household is governed mainly by the number of households in each education category and the per capita consumption pattern for the different education levels. However the latter is generally increasing with rise in education level. The former (population in each category) more than outweigh any per capita effects when we deal with total absolute consumption quantities. The lowest three categories in the education category who comprise the bull; of the households in N. Sudan consumed 72.7% of the charcoal in 1994.

Table 3.8

Annual Household Charcoal Consumption by Education of Head of Household, 1994

Education Level

000 Sacks

   

000 Tons

   

%

 

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

 

Illiterate

4508

4808

9016

180.3

192.3

372.6

28.4 %

Khalwa

2440

3625

6065

97.6

145.0

242.7

10.5 %

Preliminary

3533

4913

8446

141.3

196.5

337.7

25.8 %

Intermediate

1282

2635

3917

51.3

105.4

156.8

12 %

Secondary

1135

2393

3528

45.4

95.7

141.2

10.8%

University

300

1130

1430

12.00

45.2

57.2

4.4 %

Not stated

35

40

75

1.40

1.6

3.05

0.2 %

N. Sudan

13233

19544

32777

529.3

781.8

13111.2

100

Source: Wood Consumption Products Consumption

3.1.3 Dukhan wood consumption

This special type of end-use for firewood is characteric of Sudanese married women and is widely used in both rural and urban areas. Its use is more associated with marital status of women and less so with income or education level. Compared to woodfuel use for other household purposes (cooking) it is very small (% of that firewood for cooking).

During 1994 a total of 246449 cubic meters roundwood were consumed in N. Sudan. Rural households consumed 51.4 % while urban households consumed 48.6 %. The consumption of dukhan wood is generally strongly associated with married women by tradition.

Table 3.9

Household Consumption of Dukhan (smooking wood)

Household

M3

Tons

%

Urban

119 788

86247

48.6

Rural

126 661

91196

51.4

Total

249449

177413

100

Source: Wood Consumption Survey 1994.

3.1.4 Other biomass consumption

Significant quantities of other biomass fuels are also consumed by households. The two major fuels consumed in addition to firewood and charcoal are agricultural residues and wood-waste (saw-dust).

Agricultural residues in 1994 constituted the bulk of the biomass fuels-other than woodfuel-consumed by households in Northern Sudan. The survey showed a total consumption of 1.37 million tons of agricultural residues of the quantities 93.4 % is consumed by rural households, while urban households consumed only 6.6%. For sawdust (wood processing residue) on the other hand only small quantities are consumed. Annual consumption for 1994 is estimated to be 17988 tons for Northern Sudan. Of this total quantity 65.5% is consumed by rural households and 35.5% by urban ones.

Table 3.10

Household Current Consumption of Agricultural and wood residues. 1994

Household

Saw Dust 000 Tons

Agricultural residues 000 Tons

Rural 000 Tons

%

Urban

6.393

89.534

95.927

6.9 %

Rural

11.595

1277.231

1288.926

93.1 %

N. Sudan

17.988

1366.865

1384.85

100

%

1.3%

98.7%

100

 

Source: Wood Consumption Survey, 1994

3.1.5 Summary of current consumption

As can be seen in table 3.11, Northern Sudan in 1994 consumed a total of 4.2 million tons of firewood, 1.3 million tons of charcoal, 1.4 million tons of agricultural residues. 0.18 million tons of dukhan wood and 0.018 million tons of saw-dust Rural households consumed 71.5% of all these woodfuel types, while the urban sub-sector consumed only 28.5 %. Analysis of woodfuel/biomass consumption in terms of energy consumption in terms of energy and round wood resource requirements will be made in chapter (4).

Table 3.11

Household current consumption of Woodfuel and other biomass. 1994

Households

Firewood 000 Tons

Charcoal 000 tons

Dukhan wood 000 tons

Agricultural residues 000 tons

Saw dust 000 tons

Urban

616.843

781.84

86.247

89.534

6.393

Rural

3632.547

529.32

91.196

1277.231

11.595

N. Sudan

4249.390

1311.16

177.443

1366.765

17.988

3.2 Woodfuels and other biomass: states perspective

Woodfuel consumption by state is a function of per capita and population. The variation between states as far as total consumption is concerned reflect these two factors. Specific data by fuel type and urbanization are shown in tables 3.12, 3.13 and 3.14.

Table 3.12

Woodfuel consumption and other biomass by state, as percent of

N. Sudan total, 1994

(all as % of total for N. Sudan)

State

Population

Firewood

Charcoal

Other Biomass (Residues)

Northern (N)

2.52%

3.2%

1.0%

2.8%

River Nile (RN)

3.80

3.6

2.0

0.01

Red Sea (RS)

2.54

1.7

3.7

0

Kassala (KA)

5.95

5.7

4.2

0.07

Gedaref (GD)

5.17

3.1

3.5

4.85

Khartoum (KH)

16.71

4.6

30.9

0.18

Gezira (GZ)

13.69

2.2

22.5

31.75

Sennar (SN)

4.84

3.1

8.4

0.60

white Nile (WN)

6.07

4.2

5.6

10.23

Blue Nile (BN)

2.50

4.2

2.2

0.31

N. Kordofan (NK)

6.29

8.1

5.7

0.31

West " (WK)

4.48

6.9

2.0

0.14

South " (SK)

3.08

3.6

1.8

0.63

North Darfur (ND)

5.62

11.9

1.7

0.07

West " (WD)

6.36

15.9

1.3

2.77

South" (SD)

10.41

18.2

3.5

45.24

 

100

100

100

99.92

Source: Woodfuel consumption survey 1994.

Table 3.13

Woodfuel Consumption By State in Northern Sudan

State

Firewood Tons

Charcoal Tons

Other Biomass Tons

Dukhan Wood Tons

Northern

136780.6

13753

38560.9

5279

River Nile

151423.2

26147

327.9

4913

Red Sea

70446.96

48240

148.9

918

Kassala

240719.8

55321

962.5

4519

Gedaref

133374.2

46419

66289

5091

Khartoum

196519

404868

8333.6

52056

Gezira

94902.48

294526

442796.3

18909

Sennar

130135

110355

8394

8981

White Nile

177715.4

72930

113494

18097

Blue Nile

177138

29072

4268

9319

N. Kordofan

342874.1

74873

4244

17111

W. Kordofan

292104

26708

2498

9843

S. Kordofan

150873.8

23354

8097

2853

North Darfur

505902.2

22490

1362.5

2514

West Darfur

674110.1

16660

39278.6

2133

South Darfur

774371.5

45448

618427.1

14903

N. Sudan

4249390

1311164

1384802.5

177439

Source: Wood Consumption Survey, 1994.

Table 3.14

Woodfuel Consumption by State and Urbanization in Northern Sudan. 1994

All in "000 tons"

State

Rural

Urban

 

Fuelwood

Charcoal

Other Biomass

Dukhan wood

Firewood

Charcoal

Other Biomass

Dukhan

Northern

36.453

9.076

118.696

4.580

18.085

4.678

2.108

0.699

River Nile

0.132

14.935

115.885

2.664

35.538

11.212

0.196

2.250

Red Sea

0

13.634

49.806

0.044

20.641

34.606

0.149

0.875

Kassala

0.183

9.391

202.865

2.219

37.855

45.931

0.779

2.301

Gedaref

57.762

19.410

106.009

3.182

27.365

27.008

8.527

1.909

Khartoum

3.279

55.706

84.366

9.103

112.153

349.162

5.054

42.953

Gezira

376.800

209.865

71.559

14.681

23344

84.601

66.00

4.232

Sennar

7.007

81.015

105.013

7.425

25122

29.340

1.387

1.555

White Nile

134.394

33.925

116.171

11.184

61545

39.005

5.488

6.914

Blue Nile

4.152

16.794

155.153

5.703

21985

12.278

0.116

3.616

North Kordofan

3.924

27.500

293.061

7.437

49813

47.373

0.320

9.674

West Kordofan

2.345

13.287

264.414

7.838

27.690

13.421

0.153

2.005

South Kordofan

7.197

9.130

129.198

1.769

21.676

14.223

O.882

1.084

North Darfur

0.398

5.260

465.04

1.355

40.879

17.230

0.787

1.159

West Darfur

36.835

3.205

624.567

1.422

49.543

13.455

0.964

0.712

South Darfur

618.063

7.198

730.761

10.592

43.610

38.250

0.365

4.311

N. Sudan

1288.926

529.331

3632.547

91.196

616.843

781.834

95.926

86.248

Source:

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